Constitutional Law Wk 6



FREEDOM OF THE PERSON, etc



1. General

*Bradley & Ewing, Constitutional and Administrative Law (12th edn 1997), p 525 & pp 536-570

*Reiner & Leigh, "Police Powers" in McCrudden & Chambers ed, Individual Rights and the Law in Britain (1995) pp 69-108

Ewing & Gearty, Freedom under Thatcher, Ch. 2:



2. Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention

**Jacobs & White. The European Convention on Human Rights (2nd ed 1996) Ch 7, pp 79-102; 110-121

*Art 5

Weekes (1988) 10 EHRR 293

Thynne, Wilson and Gunnell (1991) 13 EHRR 666



3. Powers Short of Arrest

(a) Common Law

Kenlin v Gardner [1967] 2 QB 510

*Moss v Mclachlan [1985] IRLR 76

(b) Statute

*Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 [PACE] ss 1-5 (and Code of Practice A para 1.7 - see B&E p 538

(See also Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, Road Traffic Act 1988, and Prevention of Terrorism Temporary Provisions) Act 1989)



4. Entry, Search and Seizure

*Entick v Carrington (1765) 19 St Tr 1030, 1066

*PACE ss 8-23

Police Act 1997 Part III

Cowan v MPC [2000] 1 All ER 504

R v Chesterfield JJ, ex p Bramley [2000] 1 All ER 411

**R v Sultan Khan [1997] AC 558 (HL) ; (2000) Crim LR 684 (ECHR)



5. Arrest

(a) Statute

* PACE ss 24-33 (see Also Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 ss 85(2), 155, 166(4) and 167(7)

Lewis v Chief Constable [1991] 1 ALL ER 206

(b) Common Law: Breach of the Peace and Obstruction of Police in Course of Duty

McLeod v MPC [1994] 4 All ER 553 (see 1995 LQR 562)

**McLeod v UK [1998] FLR 1048; [1999] Crim L R155

*Howell [1982] QB 416

Wershof v MPC [1978] 3 All ER 540



6. Detention

*PACE s30 and ss 34-45



7. Questioning and Treatment of Prisoners in Detention

*PACE ss 53-64 (and Code of Practice for the Detention, Treatment and Questioning of Persons by Police Officers - Code C)



8. The Right to Silence

R v Smith [1993] AC 1

Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, ss 34-37

Brown v Procurator Fiscal, Dunfermline The Times 14th February 2000 (High Court of Justiciary)

Stott (Procurator Fiscal, Dunfermline ) v Brown The Times 6th December 2000 (Privy Council)



9. Fairness (in brief)

**PACE S78

*S v Switzerland (1992) 12 EHRR 670

Williams & Another [1993]3 All ER 365

Smurthwaite & Gill [1994] 1 All ER 898

*Loveland, "Back to the Future?" New Law Journal 11th August 2000

Hardwicke & Thwaites Lawtel Doc C0100180; The Times 16th November 2000



10. Remedies for Abuse of Police Powers (in brief)

Bradley & Ewing, pp 561-570

Abassy v Commissioner of Police [1990] 1 All ER 193