Vacation Reading for Paper 6
Two classic works chart the changes in literary thinking during the years of this paper: * From Classic to Romantic: Premises of Taste in Eighteenth Century England by Walter Jackson Bate (1946) and * M.H. Abrams’s The Mirror and the Lamp. Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (1953). Both are excellent; the Abrams book invaluable. Harold Bloom’s The Visionary Company: A Reading of English Romantic Poetry (1961; 1971) is a highly idiosyncratic and charismatic account of the major (male) writers of the period; Marilyn Butler’s Romantics, Rebels, and Reactionaries: English Literature and Its Background (1981) re-reads the age within its cultural and political history. Jonathan Wordsworth, Michael Jaye and Robert Woof co-authored a book called The Age of William Wordsworth (1987) which usefully connects the literature of the age with its visual art.
Ideology, Feminism, Environmentalism: Jerome J. McGann, The Romantic Ideology (1983); Anne K. Mellor, Romanticism and Gender (1993); Jonathan Bate, Romantic Ecology (1991). The intellectual context of the later eighteenth century has not been sketched out more effectively than by Basil Willey in * The Eighteenth Century Background (1949); R.L. Brett’s booklet on Fancy and Imagination (Critical Idiom, 1969) usefully surveys that central concept, as does –comprehensively – James Engell in The Creative Imagination: Enlightenment to Romanticism (1981). Lilian R. Furst’s little book Romanticism (Critical Idiom, 1969) is as good introduction as you will find to what seems (to us, but not to them) the key concept of the period. Also recommended, if you are interested in connections with Paper 5: Lucy Newlyn, ‘Paradise Lost’ and the Romantic Reader (1993). Jonathan Bate has edited a handy The Romantics on Shakespeare (1992).
Authors and Topics.
(1) Sensibility and the Novel: Richardson, Fielding.
Samuel Richardson, Pamela: Or Virtue Rewarded, ed. Alice Wakely and Thomas Keymer (Oxford: World’s Classics); Clarissa, Or, The History of a Young Lady, ed. Angus Ross (Penguin).
Henry Fielding, Shamela and Joseph Andrews, ed. Thomas Keymer (Oxford: World’s Classics); Tom Jones, ed. John Bender (Oxford: World’s Classics).
Samuel Richardson (1689-1761)
Henry Fielding (1707-54)
Tom Jones Shamela; Joseph Andrews. Amelia.
Mark Kinkead-Weekes, Samuel Richardson: Dramatic Novelist (1973).
Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel. Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (1957).
Wayne C. Booth, pages in The Rhetoric of Fiction (1961).
Martin C. Battestin, The Moral Basis of Fielding’s Art (1959).
Claude Rawson, Henry Fielding and the Augustan Ideal under Stress (1972).
William Empson, ‘Tom Jones; in Kenyon Review 20 (1958); reprinted in Empson, Using Biography (1984).
(2) Novel, Psychology, Form: Laurence Sterne (1713-68).
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, ed. Ian Campbell Ross (Oxford: World’s Classics); A Sentimental Journey and Other Writings, ed. Tim Parnell and Ian Jack (Oxford: World’s Classics).
Henry Mackenzie, The Man of Feeling, ed. Brian Vickers (Oxford: World’s Classics).
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy. A Sentimental Journey.
Henry Mackenzie, The Man of Feeling.
Chapters in A.D. Nuttall, A Common Sky. Philosophy and the Literary Imagination (1974).
Peter Conrad, Shandyism: The Character of Romantic Irony (1975).
Wayne C. Booth, ‘Did Sterne Complete Tristram Shandy?’, Modern Philology (1951).
D.W. Jefferson, ‘Tristram Shandy and its Tradition’; in Boris Ford (ed.), The Pelican Guide to English Literature, vol. 4 From Dryden to Johnson (1957).
Thomas Keymer, Sterne, the Moderns, and the Novel (2002).
(3) Samuel Johnson (1709-84).
Samuel Johnson, The Major Works, ed. Donald Greene (Oxford: World’s Classics).
Also useful: Selected Essays, ed. David Womersley (Penguin); The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, ed. D.J. Enright (Penguin). Also handy is the old Johnson on Shakespeare, ed. Sir Walter Ralegh (Oxford, 1904, often reprinted), which you will often find second-hand.
