LAW MODERATIONS 2000 - 2001 CRIMINAL LAW

TUTORIAL ONE: THE ELEMENTS OF CRIME



Concepts: actus reus - conduct, consequences, circumstances.

range of offences; scope of criminal liability; conditions of criminal liability

mens rea - intention, recklessness, negligence. Strict Liability. doli incapax.

Coincidence of mens rea and actus reus ? Transferred Malice.



Article:- Tur, "Subjectivism and Objectivism: Towards Synthesis" in Action and Value in the Criminal Law, eds Shute, Gardner & Horder, pp 213-237), esp p 226**



Proof of mens rea ****Woolmington [1935] AC 462

Articles: *Roberts [1995] Crim L R 783-798

***Ashworth & Blake [1996] Crim L R 306-312 **R v Lambert; R v Ali; R v Jordan The Times 5th September 2000



actus reus (omissions) **Fagan v MPC [1969] 1 QB 439

***Miller [1982] Crim L R 526; [1983] 2 AC 161



mens rea (general) **Tolson (1989) 23 QBD 168

***Prince [1874-80] All E R 881

Sherras v de Rutzen [1895] 1QB 918, **921



Intention ***Criminal Justice Act, 1967 section 8

***Steane [1947] KB 447

**Moloney [1985] AC 905; [1985] Crim LR 378

**Hancock and Shankland [1986] AC 455

Nedrick (1986) 83 Cr App Rep 267

Hawkins [1993] Crim LR 888 (***Commentary)

**Woollin [1999] AC 92 (HL)

Articles:

**G Williams, "Oblique Intent" [1988] CLJ 417

J C Smith, "A Note on Intention" [1990] Crim LR 85

A P Simister & W Chan, "Intention Thus Far" [1997] Crim L R 704

N Lacey, "A Clear Concept of Intention: Elusive or Illusory?" (1993) 56 MLR 621

J Horder, "Intention in Criminal Law - a Rejoinder" (1995) 58 MLR 678

**N Lacey, "In(de)terminable Intentions" (1995) 58 MLR 592

**A. Norrie, "After Woollin" [1999] Crim LR 532

Recklessness ***Cunningham [1957] 2 QB 396

*Stephenson [1979] 2 All E R 1198

Parker [1977] 2 All E R 37

****Caldwell [1982] AC 341

*Lawrence [1981] 1 All E R 974

**Elliot v C [1983] 2 All E R 1005

***Stephen Malcolm R (1984) 79 Cr App Rep 334

***Shimmen [1986] Crim L R 800; (1987) 84 Cr App Rep 7

**Gardiner [1994] Crim L R 455

*Parsons [1993] Crim L R 793

****Reid (1992) 95 Cr App R L R 391; [1992] Crim L R 814



Negligence Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks (1856) 11 Exch 781

Hudson [1966] 1 QB 448

S. 2A Road Traffic Act 1988

****Adomako [1994] Crim L R 757





Strict Liability **Larsonneur (1933) 149 LT 542; (1932-34) 24 Cr App Rep 74

***Sweet v Parsley [1970] AC 132 Alphacell v Woodward [1972] AC 824

Gibson and Sylveire [1990] Crim L R 738; [1990] QB 619.

National Rivers Authority v Empress Car Co [1999] 2 AC 22

***Marsh [1997] 1 Cr App Rep 67

***B v DPP [2000] 1 All ER 833



doli incapax C v DPP [1994] Crim LR 523

***C (a minor) v DPP [1995] Crim LR 801; [1996] 1 AC 1

Crime and Disorder Act 1998 s34



Coincidence of mens rea and actus reus ? *Thabo Meli [1954] 1 W L R 228

*Gallagher [1963] AC 349, 382

**Article: Horder 1995 Crim L R 759-770



**Transferred Malice *Latimer (1886) 17 QBD 359

*Pembliton (1874) L R 2 CCR 119





ESSAYS



Explain what is meant by (a) intentional; (b) reckless; (c) negligent behaviour in English criminal law. Ought such terms to be defined as a matter of law or left to the jury as a matter of fact?



Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea - no act is punishable unless it is performed with a criminal mind. Discuss, with special reference to strict liability, coincidence of mens rea and actus reus, and transferred malice.