LAW MODS/FHS - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (8 lectures Mon & Tue at noon, weeks 1-4 HT 2001)

LECTURES ON PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY - INTRODUCTORY NOTES

R. H. S. Tur, Oriel College

The doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty is a dominant and characteristic feature of English Constitutional Law and Theory. The first lecture is chiefly devoted to illustrating just how extensive are the legislative powers of Parliament. In the remaining seven lectures six different formulations of the doctrine are stated and subjected to critical analysis, and a summary of conclusions is offered at the end of the eighth lecture. The eight lectures are intended to hang together in a cumulative argument and the overall presentation is unashamedly jurisprudential. Lectures 5 and 6, in particular, form an integrated and unified exposition and argument.

The Six Formulations are:

1. Courts are bound to apply Acts of Parliament and cannot pronounce on their constitutionality or validity.

2. Courts are bound to apply Acts of Parliament; enacted in proper form, and cannot pronounce on their constitutionality or validity.

3. Courts are bound to apply properly made Acts of Parliament, according to their meaning.

4. Parliament is omnipotent.

5. Parliament cannot bind its successors.

6. Sovereignty is "illimitable" and/or "indivisible".



The lectures adopt a critical, even hostile, stance towards the doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty. The doctrine does not seem as solidly founded in legal authority, actual practice, or philosophical argument, as its pre-eminent position in constitutional theory would warrant. My approach and conclusions are less unorthodox in 2000 than they would have been even 20 years ago. There is now an impressive reaction to the historical, philosophical and jurisprudential criticisms like those which I advance in Jeffrey Goldsworthy, The Sovereignty of Parliament (1999) My inclusion and treatment of Formula Three (especially D3) where I argue that such is the nature of the law creating and law applying enterprise that no one organ can speak exclusively for the people or for eternity may strike some as unorthodox. I conclude therefore that the traditional account of Parliamentary Sovereignty distorts and obscures the subtlety and sophistication of the inter-relation of the judiciary and the legislature. My treatment of the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th Formulations, though I occasionally use unorthodox arguments, is orthodox in its conclusions, though my treatment of Parliament "binding" its successors [F5] has not, so far as I know, been fully developed elsewhere. My treatment of Formula one may reflect a Scotsman's view of the Acts of Union in opposition to that of such brilliant English commentators as Maitland (see Lord Denning M.R. in Blackburn v. A.G. [1971] 1 W.L.R. 1037, 1040). See, now, MacCormick, Questioning Sovereignty (1999) Chap 4 and Lord Hoffmann in R v SoS for Home Dept ex p Simms [1999] 3 All ER 400 both of which are essential reading.



No one text-book restates all the points made and arguments used in these lectures but Geoffrey Marshall's excellent Constitutional Theory (1971) treats the issues in a manner broadly sympathetic to my own and I recommend it very highly. I now also recommend Nolan and Sedley, The Making and Remaking of the British Constitution (1997) Bogdanor, Power and the People (1997) and MacCormick, Questioning Sovereignty (1999). Andrew Marr, Ruling Britannia (1995) and Jonathan Freedland, Bring Home the Revolution (1999), especially Chaps 8 & 9, are useful and accessible general and populist works. Jeffrey Goldsworthy, The Sovereignty of Parliament: History and Philosophy (1999) attempts to respond to modern criticisms of the traditional doctrine.

I append a combined analytical outline of the lecture course and an Inventory of References which is NOT presented as a reading list, but as an aid to note-taking and a guide to those who might wish to follow up any of the points made in these lectures. Important sources and materials are indicated throughout by the use of asterisks.



This course of lectures, though the material is detailed and the arguments sometimes sophisticated, is presented so as to be accessible to beginners in legal studies, but not least because of its jurisprudential dimensions, it is also suited to the needs of senior status students taking Constitutional Law for the Final Honour School, and whilst it is presented primarily as a contribution to the teaching of Constitutional Law, parts (especially lectures 5 and 6) are relevant, too, to Introduction to Law.



