#Numbers and number phrases #Numbers can be definite or indefinite. #This document only explores the internal structure of cardinal numbers. #cardinal numbers: #Units: #satu 'one' #dua 'two' #tiga 'three' #empat 'four' #lima 'five #enam 'six' #tujuh 'seven' #delapan 'eight' #sembilan 'nine' #Groups: #puluh 'tens' #belas 'teens' #ratus 'hundreds' #ribu 'thousands' #juta 'millions #milyar 'billions' #triliun 'trillions' #Group numbers combine with any of the units. #1 DP: dua puluh #two tens #twenty #2 DP: tiga belas #three teens #thirteen #3 DP: empat ratus #four hundred #four hundreds #4 DP: lima juta #five millions #five millions #In examples 1 - 4, the units follow the group numbers. The order cannot #be reversed. #Ungrammatical: #5 DP: puluh dua (0! 0 0 0) #tens two #twenty #Ungrammatical: #6 DP: juta lima (0! 0 0 0) #millions five #five millions #For number one prefix se- is used when it is combined with the group numbers. #7 DP: sepuluh #se-puluh #one-tens #ten #8 DP: seratus #se-ratus #one-hundred #one hundred #9 DP: sejuta #se-juta #one-millions #one million #There is an exception for the use of satu 'one'. #First, satu 'one' cannot be combined with puluh 'tens',belas 'teens', #ratus 'hundreds' and ribu 'thousands'. Thus we cannot have the following: #Ungrammatical: #10 DP: satu puluh (0! 0 0 0) #one tens #ten #Ungrammatical: #11 DP: satu belas (0! 0 0 0) #one teens #eleven #Ungrammatical: #12 DP: satu ratus (0! 0 0 0) #one hundreds #one hundred #Ungrammatical: #13 DP: Satu ribu (0! 0 0 0) #one thousands #one thousand #Prefix se- 'one' is used for examples 10 - 13. #Second, satu 'one' is always used in combination with #milyar 'billions' and triliun 'trillions'. #14 DP: satu miliar #one billions #one billion #Prefix se- 'one' can combine with miliar 'billions' and triliun 'trillions'. #Large numbers precede small numbers. #15 DP: lima puluh dua #five tens two #fifty two #16 DP: seribu sembilan ratus delapan puluh tiga #one-thousand nine hundred eight tens three #one thousand nine hundred eighty three #Small numbers cannot precede large numbers. #Ungrammatical: #17 DP: dua lima puluh (0! 0 0 0) #two five tens #fifty two #We can say 17 when we mean 'two fifty cents' but not number fifty two. #Fractions #Fractions are formed by combining prefix se- 'one' with tengah 'half' #and per 'a, for each, per'. #18 DP: setengah #one-half #a half #19 DP: sepertiga #one-per-three #one third #Full numbers precede fractions. #20 DP: Empat setengah #four one-half #four and a half #21 DP: Tiga seperempat #three one-per-four #three and a quarter #In saying the hour setengah will precede the hour. #22 DP: setengah empat #one-half four #half past four #However seperempat 'a quarter' follows the hour. #23 DP: tiga seperempat #three one-per-four #a quarter past four #Examples 21 and 23 can be distinguished when we add the word jam 'hour' #into the phrase. #24 DP: Tiga seperempat jam #three one-per-four hour #three and a quarter hours #25 jam tiga seperempat #hour three one-per-four #It's a quarter past four #Decimal numbers #In Bahasa Indonesia the decimal point is written as a comma. #26 DP: tiga koma empat #three comma four #three point four (3,4) #27 DP: satu koma dua juta #one comma two millions #one point two millions (1,2 millions) #Arithmetic Phrases #Arithmetic phrases contain two cardinal numbers with an arithmetic #operational word inserted between the numbers. #Operational words that are always used in arithmetic phrases are: #tambah 'add' #kurang 'subtract' #kali 'times' #bagi 'divide' #28 DP: lima tambah tujuh #five add seven #five plus seven #29 DP: lima belas bagi tiga #five teens divide three #fifteen divided by three #30 DP: enam kali dua #six times two #six times two #The verb sama dengan 'same as/with' means the same as 'equals' in English #and is always used in arithmetic clauses. #31 lima tambah tujuh sama dengan dua belas #five add seven same with two teens #five plus seven equals twelve #32 lima belas bagi tiga sama dengan lima #five teens divide three same with five #fifteen divided by three equals five #Cardinal numbers and modifiers #Modifiers of cardinal numbers are: #lebih dari 'more than' #kurang dari 'less than' #hampir 'almost' #genap 'fully, complete' #sekitar 'about, more or less' #kurang lebih 'more or less' #kira-kira 'about' #Modifiers precede cardinal numbers: #33 Hampir seratus orang menghadiri perkawinannya #Almost one-hundreds people MEN-attend-I PER-marry-AN-3SG.POSS #Nearly one hundred people attended his wedding #34 Genap tiga tahun usia anak ini #fully three year age child this #fully three years is the age of this child. #Reference: #Sneddon, James, N.INDONESIAN: A Comprehensive Grammar, Roudledge, London, #1966 (pp. 184-188)