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<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
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Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
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PrimaryMid: #04b
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SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
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TertiaryMid: #999
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Error: #f88
/*{{{*/
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a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
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a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
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.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
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#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

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.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
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.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

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.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
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.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
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.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
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.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

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.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
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.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
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.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
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#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
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#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:alpha(opacity=60);}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
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body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
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h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
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dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:0; top:0;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

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.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
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.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
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table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0 3px 0 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0; padding-bottom:0;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
/*}}}*/
/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
***/
/*{{{*/
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
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/*{{{*/
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox 1.5.0.2 where print preview displays the noscript content */
}
/*}}}*/
<!--{{{-->
<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
</div>
<div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
</div>
<div id='displayArea'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
</div>
<!--}}}-->
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<!--}}}-->
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
<!--}}}-->
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<<importTiddlers>>
!CV curriculum vitae 履歷 履历
For the webpage/html format, please click on [[the web link here|http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/hanteng/cv]]
For the printer/pdf format, please click on [[the pdf file here|Han-teng_Liao_cv.pdf]]
Background: #e1f3ed
Foreground: #0b1d17
PrimaryPale: #ffffff
PrimaryLight: #0099FF
PrimaryMid: #000099
PrimaryDark: #000033
SecondaryPale: #ffffff
SecondaryLight: #FF0000
SecondaryMid: #900000 
SecondaryDark: #700000 
TertiaryPale: #ffffff
TertiaryLight: #66FF66
TertiaryMid: #666666
TertiaryDark: #660066
Error: #f88
ColorPaletteParameters: HSL([159|83], [0.4559725131839514],[0.1|1])

What are the most visible websites in Chinese-speaking world when it comes to using search engines?  The following maps mainly shows the top 10 most visible websites based on a sample of all top 10 websites generated by 2500 search keywords into 9 geo-linguistic choice of search engines. 
[img[SERP from nine Chinese-speaking geo-linguistic regions |http://users.ox.ac.uk/~kebl3178/SERP_g09_top10_nonAggr_CTR_interwoven.png]]

[img[SERP from nine Chinese-speaking geo-linguistic regions |http://users.ox.ac.uk/~kebl3178/SERP_g09_top10_nonAggr_CTR_interwoven_CW_hl.png]]

[img[SERP from nine Chinese-speaking geo-linguistic regions |http://users.ox.ac.uk/~kebl3178/SERP_g09_top10_nonAggr_CTR_interwoven_BB_hl.png]]

Even after aggregating all governmental websites (e.g. *.gov.cn), educational institution websites (e.g. *.edu.tw), and major portal webites (e.g. Sina, QQ, Baidu) into one single nodes, the major online user-generated encyclopedias, including Baidu Baike, Chinese Wikipedia and even Hudong, still overwhelm the SERP as the most visible websites. 

[img[SERP from nine Chinese-speaking geo-linguistic regions |http://users.ox.ac.uk/~kebl3178/SERP_g09_top10_Aggr_CTR.png]]
[[CV curriculum vitae]]
[[争钓鱼台的狭隘:如何扭转利益私有化、风险污染公共化的海洋未来]]
[[Comparing Search Engine Result Pages (SERP) across major Chinese-Speaking Regions]]
[[改變日本及中國歷史的政治暗殺事件]]
[[The political assisination that changesd the historical course of China and Japan]]
[[台灣土博士非國際人才? 誰之錯?]]
CV 履歷 履历 
[[html|http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/hanteng/cv]] | [[pdf|Han-teng_Liao_cv.pdf]]

Maps&Figs 圖表 图表
[[Wiki User|https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Hanteng#.E7.A0.94.E7.A9.B6.E9.81.B8.E5.9C.96]]

Blog 博客 部落格
[[Blog|http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/hanteng]]

<<tag 意見 >>|<<tag commentaries>>
 @ OII 牛津網際網路研究所 / 牛津互联网研究所
Han-teng Liao 廖漢騰
.info_source
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.viewer .tagcloudTag
{
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        line-height:1.2em;
}
.viewer .tagcloudTag:hover{
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}

.twtable td
{
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.inlineList li {
margin-right: 10px;
display: inline-block;
}
How global economy had militarized a new democratic nation-state into an imperialist project.