The objectives of this course of lectures include: - Delivering data central to an understanding of Constitutional Law. - Reviewing the broad sweep of constitutional history. - Explaining fundamental notions and issues in Constitutional Law and Theory, e.g. Sovereignty, the Rule of Law, democracy, devolution, and the protection of human rights. - Encouraging a theoretical and critical perspective. - Developing an awareness of the role of law in society and of the importance of moral and political issues. - Assessing the democratic credentials of the British Constitution and the options for change.



By the end of this course of lectures students should be able to: Assess alternatives to the scheme adopted by the Human Rights Act, 1998 for incorporating the ECHRFF into domestic law. Evaluate the importance of the doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty and the impact of EC law and of the ECHRFF. Appreciate the role and interrelation of the legislature and the courts in the law-making process. Understand the political and personal consequences of constitutional institutions and arrangements. Recognise that even established doctrines are open to revision.







INVENTORY OF REFERENCES AND ANALYTICAL OUTLINE OF LECTURES



LECTURE 1 PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY ILLUSTRATED

F.W. Maitland, The Constitutional History of England, pp. 297-306

James Bryce, Studies in History and Jurisprudence, esp. Vol. II

* Ivor Jennings, The Law and the Constitution, Chap. IV S 2

* Vernon Bogdanor, Power and the People, Chap. 1 (pp 11-21)

Interpretation Act, 1889

Sex Discrimination Act, 1975

A.V. Dicey, An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, pp. 39-40

* Union with Scotland Act, 1707

** A V Dicey, Thoughts on the Union Between England and Scotland, pp 239; 242-243; 252; 253-4

Union with Ireland Act 1800

Ireland Act 1949

* Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973, s. 1

Universities (Scotland) Act 1853

John F. Kennedy Memorial Act 1964

Anglo-German Agreement Act 1890

Island of Rockall Act 1972

Kenya Independence Act 1963

Mauritius Independence Act 1968

Kiribati Act 1979

Zimbabwe Act 1979

Canada Act 1982, ss. 1 & 2

Australia Act 1986

** Statute of Westminster, 1931

* Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865

Government of Ireland Act 1920

** Scotland Act 1978 (repealed); Scotland Act 1998

Representation of the People Acts, 1832, 1867,1884,1918, 1928, 1948, 1949, 1969,1974, 1976, 1979, 1980, 1983, 1989, 1990, 1991,1993, ......etc

* Parliament Acts, 1911, 1949

* House of Lords Act 1999

The Honourable Lady Hylton Foster's Annuity Act1965

Matrimonial Causes Act 1857

Defence of the Realm Acts, 1914-15

Indemnity Act 1920

War Charges Validity Act 1925

Enemy Property Act 1953

Gold Standard (Amendment) Act 1931, s.1(2)

National Economy Act 1931, s. 1(1), esp. s.(1(1)(d)

* European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; Human Rights Act 1998

Blackstone, Commentaries

J Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights, p 270

Lon L. Fuller, The Morality of Law, p. 59; p. 53

Madzimbamuto v. Lardner Burke [1969] 1AC645

Adams v. Adams (A.G Intervening) [1971] P. 188

Southern Rhodesia Act 1979, s. 3(1)(b)

Zimbabwe Act 1979

* Burmah Oil Co. v. Lord Advocate [1965] A.C. 75

War Damages Act 1965

Malloch v. Aberdeen Corporation [1971] 2 All E.R. 1278

Education (Sc) Act 1946 as amended

Education (Sc) Act 1973

Unger, Law in Modern Society, pp 192-216

Babington, The Rule of Law in Britain, Ch 24

E P Thompson, Whigs and Hunters, p 267; p 265

Hijacking Act 1971

Herring Fisheries (Sc) Act 1889

Mortensen v. Peters (1906) 8 F. (J) 93

Taking of Hostages Act 1982

Criminal Justice Act (section 134(1))