Rasselas; ‘Preface’ to the Works of Shakespeare; ‘Life of Milton’ and ‘Life of Cowley’ (from Lives of the Poets); ‘The Vanity of Human Wishes’; ‘London’; ‘Preface’ to A Dictionary of the English Language.
Walter Jackson Bate, The Achievement of Samuel Johnson (1955).
G.F. Parker, Johnson’s Shakespeare (1989).
(4) Sensibility; the Sublime; ‘Pre-Romanticism’: Gray, Collins, Warton, Smart, Goldsmith.
Poems of Gray, Collins, and Goldsmith, ed. Roger Lonsdale (Longman); Oliver Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield, ed. Stephen Coote (Penguin).
Selected Poems of Thomas Gray, Charles Churchill and William Cowper, ed. Katherine Turner (Penguin).
Christopher Smart, Selected Poems, ed. Karina Williamson and Marcus Walsh (Penguin).
Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Sublime and the Beautiful and Other Pre-Revolutionary Writings, ed. David Womersley (Penguin).
Thomas Gray (1716-71)
¶ ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’; ‘Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat’; ‘Ode on the Spring’; ‘The Bard’.
William Collins (1721-59)
¶ ‘Ode on the Poetical Character’; ‘Ode to Evening’; ‘The Passions’. ‘An Ode on the Popular Superstitions of the Highlands of Scotland’
Joseph Warton (1722-1900)
¶ ‘The Enthusiast; or, The Lover of Nature’.
Christopher Smart (1722-71)
Jubilate Agno (including ¶ ‘My Cat Jeoffrey’).
Oliver Goldsmith (?1730-74)
¶ The Deserted Village. The Vicar of Wakefield.
Edmund Burke (1729-97)
A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757).
Roger Lonsdale, ‘The Poetry of Thomas Gray: Versions of Self’, Proceedings of the British Academy 59 (1973), 105-23.
Harold Bloom, ‘Collins’s Ode on the Poetical Character’, in Bloom, The Visionary Company (1961, 1971), 7-15.
Geoffrey Hartman, ‘Christopher Smart's Magnificat: Toward a Theory of Representation’, ELH 41 (1974), 429-454; reprinted in Hartman, The Fate of Reading and Other Essays (1975), 74-98.
Francis Ferguson, Solitude and the Sublime (1992).
Janet Todd, Sensibility: An Introduction (1986).
(5) Forgers and Exotics: Macpherson, Chatterton.
James Macpherson, The Poems of Ossian and Related Works, ed. Howard Gaskill (Edinburgh U.P. paperback).
Thomas Chatterton, Selected Poems (Carcanet paperback).
James Macpherson (1736-96)
¶ Ossian, fragments 7 and 8.
Thomas Chatterton (1752-70)
¶ ‘An Excelente Balade of Charitie’
Nick Groom, The Forger’s Shadow (Picador).
(6) The Gothic Novel. [ See also: Austen; Mary Shelley; James Hogg ]
Walpole, The Castle of Otranto, ed Michael Gamer (Penguin); Beckford, Vathek, ed. Roger
Lonsdale (Oxford: World’s Classics); Radcliff, A Sicilian Romance, ed. Alison Milbank (Oxford: World’s Classics), The Mysteries of Udolpho, ed. Bonamy Dobree (Oxford: World’s Classics), The Italian, ed. Robert Miles (Penguin); Godwin, Caleb Williams, ed. David McCracken (Oxford: World’s Classics), St Leon, ed. Pamela Clemit (Oxford: World’s Classics); Lewis, The Monk, ed. Howard Anderson (Oxford: World’s Classics); Maturin, Melmoth the Wanderer, ed. Douglas Grant (Oxford: World’s Classics). There is a bumper bargain from Oxford World’s Classics: Four Gothic Novels, containing The Castle of Otranto, Vathek, The Monk and Frankenstein.
Horace Walpole (1717-97)
The Castle of Otranto (1765).
William Beckford (1759-1844)
Ann Radcliff (1764-1823)
A Sicilian Romance (1790); The Mysteries of Udolpho, a Romance (1794); The Italian; or the Confessional of the Black Penitents, a Romance (1797).
William Godwin (1756-1836)
Things as They Are; or The Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794).
St Leon, A Tale of the Sixteenth Century (1799).