From English Wikipedia:
Inukai became the 29th Prime Minister of Japan in 1931. At the time, Japan was in a serious economic situation due to the effects of the Great Depression of 1929, and its untimely return to the gold standard. Inukai's government immediately took steps to inflate the economy and to place an embargo on gold exports. However, Inukai was unable to impose fiscal restraint on the military, nor was he able to control the military’s designs on China after the Manchurian Incident. Inukai's struggle against the military led to his assassination during the May 15 Incident of 1932, which effectively marked the end of civilian political control over government decisions until after World War II.


From Chinese Wikipedia:
同时,元老西园寺公望看到犬养有意通过与中国谈判解决九一八事变问题,便向当时的昭和天皇推荐他成为首相。这时犬养毅已经77岁,被当时的报纸以“昭和的(齐藤)实盛”来形容。齐藤实盛系源平合战时期的老将,曾将白发染黑战斗。

接到天皇组阁的命令后,犬养立即解散议会实施总选举。结果政友会议席数大幅提升。在获得民众的支持后,又起用高桥是清为大藏大臣,力图扭转经济上的不振。高桥断然实施黄金输出禁止令和兑换停止令,并采取积极财政政策以图转变。这样,日本的经济开始徐徐走上复苏之路。在对外干涉上,九一八事变的处理十分棘手。犬养毅拒绝了军部要求承认满洲国的指示,而是利用自己的管道与国民政府进行交涉。他的解决方案是承认中国对东北地区的形式领有权,但日本要在经济上实质性地支配东三省。犬养派他以前曾帮助过的记者萱野長知赴上海,担当与中国进行谈判的中间人。然而即便是这样的方案也遭到日本激进势力的大力反对。.........
另外,犬养也对当时一些青年军官的做法感到忧虑。他给陆军长老上原勇作写信,指出应该改变一下当时军队中的风气。又上奏天皇,提出将30人左右的问题军官免职。犬养曾把他的忧虑透露给芳泽谦吉(时任外相)和森恪。而后者直接将此事报与军部。军部因此对犬养干涉军队的做法十分愤怒。.......
hanteng
钓鱼台看似占到就是赚到, 为赚到油源和渔权必争不让。然而美国总统候选人罗姆尼“中海油门”事件,暴露海洋石油开采的现实:获利的是石油公司的(跨国)股东,灾难风险则由生态及人民承担,政府则常站在股东及说客的那一方。

台湾中油若赚钱, 台湾民众有共享的感觉吗?中国民众其实对中国海洋石油公司(中海油)也有类似的怀疑,如其高阶主管的“实际筹薪”是不是落入政党关系良好的私人口袋。
现在爆出“中海油门”,指的是罗姆尼为争选票批评中国,但其信托基金曾投资中海油并已获利了结。利益跨国界,要赚得有钱投资和有无爱国无关。
“中海油门”也涉及台湾,美国一同意军售台湾,中国政府就批准中海油和伊朗签署协议。
中海油董事长王宜林曾称钻油平台为“流动的国土”及中国海洋石油发展的“战略利器”,其标到的海上油田遍布全球,包括中国的渤海湾、澳洲及非洲等。
然而最近台湾媒体仅报道中海油对台湾中油放出共同开发东、南海油田的消息,并没提及中海油门曾因美对台军售而间接得利,也没对海洋石油开发的跨国政商关系做出报道或分析。
不过更值得注意的是关乎人类生存的海洋生态。
向海洋讨油是高资本也是高风险的事业,2011年渤海湾油田溢油事故(蓬莱19-3油田溢油事故),对海洋生态及沿海渔业及水产养殖户造成重大危害。
渤海湾油田是中海油和来自美国的康菲石油所共同开发的。官方支持加上美国技术和资本,这个中国海上最大的近海油田都会发生意外。那地震台风频繁的东海、南海的深海油田,若发生漏油等事故,是谁负责清理?台湾及中国沿海渔业及沿海养殖户能向谁赔偿?
2010美国墨西哥湾漏油事件,是由英国石油公司负责及美国承包商执行。这美国史上最大的漏油事件不仅是生态浩劫,更造成渔业和旅游业的重大损失。美国公众才开始意识到,美国近海的石油未必就是美国人用,美国产的石油的并不会折扣低价直销美国而是直接卖到国际石油市场。
英国人民也没赚到,英国石油公司早已私有化。漏油事件后,当原公司总裁得到高额退休金及红利离职时,英国国家退休基金则因大量持股而损失。
当部份台湾及中国大陆民众想要“保护”一个无人岛的时候,甚至搬出神明-东海及南海诸国不少讨海人会拜的妈祖。应该问的是,要保护“什么”免于“什么”的危害。
同样是和台湾能源相关的小岛,“保钓”和“护兰屿”的差异为什么这么大?(还不提兰屿有人住的事实。)若台湾人同时向兰屿丢核废料,又要贸然妄想东南海的油田开发,是否狭隘自私?妈祖可是不分国籍包容庇佑讨海渔人及商人生存权。
若当权者要好处(石油及核能获利)而将坏处(生态失衡及族群/国际关系失和)推给外人时,诉诸的是简单但狭隘的敌我逻辑。然而诸多漏溢油事故所提醒的是,利益被少数人在跨国政商网络中私有化,而风险及污染则全民买单。人民的利益应和兰屿、琉球等住民一致,在气候变迁及能源危机下共谋互助及生存,而非成为中美日政商得利者博亦的棋子或筹码。
与其让少数股东获利,不如想出东亚人民有感的方案。如成立“东亚和平保险基金”将石油获利用诸人民:东亚海底电缆、地震台风的灾前预警及灾后重建、东亚学生学者跨国交流、等举措都需要资金投入,让前一世纪受战争危害的亚洲人民重拾海洋跨国交流的互信。
(原文以台湾正体撰写后, 利用中文维基百科的大陆简体转换输出)
台灣土博士非國際人才? 誰之錯?