LECTURE 2 THE NEGATIVE ASPECT OF PARLIAMENTARY SOVEREIGNTY

1 The Methodological Basis of these lectures

Calvert, Constitutional Law in Northern Ireland

Popper, Conjectures and Refutations

Wade & Phillips, Constitutional and Administrative Law (Bradley ed.), p. 59

Heuston, Essays in Constitutional Law, p. 7

2. The Concept of Legal Obligation

Leroux v. Brown (1852) 12 C.B. 801

Gilks [1972] 3 All E.R. 280

Hayes (1976) 64 Cr. App. Rep. 82

Mainwaring (1981) 74 Cr. App. Rep. 99

Glanville Williams, Textbook of Criminal Law, 1st edn., p.710; 2nd edn., p. 752

Smith, The Law of Theft, S 70

Education Act 1944

Watt v. Kesteven C.C. [1955] 1 Q.B. 408



B. FORMULA ONE

Keir and Lawson, Cases in Constitutional Law

Middleton v. Anderson 1842 4 D[unlop] 957, 1010

Magistrates of Dumbarton v. Magistrates of Glasgow Nov 19 1771 F.C.

* Lee v. Bude and Torrington Ry. Co. (1871) L.R. 6 C.P. 577, 582

* Edinburgh & Dalkeith Ry. v. Wauchope (1842) 8 Cl. & F. 710; 8 E.R. 279

Mortensen v. Peters (1906) 8 F[raser] (J) 93, 100

R. v. Jordan [1967] Crim. L. Rev. 483

** Pickin v. B.R.B. [1974] 2 A.C. 765

Race Relations Act 1968

* Manuel v. A.G. [1982] 3 W.L.R. 821

1. Was Parliament Born Unfree?

A V Dicey, Thoughts on the Union Between England and Scotland, p 247

** MacCormick, Questioning Sovereignty, Ch 4

Gibson v. L.A. (1975) S.L.T. 134

Laughland v. Wansborough Paper Co. (1921) 1 S.L.T. 341, 345

** MacCormick v. L.A. 1953 S.C. 396

Royal Titles Act 1953

Pringle (Petitioner) 1991 SLT 330

* Ian R. Hamilton Q.C., A Touch of Treason (1990) Ch. 7

* A V Dicey, Thoughts on the Union Between England and Scotland, pp 274

* Vernon Bogdanor, Power and the People, pp 49-52

* Scotland's Parliament (July 1997 Cmnd 3658)

* Scotland Bill (18 December 1997)

** Scotland Act 1998

2. The Argument From Natural Law

** Lee v. Bude & Torrington Junction Ry. Co. (1871) L.R. 6 C.P. 576

Bonham's Case (1610) 8 Coke's Reports 114, 118

Thomas v. Sorrell (1674) Vaughan 330

The Prince's Case (1606) 8 Coke's Reports 481

R. v. Love (1653) 5 S.T. 43, 172

3. The Human Rights Argument

Birdi v. Sec. of State for Home Affairs (1975) 119 Sol. J. 322

Pan-American World Airways Ltd. v. Dept. of Trade [1976] Lloyd's Reps. 257, 261



LECTURE 3

4. The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

* The Human Rights Bill (1997)

* Rights Brought Home: The Human Rights Bill (October 1997 Cmnd 3782)

* Lord Irvine, "The Development of Human Rights in Britain Under an Incorporated Convention on Human Rights" (16 December 1997 - http://www.open.gov.uk/lcd/speeches/tomsarg.htm)

Lord Scarman, Human Rights (Lecture Swansea, March 6, 1986)

Claire Palley, The United Kingdom and Human Rights (London, 1991)

