Using Text Analysis Tools

Further Reading

General Reference

Lancashire, Ian. Using 'TACT' with Electronic Texts: A Guide to 'Text Analysis Computing Tools' Version 2.1. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1996.

Popham, Michael. "Text Encoding, Analysis, and Retrieval" in New Technologies for the Humanities. Ed. Christine Mullings, Marilyn Deegan et al. London: Bowker-Saur, 1996.

Potter, Rosanne G. "Statistical Analysis of Literature: A Retrospective on Computers and the Humanities, 1966-1990". Computers and the Humanities 25 (1991): 401-29.

Stubbs, Michael. Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer-Assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996.

Sutherland, Kathryn. Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory. Oxford, 1998.

Text Encoding

Burnard, Lou. "What is SGML and How Does It Help?" Computers and the Humanities 29 (1995): 41-50.

Burnard, Lou (ed). "Electronic Texts and the Text Encoding Initiative". Text Technology 5:3 (1995). Special issue.

Goldfarb, Charles. The SGML Handbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. Standard reference work.

Ide, N. and J. Véronis (eds). The Text Encoding Initiative: Background and Context. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1996.

Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. "Text in the Electronic Age: Textual Study and Text Encoding with Examples from Medieval Texts". Literary and Linguistic Computing 6:1 (1991): 31-46.

Sperberg-McQueen, C.M. and L. Burnard. Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange (TEI P3). Chicago & Oxford: Text Encoding Initiative, 1994. Available online, see further <>.

Linguistic Analysis

Leech, Geoffrey, Greg Myers, and Jenny Thomas. Spoken English on Computer: Transcription, Mark-Up and Application. Harlow: Longman, 1995.

McEnery, Tony and Andrew Wilson, Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996. Associated Web site at <>.

Literary Stylistics

Arthur, Karen. "A TACT Analysis of the Language of Death in Troilus and Cresseyde". in Computer-based Chaucer Studies. Ed. Ian Lancashire. CCH Working Papers 3. Toronto: Centre for Computing in the Humanities, 1993. 67-85.

Burrows, J.F. Computation into Criticism: A Study of Jane Austen's Novels and an Experiment in Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Kenny, A.J.P. The Computation of Style: An Introduction to Statistics for Students of Literature and Humanities. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982.

Authorship Studies

"Debates in Humanities Computing: Methodology in Authorship Studies" Computers and the Humanities 30:3 (1996). Special issue on statistical methods for authorship attribution.

Farringdon, Jill M. Analysing for Authorship: A Guide to the Cusum Technique. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1996.

D. I. Holmes, and R. S. Forsyth, "The Federalist Revisited: New Directions in Authorship Attribution". Literary and Linguistic Computing 10.2 (1995): 111-27.


Armstrong, Guyda. "Computer-Assisted Literary Analysis Using the TACT Text-Retrieval Program". Computers & Texts 11 (1996): 8-11.

Botley, Simon, Julia Glass, Tony McEnery & Andrew Wilson. Proceedings of Teaching and Language Corpora 1996. UCREL Technical Papers Volume 9. Lancaster, 1996. (Email:

Hawthorne, Mark "The Computer in Literary Analysis: Using TACT with Students." Computers and the Humanities 28 (1994): 19-27.

Kettemann, Bernhard. "Concordancing in Stylistics Teaching" in Festschrift zum 30-jährigen Bestehen des Instituts für Anglistik der Universität Salzburg. Salzburg, 1994. Available at <>.

Lancashire, Ian. "Computer-Assisted Critical Analysis: A Case Study of Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale". In The Digital Word: Text-based Computing in the Humanities. Ed. George P. Landow and Paul Delaney. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1993: 293-318.

Miall, David "Beyond the Word: Reading and the Computer". In The Digital Word: Text-based Computing in the Humanities, 1993.

Mills, J., and Chandramohan, B., "Literary Studies: A Computer Assisted Teaching Methodology" Computers and the Humanities 30 (1996): 165-170.