(草稿歡迎討論轉寄連結, 但勿轉內容)

台灣大眾被搞胡塗了。一下中研究公開人才宣言, 說台灣高階人力淨輸出的負面現象要政府有好的吸引高階人才的就業及移民政策, 一下國科會官員, 說台灣土博士生產過剩要檢討。

到底是高階人材荒還是人才過剩? 

細讀這些看似相互衝突的公共政策討論, 可以有兩種初淺的解讀方式。第一是台灣土產博士不是高階人力, 不但國際賣相不佳連內銷都有問題, 第二是台灣所需要的高階人力得是國際認可或國外生產的。不然為什麼台灣土產的博士不能符合台灣台灣高階人力的需要? 

就算把博士生產比喻成台灣農產品或台灣製造的商品, 中研院及國科會的最近人才宣言和公開說明, 讓台灣大眾只能問, 難到台灣土產博士不是台灣高檔水果或台灣精品?  若是的話為什麼不直接把土博士當台灣所需的高階人力用?  若不是的話, 誰要為台灣土產博士未能變成高階人力負責? 難道不是中研院或國科會等研究及學術單位嗎?

的確, 博士的訓練是否過度專業化及片碎化而使博士生的視野只能回大學教書是需要正視的問題。

不分土洋, 博士生的就業不能只侷限在大學教學, 甚至是學術研究及產業研究, 而是台灣知識社會各個角落的知識生根及實際操作。英國政府最近投進大量行政資源發展研究發展架構(RDF), 其主要目標就是要提升英國勞力素質, 發展國際研究者, 進而擴大 英國高等教育的基礎。而其中之一 子項目就是要針對英國生產出的"土博士", 為他們提供創業及就業的再訓練, 比如說如何與不同背景的專家進行合作, 尋求產業機會。而其他項目也包括展示企業界從英國土產的博士中實際獲益的情況, 以鼓勵以英國為基地的產業多雇用英國的土博士而不只是土碩士。

http://www.vitae.ac.uk/researchers/428241/Researcher-Development-Framework.html

反觀台灣目前的人才公共政策討論, 還停留在各單位本位主義的思考。中研院抱怨台灣的相關就業及移民政策無法讓他們以高薪吸引國際人才, 而國科會抱怨(似乎是教育部及台灣各大學)生產出太多台灣土博士。