Golder's Case European Court 2lst Feb 1975 Series A, Vol. 18

* A.G. v. Times Newspapers Ltd. [1974] A.C. 273; (1979) 2 E.H.R.R. 245

* A.G. v. English [1982] 3 W.L.R. 278 (1982) 132 New Law Journal 693-694

R. v. Miah [1974] 1 W.L.R. 683, 694

R. v. Home Secretary ex p. Bhajan Singh [1976] Q.B. 198, 207-208

R. v. Chief Immigration Officer, ex p. Salamat Bibi [1976] 3 All E.R. 843, 847-848

R. v. Sec. of State for Home Affairs, ex p. Phansopkar [1975] 3 All E.R. 497

Pan-American World Airways Inc. v. Dept. of Trade (1976) 1 Lloyd's Rep. 257

R v R [1992] 1 AC 599

S.W. v. United Kingdom; C.R. v. United Kingdom (1995) 21EHRR 363

* Sir John Laws, "Is the High Court Guardian of Fundamental Constitutional Rights ?"

1993 Public Law 59-79

S v Switzerland (1992) 14 EHRR 670

* R v DPP ex p Kebiline [1999] 3 WLR 972

5. International Law

* Cheney v. Conn [1968] 1 All E R 779 782

Mortensen v. Peters (1906) 8 F. (J) 93

Herring Fisheries (Sc) Act 1889

I.R.C. v. Colles Dealings Ltd [1962] AC 1

6. Conclusions

John Austin, Province of Jurisprudence Determined (Hart ed.) p. 185

* Wade, "The Basis of Legal Sovereignty" 1955 C.L.J. 172-197, 187

7. Subordinate Legislation

Wade & Phillips (Bradley ed.) Constitutional and Administrative Law p. 60

Stockdale v. Hansard (1839) 9 A. & E. 1

Case of Proclamations (1606) 2 St. Tr. 371

Hoffman La-Roche v. Sec. of State for Trade and Industry [1975] A.C. 295

Kruse v. Johnson [1898] 2 Q.B. 91

Mackenzie v. Stewart (1754) Pat. App. 578

Edinburgh & Dalkeith Ry. Co. v. Wauchope (1842) 8 E.R. 279

Statute Law (Repeals) Acts, 1969, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, ... etc.

Pickin v. B.R.B. [1974] 2 A.C. 765

* R v SoS for Soc. Sec. ex p Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants [1996] 4 All ER 385



LECTURE 4

C. FORMULA TWO

* Latham, The Law and the Commonwealth (1949) P. 523

Salmond, Jurisprudence

H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law

Hans Kelsen, General Theory of Law and State; Pure Theory of Law

The Declaratory Act 1766

* Heuston, Essays in Constitutional Law, p. 8

Bowles v. Bank of England [1913] 1 Ch. 57

Provisional Collection of Taxes Act 1968

The Prince's Case (1606) 8 Coke's Rep. 481

* R. v. Military Governor, N.D.U. Internment Camp [1924] 1 IR B2

* Harris v. Minister of the Interior 1952 (2) S.A. 429

South Africa Act 1909

* Attorney-General for New South Wales v. Trethowan [1932] A.C. 526

Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865

Belfast Corporation v. O.D. Cars Ltd. [1960] AC 490

Bradlaugh v. Gossett (1884) 12 Q.B.D. 271

R v Secretary of State for Education and Science, ex p Avon CC [1991] 1 QB 558

* The Bribery Commission v. Ranasinghe [1965] A.C. 172

Ashby v. White (1703) 14 St. Tr. 695

Regency Acts, 1937-53

Parliament Acts, 1911 & 1949

Northern Ireland Constitution Acts, 1973, s. 1

Anisminic v. Foreign Compensation Commission [1969] 2 A.C. 147

Lord Denning, The Misuse of Power

Provisional Collection of Taxes Act 1968

Statute of Westminster, 1931, s. 4

Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973, s. 1

Mirfield, "Can the House of Lords Lawfully be Abolished?" (1979) 95 M.L.R. 36-58

H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law pp. 51-76; 144-150

Marshall, Constitutional Theory pp. 43-57

Dickinson, "Severing the Legislative Link - Some Reflections on the Canada Act 198l" (1982) 132 New L.J. 777-780