Matthew ‘Monk’ Lewis (1775-1818)
The Monk, a Romance (1796).
Charles Maturin (1782-1824)
Melmoth the Wanderer (1820)
Harold Bloom, ‘Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus’, in The Ringers in the Tower (1971)
Tzvetan Todorov, The Fantastic (tr. Richard Howard, 1977).
Chris Baldick, In Frankenstein’s Shadow (1987).
Fred Botting, Gothic (New Critical Idiom series, 1995).
(7) Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816).
The School for Scandal and Other Plays, ed. Eric S. Rump (Penguin).
The School for Scandal; The Critic.
(8) George Crabbe (1754-1832).
George Crabbe, Selected Poems, ed. Gavin Edwards (Penguin).
Peter Grimes; ‘Procrastination’; The Village [excerpts in ¶ ].
(9) Women Poets of the later Eighteenth Century: Barbauld; More; Smith; Robinson.
Grouped thus because they are all generously represented in the one book: Romantic Women Poets: An Anthology, ed. Duncan Wu (Blackwell paperback).
Anna Letitia Barbauld (1743-1825).
Eighteen Hundred and Eleven, A Poem.
Hannah More (1745-1833)
Cheap Repository: The Story of Sinful Sally.
Charlotte Smith (1749-1806)
Sonnets: ‘To a Nightingale’, ‘To the Moon’, ‘To Spring’.
Mary Robinson (1758-1800)
Sappho and Phaon; Walsingham, or the Pupil of Nature.
(10) Scots: Robert Burns (1759-96); Robert Fergusson (1750-1774).
Robert Fergusson, Selected Poems, ed. James Robertson (Birlinn).
Robert Burns, Poems in Scots and English, ed. Donald Low (Everyman).
¶† ‘Tam o’Shanter’; ‘To a Mouse’; ‘To a Louse’.
Thomas Crawford, Burns (1979).
Seamus Heaney, ‘Burns’s Art Speech, in his Finders Keepers (2002).
David Daiches, Robert Fergusson (1982).
Robert Crawford (ed.), ‘Heaven-Taught Fergusson’: Robert Burns's Favourite Scottish Poet (2002).
(11) William Cowper (1731-1800).
Selected Poems of Thomas Gray, Charles Churchill and William Cowper, ed. Katherine Turner (Penguin).
The Task [ excerpts in ¶ and †]; ‘Yardley-Oak’; ‘The Castaway’; ‘On the Death of Mrs Throckmorton’s Bullfinch’.
Vincent Newey, Cowper’s Poetry: A Critical Study and Reassement (1982).
(12) Burke and the Revolution in France.
[ See also: Poetry and Sensibility; Gothic ]
The best selection of the pamphlet literature that followed the Revolution in France is Burke, Paine, Godwin and the Revolution Controversy, ed. Marilyn Butler; but it is unfortunately out of print.
Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Sublime and the Beautiful and Other Pre-Revolutionary Writings, ed. David Womersley (Penguin); Reflections on the Revolution in France, ed. L.G. Mitchell (Oxford: World’s Classics).
William Godwin, An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on Modern Morals, ed. Isaac Kramnick (Penguin); Memoirs of Wollstonecraft 1798 (Woodstock paperback).
Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, ed. Miriam Brody (Penguin); Mary Wollstonecraft's ‘Mary’ and ‘Maria’ and Mary Shelley's ‘Matilda’, ed. Janet Todd (Penguin).
The Thomas Paine Reader, ed. Michael Foot and Isaac Kramnick (Penguin).
Edmund Burke (1729-97)
Reflections on the Revolution in France.
Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
The Rights of Man, Part One.
William Godwin (1756-1836)
An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on Modern Morals (1793); Things as They Are; or The Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794); Memoirs of Wollstonecraft (1798).
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-97)
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman; Mary.
Paul Fussell, The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism (1965).
Ronald Paulson, ‘Burke’s Sublime and the Representation of Revolution’; in Cuture and Politics from Puritanism to the Enlightenment, ed P. Zagorin (1980).
Marilyn Butler, ‘Revolving in Deep Time: The French Revolution as Narrative’; in Revolution and English Romanticism, ed. K. Hanley and R. Selden (1990).
(13) William Blake (1757-1827).
The best collected edition is American: The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David Erdman, with a commentary by Harold Bloom (Doubleday), but the Complete Poems, ed. Alicia Ostriker (Penguin) will do fine.
