References for Criticisms of the Gödelian Argument

I should be grateful for additions---john.lucas@merton.OXFORD.AC.UK

J.J.C.Smart, "Gödel's Theorem, Church's Theorem, and Mechanism", Synthese, 13, 1961.,

J.J.C.Smart, "Man as a Physical Mechanism", ch.VI of his Philosophy and Scientific Realism.

Hilary Putnam "Minds and Machines", in Sidney Hook, ed., Dimensions of Mind. A Symposium, New York, 1960; reprinted in Kenneth M. Sayre and Frederick J. Crosson, eds., The Modeling of Mind, Notre Dame, 1963, pp. 255-271; and in A. R. Anderson, Minds and Machines, Prentice-Hall, 1964, pp. 43-59.

C.H. Whitely, "Minds, Machines and Gödel: a Reply to Mr. Lucas", Philosophy, 37, 1962, pp.61-62.

Paul Benacerraf, "God, the Devil and Gödel",The Monist, 1967, pp. 9-32.

I.J. Good, "Human and Machine Logic," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 18, 1967, pp. 144-147.

I.J.Good, "Gödel's Theorem is a Red Herring", British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 19, 1968, pp. 357- 8.

David Lewis, "Lucas Against Mechanism", Philosophy, XLIV, 1969, pp. 231-233.

David Coder, "Goedel's Theorem and Mechanism", Philosophy, XLIV, 1969, pp. 234-237, esp. p.236.

Jonathan Glover, Responsibility, London, 1970, p.31.

William Hanson, "Mechanism and Gödel's Theorems," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, XXII, 1971.

D.C. Dennett, Review of The Freedom of the Will, Journal of Philosophy, 1972.

Charles S. Chihara, "On Alleged Refutations of Mechanism using Gödel's Incompleteness Results", Journal of Philosophy, LXIX, no.17, 1972.

Hao Wang, From Mathematics to Philosophy, London, 1974, pp.319, 320, 324-326.

A.J.P.Kenny in A.J.P.Kenny, H.C.Longuet-Higgins, J.R. Lucas and C.H.Waddington, The Nature of Mind, Edinburgh, 1976, p.75.

Anthony Hutton, "This Gödel is Killing Me", Philosophia, vol. 6, no.1, 1976, pp. 135-144.

J.W. Thorp, "Free Will and Neurophysiological Determinism", Oxford D.Phil. Thesis, 1976, p.79.

J.L. Mackie, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, Penguin, 1977, p. 219.

David Lewis, "Lucas Against Mechanism II", Canadian Journal of Philosophy, IX, 1979, pp. 373-376.

Douglas R.Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach, New York, 1979, p.475.

Emmanuel Q. Fernando, "Mathematical and Philosophical Implications of the Gödel Incompleteness Theorems". M.A. Thesis, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezu City, September 1980.

Judson C. Webb, Mechanism, Mentalism and Metamathematics; An Essay on Finitism, Dordrecht, 1980, p.230.

G. Lee Bowie, "Lucas' Number is Finally Up", Journal of Philosophical Logic, 11, 1982, pp.279-285.

P.Slezak, "Gödel's Theorem and the Mind", British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, XXXIII, 1982.

Rudy Rucker, "Gödel's Theorem: The Paradox at the heart of modern man", Popular Computing, February 1985, p.168.

David L. Boyer, "Lucas, Gödel and Astaire", The Philosophical Quarterly, 1983, pp.147-159.

David Bostock, "Gödel and Determinism", private communication, November, 1984.

Robert Kirk, "Mental Machinery and Gödel",Synthese, 66, 1986, pp.437-452.

Added 24.2.97 In the recently published Proceedings, Machines and Thought, ed. Peter Millican and Andy Clark, Oxford, 1996, Robin Gandy gives a much earlier reference:

Emil L. Post, `Absolutely Unsolvable Problems and Relatively Undecidable Propositions---Account of an Anticipation', in Martin Davis, (ed.), The Undecidable (New York: Raven Press, 1965), pp.340-435, esp. pp.417-24.

Chalmers ( gives a more up-to-date list in

Chalmer's present web site
He has many links for pursuing his links click here

Other works are cited in J.R. Lucas, The Freedom of the Will, Oxford, pp. 174-6.

The following additions have been sent to me:
  2. His E-mail is:Jeff Makey
  3. Penrose---Psyche: --
  4. Lucas's fallacy modified: A Critique of Roger Penrose's Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness In his two most recent... --
  5. Damjan Bojadziev, Gödel's theorem for minds and computers
  6. Selmer Bringsjord, A refutation of Penrose's new Gödelian case against the computational conception of mind
  7. Matt Caywood, Lucas's fallacy modified: A critique of Penrose's Shadows ofthe Mind
  8. David Chalmers, Minds, machines, and mathematics
  9. Kari Coleman, Gödel propositions for the mind
  10. Daniel Dennett, Review of The Emperor's New Mind
  11. Harry Deutsch, Deconstructing mathematics and mind: Some implications of Gödel's incompleteness theorems
  12. Solomon Feferman, Penrose's Gödelian argument
  13. Rick Grush & Patricia Churchland, Gaps in Penrose's toilings
  14. Tim Maudlin, Between the motion and the act...
  15. Daryl McCullough, Can humans escape Gödel?
  16. Drew McDermott, [STAR] Penrose is wrong
  17. Roger Penrose, Beyond the doubting of a shadow
  18. Hilary Putnam, Review of Shadows of the Mind
  19. Brian Rosmaita, Minds, machines, and metamathematics

    Aaron Sloman, The emperor's real mind

The Turing Test

  1. Stephen Cowley & Karl MacDorman, Simulating conversations: The communion game
  2. Robert French, Refocusing the debate on the Turing Test: A reply to Jacquette
  3. Stevan Harnad, The Turing test is not a trick
  4. Stevan Harnad, Other bodies, other minds (and Larry Hauser's reply)
  5. Jason Hutchens, How to pass the Turing test by cheating
  6. Michael Mauldin, Chatterbots, tinymuds, and the Turing test: Entering the Loeber Prize
  7. Peter Seibel, Turing Test, etc. http://www,
  8. Stuart Shieber, Lessons from a restricted Turing test (and Hugh Loebner's reply)
  9. Thomas Whalen, My experience at Loebner Prize
  10. Shapiro, Stewart. "Incompleteness, Mechanism, and Optimism." _The Bulletin of Symbolic Logic_ 4 (Sept. 1998): 273-302. Available online in PostScript format at:
    may provide further useful links
  11. Roger Penrose, Beyond the doubting of a shadow, ???
  12. Hilary Putnam, ???,
  13. Robert E. Horn, Can Computers Think?, New Scientist, 10 July 1999.
I have not been over these.
Corrections and further additions welcome.

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