LECTURES 5 & 6

D. FORMULA THREE

** Human Rights Act 1998 s 3(1)

Wade & Phillips, Constitutional and Administrative Law (Bradley ed.) p. 59

Heuston, Essays in Constitutional Law, p. 7

John Austin, The Province of Jurisprudence Determined

H.L.A. Hart, The Concept of Law

1. The Concept of Meaning

Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking Glass, Ch 6

H.L.A. Hart, "Formalism and Rule-Scepticism" The Concept of Law, Chap. VII

R. M. Unger, Law in Modern Society p. 196 and 192-216

"Is Alec a Rapist?" in John Sutherland, Is Heathcliff a Murderer? pp 202-212

Lord Denning, The Discipline of Law; Due Process of Law

Twining and Miers, How to Do Things with Rules

Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593

Farrar, Introduction to Legal Method

United Biscuits v. Fall [1979] I.R.L.R. 110

Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974 s. 13(1); s. 15(b)

Express Newspapers v. McShane [1980] 2 W.L.R. 89

Duport Steel v. Sirs [1980] 1 All E.R. 529

Employment Act 1980

Employment Act 1982

2. The Rules of Interpretation & Construction

R. v. Inhabitants of Ramsgate (1827) 6 B. & C. 712

R. v. The Judges of the City of London Court [1892] 1 Q.B. 273, 290

Hill v. East & West India Dock Co. (1884) 9 App. Cas. 448

Vacher & Son v. London Society of Compositors [1913] A.C. 107, 121-2

Becke v. Smith (1836) 2 M. & W., 195

River Weir Commissioners v. Adamson (1877) 2 App. Cas. 743, 764-5

Heydon's Case (1584) 3 Coke's Rep. 7a

Edwards v. Attorney-General for Canada [1930] A.C. 124, 136-7

Seaford Court Estates v. Asher [1949] 2 K.B. 481 [1950] 1 All E.R. 1081, 1029

Rent Act 1920

Magor and St. Mellors R.D.C. v. Newport Corporation [1951] 2 All E.R. 839

Cooper v. Wandsworth Board of Works (1863) 143 E.R. 414

Nimmo v. Alexander [1968] A.C. 107, 130

Kammins v. Zenith Investments Ltd. [1971] A.C. 850, 851

Renton Committee Report on Preparation of Legislation (1975) Cmnd. 6053

Hobbes, Leviathan (Everyman ed.) p. 146

Theft Acts 1968 & 1978

** Corocraft v. Pan-American Airways [1968] 2 All E.R. 1059, 1071

3. Two Examples:

(a) "Obstruction";

Popper, Conjectures & Refutations, p. 317

Prevention of Crimes Act 1871 s. 12

Police Act 1964 s. 51(3)

Police (Sc) Act 1967 s. 41(1)(c)

Police (Sc) Act 1956 s. 24

Curlett v. McKenzie (1938) Sc (JC) 176

Betts v. Stevens [1910] 1 K.B. 1

Hincliff v. Sheldon [1955] 3 All E.R. 406

Duncan v. Jones [1936] 1 K.B. 218

Rice v. Connolly [1966] 2 Q.B. 414

R. v. Lemmon [1978] 3 W.L.R. 404

(b) "Recklessness"

Cording v. Hulse [1955] 1 Q.B. 63, 70

Road Traffic Act 1972 s. 2

Allan v Patterson (1980) S.L.T. 77

R. v. Murphy [1980] Crim. L.R. 309

J.W.R. Gray, "The High Road and the Low Road" 1980 S.L.T. (News) 137

Caldwell [1981] 1 All E.R. 961

Lawrence [1981] 1 All E.R. 974

4. Judicial Attitudes

* Geoffrey Marshall, Constitutional Theory, p. 86

Anisminic v. Foreign Compensation Commission [1969] 2 A.C. 147

* H.W.R. Wade, Administrative Law, 4th ed. p. 573

* Griffith, The Politics of The Judiciary, Chap. 3

Congreve v. Home Office [1976] Q.B. 629

Friedmann, Legal Theory 2nd ed. p. 311

* Jaffe, English and American Judges as Law-makers, p. 20; p. 19

* Lord Devlin, "Judges and Law-makers" (1976) 39 M.L.R. 15

Corocraft v. Pan-American Airways [1968] 2 All E.R. 1059, 1071

5. Doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty - statement of fact or statement of value?

** Duport Steels v. Sirs [1980] 1 All E.R. 529 esp. Lord Diplock 541-542

Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974 s. 13(1); s. 15(b)