Songs of Innocence and of Experience, ed. Sir Geoffrey Keynes (Oxford paperback).
The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, ed. Sir Geoffrey Keynes (Oxford paperback)
†§ Songs of Innocence and of Experience; The Marriage of Heaven and Hell; The Book of Thel; Visions of the Daughters of Albion; The Book of Urizen.
America, a Prophecy; Milton, a Poem in 2 Books.
T.S. Eliot, ‘William Blake’; in The Sacred Wood (1920).
Harold Bloom, chapter in The Visionary Company. A Reading of English Romantic Poetry (1961; 1971)
— Blake’s Apocalypse: A Study in Poetic Argument (1963).
John Beer, Blake’s Humanism (1968).
(14) William Wordsworth (1770-1850).
You need two texts: William Wordsworth, The Major Works, ed. Stephen Gill (Oxford: World’s Classics); and either The Prelude, 1799, 1805, 1850, ed. Jonathan Wordsworth, M.H. Abrams and Stephen Gill (Norton paperback), or The Prelude: The Four Texts, ed. Jonathan Wordsworth (Penguin).
‘Preface’ to Lyrical Ballads; The Thirteen-Book Prelude (1805).
Jonathan Wordsworth, William Wordsworth: The Borders of Vision (1982)
M.H. Abrams, ‘Two Roads to Wordsworth’; in (ed.), Wordsworth: A Collection of Critical Essays (1972), ed. M.H. Abrams; also in his The Correspondent Breeze. Essays in English Romanticism (1984).
Christopher Ricks, ‘Wordsworth 1’ and ‘Wordsworth 2’; in his The Force of Poetry (1984).
Geoffrey H. Hartman, Wordsworth’s Poetry 1878-1814 (1964).
Thomas McFarland, ‘The Symbiosis of Wordsworth and Coleridge’; in his Romanticism and the Forms of Ruin. Wordsworth, Coleridge, and the Modalities of Fragmentation (1980).
Nicholas Roe, Wordsworth and Coleridge: The Radical Years (1988).
(15) James Hogg (1770-1835).
There is an excellent Canadian edition from Broadview Press; but most easily available is probably The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, ed. John Wain (Penguin). The Shepherd’s Calendar, ed. Douglas S. Mack (Edinburgh U.P. paperback).
The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner.
Karl Miller, Doubles: Studies in Literary History (1985).
David Daiches, The Paradox of Scottish Culture (1964).
(16) Walter Scott (1771-1832).
Heart of Midlothian, ed. Claire Lamont (Oxford: World’s Classics); Old Mortality, ed. Peter Davidson and Jane Stevenson (Oxford: World’s Classics). Other novels are widely available in Oxford World’s Classics or Penguin.
Heart of Midlothian; Old Mortality; ‘The Two Drovers’. Redgauntlet. The Lay of the Last Minstrel.
(17) Dorothy Wordsworth (1771-1855).
The Grasmere and Alfoxden Journals, ed. Pamela Woof (Oxford: World’s Classics)
Pamela Woof, Dorothy Wordsworth, Writer (1988).
Susan M. Levin, Dorothy Wordsworth and Romanticism (1987).
(18) Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834).
The best edition of the poems is by John Beer (Everyman); also good is the Penguin edition by William Keach. The standard edition of Biographia Literaria is by James Engell and Walter Jackson Bate (Princeton paperback); but the Everyman text by Nigel Leask is cheaper. The forthcoming Coleridge’s Poetry and Prose, edited by Nicholas Halmi, Paul Magnuson, and Raimonda Modiano (Norton) should contain all the prose you might need. If you want to browse in Coleridge’s marvellous notebooks, it might be easier to begin with the selection I made (Oxford University Press), before moving on to the great library edition of Kathleen Coburn.
Biographia Literaria: begin with chapters i, iv, xiii, xiv, xviii-xx.
John Beer, Coleridge the Visionary (1959).
Walter Jackson Bate, Coleridge (1969).
Humphry House, Coleridge (1962).
Kelvin Everest, Coleridge’s Secret Ministry: The Context of the Conversation Poems, 1795-1798 (1979).
Seamus Perry, Coleridge and the Uses of Division (1999).
(19) Jane Austen (1775-1817).
