Arguments for Timelessness

1. Changelessness of the Absolute

(i) Reality bes rather than becomes

(ii) Change is either for the worse or from the worse

2. If God is the maker of all things, he must have made time.
3. If God is to be unlimited by time, He cannot be in time, and must be outside time.
4. Spatial analogy
5. Special Theory of Relativity

(i) Minkowski spacetime (ii) Einstein's frame-dependence of the present


6. Spectator of all time (Plato, Republic VI 486a4-10)

Ever-expanding present
(Compare Ever-shrinking present (Augustine Confessions XI)


7. Avoids awkward questions:

(i) What was God doing before he created the world? (a) Leibniz---Identity of Indiscernibles (b) HEFC---Was God earning his keep? (ii) Divine Foreknowledge


8. Contrast with experiences of ordinary life: ordinary temporal, so religious non-temporal