Express Newspapers v. McShane [1980] 2 W.L.R. 89

Employment Act 1980

** Lord Denning, The Misuse of Power



LECTURE 7

E. FORMULA FOUR

1. Democracy, Consent, Acquiescence

Industrial Relations Act 1971

Employment Act 1982

Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy

Lord Haisham, The Dilemma of Democracy, pp. 9-11, 20-1, 46, 127

Hans Kelsen, "Foundations of Democracy" (1955) LXVI Ethics, Sup. Vol. pp. 1-101

Hans Kelsen, "Democracy and Socialism", Conference on Jurisprudence and Politics, April 30, 1954 at the Law School, Uni. of Chicago, Conference Series No. 15, pp 63-87, (Chicago, 1955)

Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York, 1992)

* Sir John Laws, "Law and Democracy" 1995 Public Law 73-93

* Sir Stephen Sedley, "Human Rights: a Twenty-First Century Agenda" 1995 Public Law 386-401

R v Secretary of State for Home Dept ex p The Fire Brigade Union [1995] 2 All ER 464

* Vernon Bogdanor, Power and the People, Chap. 5 (pp 120-148)

* Andrew Marr, Ruling Britannia, Ch 1



2. Common Law and Equity

Judicature Acts 1873-1875

Bonham's Case (1610) 8 Co Rep 114, 118

Hill v Parsons [1971] 3 All ER 1345, 1359

Coke, Institutes vol IV p 37; p 41

Blackstone, Commentaries vol I p 90

3. "Ouster Clauses"

Wade, Administrative Law, 4th ed. 566-574

* Lord Denning, The Discipline of Law, 63-77

* R. v. Medical Appeal Tribunal, ex p. Gilmore [1957] 1 Q.B. 574

Smith's Case (1670) 1 Vent. 66

Exp. Bradlaugh (1878) 3 Q.B.D. 509

Tribunals and Inquiries Act 1971, s. 14

County Courts Act 1959, s. 107

* Anisminic v. Foreign Compensation Commission [1969] 2 A.C. 147

Foreign Compensation Act 1950 s. 4(4)

Times (Letters to the Editor) 1st & 4th Feb. 1969

776 H.C. Debates, Col. 568

229 H.L. Debates, Cols. 16, 640

* David Hume, "Of Some Remarkable Customs" in Essays (Oxford, 1963) pp. 375-6

Holmes-Laski Letters Vol. ii p. 1372



F. FORMULA FIVE

1. Parliament born Unfree?

* A V Dicey, Thoughts on the Union Between England and Scotland, pp 252-254

2. Manner and Form

Parliament Act 1911 & 1949

3. Theory and Practice

* British Coal Corporation v. The King [1935] A.C. 500

Dixon J., "The Law and the Constitution" (1935) 51 LQR 611

Statute of Westminster, 1931, s. 4; s. 2

(1982) 132 New Law Journal, pp. 777-778

(1986) 135 New Law Journal 401-404

* Geoffrey Marshall, Constitutional Theory, p. 62

* Ndlwana v. Hofmeyer 1937 A.D. 229, 237

4. Implied Repeal

Dean of Ely v. Bliss (1842) 5 Beav. 574, 582

The Acquisition of Land (Assessment of Compensation) Act 1919 s. 7(1)