There are good editions of the novels from both Penguin and Oxford World’s Classics.
Mansfield Park; Emma; Sense and Sensibility; Pride and Prejudice; Northanger Abbey; Persuasion.
A.C. Bradley, ‘Jane Austen’, Essays and Studies 2 (1911).
Virginia Woolf, ‘Jane Austen’; in The Common Reader (1925).
D.W. Harding, ‘Regulated Hatred: An Aspect of the Work of Jane Austen’, Scrutiny 8 (1940)
Gilbert Ryle, ‘Jane Austen and the Moralists’; in Critical Essays on Jane Austen (1968), ed. B.C. Southam.
John Bayley, ‘The “Irresponsibility” of Jane Austen’; in Critical Essays on Jane Austen (1968), ed. B.C. Southam.
Angus Wilson, ‘The Neighbourhood of Tombuctoo: Conflicts in Jane Austen’s Novels’; in Critical Essays on Jane Austen (1968), ed. B.C. Southam.
Marilyn Butler, Jane Austen and the War of Ideas (1975; 1987).
Tony Tanner, Jane Austen (1986).
Barbara Everett, ‘Hard Romance’, London Review of Books, 8 February, 1996.
Christopher Ricks, ‘Jane Austen and the Business of Mothering’; in Essays in Appreciation (1996).
(20) Charles Lamb (1775-1834).
The Essays of Elia are out of print, which seems very shocking; but they were once the school prize of choice and so form a regular feature in second-hand bookshops.
‘The Two Races of Men’, ‘Mrs Battle’s Opinions on Whist’; ‘Oxford in the Vacation’; ‘Witches and other Night Fears’.
(21) William Hazlitt (1778-1830).
You can often find Hazlitt second hand; but if you want a modern edition try The Fight and Other Writings, ed. Tom Paulin and David Chandler (Penguin).
‘My First Acquaintance with Poets’; ‘Mr Wordsworth’ and ‘Mr Coleridge’ from The Spirit of the Age.
David Bromwich, Hazlitt: The Mind of a Critic (1983).
(22) Thomas De Quincey (1785-1859).
The Confessions of an English Opium-Eater and Other Writings, ed. Grevel Lindop (Oxford: World’s Classics).
Confessions of an English Opium-Eater; ‘On the Knocking on the Gate in Macbeth’; Suspiria de Profundis.
Wordsworth, ‘Two Dark Interpreters: Wordsworth and De Quincey’, The Wordsworth Circle 17 (1986), 40-50.
Josephine McDonagh, ‘Writings on the Mind: Thomas De Quincey and the Importance of the Palimpsest in Nineteenth-Century Thought’, Prose Studies 10 (1987), 207-24.
Angela Leighton, ‘De Quincey and Women’; in, Beyond Romanticism: New Approaches to Texts and Contexts 1780-1832, ed. Stephen Copley and John Whale (1992), 160-77.
Thomas McFarland, Romantic Cruxes: The English Essayists and the Spirit of the Age (1987) – for De Quincey, and Lamb and Hazlitt as well.
(23) George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824).
Lord Byron, The Major Works, ed. Jerome J. McGann (Oxford: World’s Classics). You might also want to look at Byron’s wonderful letters, edited in thirteen volumes by Leslie Marchand (Murray).
†§ Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, canto iii ; the rest of Childe Harold if you wish.
Don Juan, dedicatory stanzas and cantos i-iii ; the rest of Don Juan if you wish.
The Corsair; Beppo; Manfred; Cain.
T.S. Eliot, ‘Byron’, in On Poetry and Poets (1957).
Ronald Bottrall, ‘Byron and the English Colloquial Tradition’, Criterion 18 (1939), 204-24.
W.W. Robson, ‘Byron and Sincerity’, in Critical Essays (1966).
Jerome J. McGann, ‘Don Juan’ in Context (1976).
— ‘The Book of Byron and the Book of a World’; in The Beauty of Inflections: Literary Investigations in Historical Method and Theory (1985).
Anne Barton, Byron: Don Juan (Landmarks of World Literature, 1992).
Jane Stabler, Byron, Poetics and History (2002).
(24) Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822).
Shelley’s Poetry and Prose (2nd edn.), ed. Donald H. Reiman and Neil Fraistat (Norton paperback).
†§ Prometheus Unbound: A Lyrical Drama; ‘A Defence of Poetry’.