筆者希望這人才公共政策討論能有更實質及全面的考量, 提出目前討論的兩項盲點。第一是顯見的土洋差別。台灣大眾會很難接受一方面台灣要吸引國際人才, 一方面台灣土產博士不算是國際人才的說法。換句話說, 台灣需要像英國RDF架構所關注的, 將大學、研究、及產業的博士級以上人才的運用及發展有一個符合台灣本土化及國際化的整體戰略思考及實際行動, 將台灣的土博士成為國際洋博士。我們應該進一步面對土洋偏見, 務實地進行有趣的土洋交流及轉換, 就像台灣成功的農產品及精品一樣, 都是土洋交流的結晶而不只是單純的外來和尚會唸經或台灣的東西就是好東西的不必要偏見。

第二個盲點則是年齡及人口結構的盲點。目前在台灣人才的公共政策討論上, 主要的聲音都是來自台灣戰後嬰兒潮留外的精英, 雖說他們對台灣經濟發展的貢獻是有目共賭, 但他們的世代是回台灣馬上就有學術及研究位置, 直接就是副教授的世代。當他們面臨台灣下一個階段的國際競爭及合作挑戰時, 或許有過份相信國際已有建樹的學人及機構的傾向, 而小看台灣本土機構及人才, 特別是下一世代的信心及能力。

或有人批評這是標準的學術內部殖民, 也就是不斷地壓榨並眨低台灣現在二十三十左右的便宜碩博士的勞動力, 另外一方面又企圖尋求資源給國際四十五十左右的知名學者來台灣工作的經濟動機。

但筆者相信這批評還太早, 只要台灣正視整體高階碩博士人才的繼續發展 (而不是過時 不恰當的"生產過剩"說法), 現在台灣二十三士左右的碩博士人才, 將是在他們四十五十時, 未來國際想要高薪爭取的高階人才。台灣人才的公共政策需要這樣的五年十年觀, 而不只是單位本位主義的, 我現在需要"高階國際"人才, 我現在不需要"台灣土博士", 同時我們也需要面對台灣學術及研究主力, 也就是二十三士左右的年輕人, 給予他們在專業研究之外, 和其他專業、社會及產業的交流並合作的基本能力。

(草稿歡迎討論轉寄連結, 但勿轉內容)
摘至中文維基百科:
同时,元老西园寺公望看到犬养有意通过与中国谈判解决九一八事变问题,便向当时的昭和天皇推荐他成为首相。这时犬养毅已经77岁,被当时的报纸以“昭和的(齐藤)实盛”来形容。齐藤实盛系源平合战时期的老将,曾将白发染黑战斗。

接到天皇组阁的命令后,犬养立即解散议会实施总选举。结果政友会议席数大幅提升。在获得民众的支持后,又起用高桥是清为大藏大臣,力图扭转经济上的不振。高桥断然实施黄金输出禁止令和兑换停止令,并采取积极财政政策以图转变。这样,日本的经济开始徐徐走上复苏之路。在对外干涉上,九一八事变的处理十分棘手。犬养毅拒绝了军部要求承认满洲国的指示,而是利用自己的管道与国民政府进行交涉。他的解决方案是承认中国对东北地区的形式领有权,但日本要在经济上实质性地支配东三省。犬养派他以前曾帮助过的记者萱野長知赴上海,担当与中国进行谈判的中间人。然而即便是这样的方案也遭到日本激进势力的大力反对。.........
另外,犬养也对当时一些青年军官的做法感到忧虑。他给陆军长老上原勇作写信,指出应该改变一下当时军队中的风气。又上奏天皇,提出将30人左右的问题军官免职。犬养曾把他的忧虑透露给芳泽谦吉(时任外相)和森恪。而后者直接将此事报与军部。军部因此对犬养干涉军队的做法十分愤怒。.......
From English Wikipedia:
Inukai became the 29th Prime Minister of Japan in 1931. At the time, Japan was in a serious economic situation due to the effects of the Great Depression of 1929, and its untimely return to the gold standard. Inukai's government immediately took steps to inflate the economy and to place an embargo on gold exports. However, Inukai was unable to impose fiscal restraint on the military, nor was he able to control the military’s designs on China after the Manchurian Incident. Inukai's struggle against the military led to his assassination during the May 15 Incident of 1932, which effectively marked the end of civilian political control over government decisions until after World War II.