The Housing Act 1925

* Vauxhall Estates Ltd. v. Liverpool Corporation [1932] 1 K.B. 733

* Ellen Street Estates v. Ministry of Health [1934] 1 K.B. 590, 597

Malloch v. Aberdeen Corporation [1971] 2 All E.R. 1278

The Public School Teachers (Scotland) Act 1882 s. 3

Education Act 1946

** Nairn v. University Court of St. Andrews 1909 SC (HL) 10

Representation of the People Act 1868, s. 27

Universities Elections Amendment (Scotland) Act 1881 s. 2(3)

Universities (Scotland) Act 1889, s. 14

Interpretation Act 1889 s. l(l)(a)

The Earl of Antrim's Petition [1967] 1 AC 691

* Neil McCormick, Questioning Sovereignty Ch 6

5. Rules binding on Successor Parliaments and the concept of obligation

Maitland, Constitutional History of England, p 332

H.L. Debates Vol. 210 col. 1990; April 30th , 1872

H.L. Debates Vol. 214 col. 1738; March 11th, 1873

A V Dicey, Thoughts on the Union Between England and Scotland, pp 253-4

LECTURE 8

6. A Bill of Rights?

** Laws, "Is the High Court the Guardian of Fundamental Constitutional Rights?" 1993 PL 57

** Derbyshire v Times [1993] AC 534

Drybones [1970] SCR 282

* Zander, A Bill of Rights?

Ellen Street Estates v. Minister of Health [1934] 1 K.B. 590, 597

Representation of the People Act 1868

Nairn v. University Court of St. Andrews 1909 SC (HL) 10

L. Scarman, Human Rights (Lecture at Swansea March 6, 1986)

Human Rights Bill, 1986

Lord Browne-Wilkinson, "The Infiltration of a Bill of Rights" 1992 Public Law 397-410

Lord Lester, "A Human Rights Bill", New Law Journal, Feb 3, 1995 pp 141-142, and 145

Guerra v Baptiste, The Times, November 8, 1995; [1995] 4 All ER 583

The Human Rights Bill (1997)

* Rights Brought Home: The Human Rights Bill (October 1997 Cmnd 3782)

* Lord Irvine, "The Development of Human Rights in Britain Under an Incorporated Convention on Human Rights" (16 December 1997 - http://www.open.gov.uk/lcd/speeches/tomsarg.htm)

*** Human Rights Act 1998



G. FORMULA SIX

1. European Economic Communities

Warner, (1977) L.Q.R. 349

Blackburn v. Attorney General [1971] 1 W.L.R. 1037, 1039

R. v. Miah [1974] 1 W.L.R. 683, 694

Internationale Handelgesellschaft (1972) 11 C.M.L.R. 255, 283

Costa v. E.N.E.L. 1964 Eur. Ct. Rep. 585, 593

I.R.C. v. Collco Dealings Ltd [1962] AC 1

European Communities Act 1972

Human Rights Bill, 1986, clause 4.

H.P. Bulmer v. Bollinger S.A. [1974] Ch. 401

Maccarthys Ltd v. Smith [1981] 1 All ER 111

R. v. Sec. of State for Transport ex p. Factortame [1989] 3 C.M.L.R. 1

** R. v. Sec. of State for Transport ex p. Factortame (No.2) [1990] 3 WLR 818(ECJ) & 856(HL)

Gravells [1989] PL 568; 1991 PL 180

Barav (1990) 140 New L.J. 896-899

** Oliver, "Fishing on the Incoming Tide" 1991 MLR 442

* Neil MacCormick, Questioning Sovereignty Chs 6 & 7

2. Common Law versus Statute Law?

* J. Raz, Practical Reason and Norms, p. 130

"The Common Law as an Ultimate Constitutional Foundation" 31 Australian Law Journal 240

Middleton v. Anderson (1842) 4 D 957, 1010

3. General Conclusions

* Neil MacCormick, Questioning Sovereignty Ch 8

Jeffrey Goldsworthy, The Sovereignty of Parliament Chs 9 & 10