Donald Davie, ‘Shelley’s Urbanity’; in his The Purity of Diction in English Verse (1952).
Harold Bloom, Shelley’s Mythmaking (1959).
Desmond King-Hele, Shelley. His Thought and Work (1960).
Richard Cronin, Shelley’s Poetic Thoughts (1981).
Angela Leighton, Shelley and the Sublime (1984).
Michael O’Neill, The Human Mind’s Imaginings (1988).
(25) Felicia Hemans (1793-1835).
Romantic Women Poets: An Anthology, ed. Duncan Wu (Blackwell paperback). There is a big Selected Poems, edited with some letters and other material by Susan Wolfson (Princeton UP).
Records of Woman; ‘The Homes of England’.
(25) John Clare (1793-1864).
Clare’s poems have been slowly appearing in a new, original spelling edition under the guidance of Eric Robinson, who returns the texts to the un-‘improved’ state in which they exist in manuscript. (For the complications of this editorial decision, see the chapter in Zachary Leader, Revision and Romantic Authorship (1996).) There is a paperback edition of his collection The Midsummer Cushion, edited by Kelsey Thornton and Anne Tibble (Carcanet); but the most useful volume for our purposes, the Oxford Authors John Clare, edited by Eric Robinson and David Powell, is unfortunately out of print, as is the Oxford edition of The Shepherd’s Calendar by Eric Robinson and Geoffrey Summerfield. Your best bet might be the little volume in the Bloomsbury Poetry Classics series.
† ‘January’ from The Shepherd’s Calendar; §‘An Invite to Eternity’; § ‘Bird’s Nests’; § ‘Poets Love Nature’; †§ ‘I Am’.
John Barrell, The Idea of Landscape and the Sense of Place, 1730-1840 (1972).
John Clare in Context, edited by Hugh Haughton, Adam Phillips, Geoffrey Summerfield (1994).
John Lucas, John Clare (Writers and their Work, 1994).
(26) John Keats (1795- 1821).
There are several good editions: The Complete Poems, edited by John Barnard (2nd edn., Penguin) or Complete Poems, edited by Jack Stillinger (Harvard UP paperback) are both excellent. You will want to look at Keats’s letters: the standard text is by Hyder Rollins in two magnificent volumes; but there are two recent selected editions which you might find more manageable – Selected Letters of John Keats, edited by Grant F. Scott (Harvard UP), and, in paperback, Selected Letters, ed. Jon Mee and Robert Gittings (Oxford: World’s Classics).
‘Lamia’; ‘Hyperion: A Fragment’.
John Bayley, ‘Keats and Reality’, Proceedings of the British Academy 1962; also (enlarged) in The Uses of Divison: Unity and Disharmony in Literature (1974).
Christopher Ricks, Keats and Embarrassment (1974).
‘A Picture of Somebody Reading’; in Barbara Everett, Poets in their Time (1985).
Jerome McGann, ‘Keats and the Historical Method in Literary Criticism’; in his The Beauty of Inflexions (1985).
A.D. Nuttall, ‘Adam’s Dream and Madeline’s’; in his The Stoic in Love and other essays (1989).
Nicholas Roe, John Keats and the Culture of Dissent (1997).
(27) Mary Shelley (1797-1851).
Frankenstein, ed. Marilyn Butler; The Last Man, ed. Morton D. Paley; Valperga, ed. Michael
Rossington (Oxford: World’s Classics). There is a good selection, The Mary Shelley Reader, edited by Charles E. Robinson and Betty T. Bennet (Oxford UP paperback), containing Frankenstein, Mathilda, stories, essays, reviews, and letters. Another good book is the edition of Frankenstein by James Rieger (University of Chicago Press), which reprints Polidori’s ‘The Vampyre: A Tale’ and Byron’s ‘Fragment’, also written during the Ghost Story Contest.
Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus. The Last Man; Valperga.
Harold Bloom, ‘Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus’, in The Ringers in the Tower (1971).
Anne K. Mellor, Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters (1990).
(28) LEL [Letitia Elizabeth Landon] (1802-38).
Romantic Women Poets: An Anthology, ed. Duncan Wu (Blackwell paperback).
A long chapter in Germaine Gree, Slip-Shod Sibyls: Recognition, Rejection and the Woman Poet (1995).