The SGML Users Group is an informal pressure group with (as yet) a fairly small membership drawn largely from software vendors, universities and the publishing industry. It distributes a useful Newsletter containing SGML-related news, product annoucements etc., organises regular meetings, of which this was presumably typical and is entitled to sell standards documents at a knock- down price to members only.
Nigel Bray, md of the British end of a Dutch software house consultancy called MID Information Logistics Group Ltd, spoke first. MID distribute and support Datalogics products, which are targetted on large scale publishing requirements, typically involving lots of pictures, publications often derived from an online database and much revision. He described in some detail products called WriterStation and Pager and gave an overview of the production process using such systems. WriterStation is a conventional word processor running under MS/DOS except that it knows about document type definitions (DTDs) against which it validates input, inserting SGML tags as appropriate, and which are also used by its context-sensitive editor. The DTD for a given application is held in a sort of runtime module called the type definition file; a similar runtime file is used to provide a viewing format for the text. The latter uses only standard PC facilities and is thus some way short of WYSWYG, but still provides helpful (and tag-free) visual feedback to the user. It does not support any character set other than the standard IBM set. Pager is a batch pagination system, which can integrate text produced by WriterStation with graphic images of all kinds via a GREP look-alike rather optimistically described as an "omniscient conversion system". This lead to some discussion of the problems of converting from other typesetting markups to SGML (a process the chairman characterised as "fundamentally akin to alchemy") and much bickering from the floor about how (for example) such systems could possibly handle tables and diagrams. In conclusion, Bray remarked that a typical system should support input and maintenance of text via SGML workstations into a database management system (he mentioned particularly DM and Oracle), which could provide job tracking and page control facilities as well as the ability to restructure text into different presentations. Publication on paper or even on CD-ROM was no longer seen as the primary purpose of such systems.
This was followed by an intriguing (if rather pointless) discussion about the feasibility of using SGML to mark up mathematical text in a meaningful way given by Paul Ellison from Exeter University's Computing Centre. He is active on the BSI Technical Committee dealing with text and office systems, which is currently reviewing among other things Clause (i.e. chapter) 8 of the current ISO Technical Reference paper 9573 Techniques for using SGML. This aims to produce a DTD capable of dealing with mathematics. He began (as SGML presentations tend to) by attempting to answer the question "Why not use TeX?", immediately conceding that if the object of the exercise was a document in the house-style preferred by the American Math Society, there was really nothing to be gained by not using TeX. If however continuity of markup was desired, and suitability for a syntax-directed editor, and especially if the markup was to reflect something of the computability of the mathematics, then an accurate DTD would surely be preferable, despite its verbosity, of which he gave ample illustration. As a mathematical ignoramus I was reassured to find that written mathematics contains almost as many ambiguities as written English: for example x with a little n to the right and slightly above it could mean x <power> n or x <superscript> n; and dx above dy with a line between does not represent a fraction of some sort. It was suggested that coping with this was a particular instance of something more general, dubbed by Ellison "the secretary problem" - TeX had (after all) been designed for use by mathematicians. Mike Clarke (Imperial) remarked that Mathematica provided means of solving all of these problems and could be made to generate SGML, but did not elaborate.
Over lunch, I re-met a Dutch acquaintance called Gerd Van Der Steen, formerly attached to the University of Amsterdam where he had been developing parsing systems for historical (and other) documents, who now works for the Dutch end of MID. After lunch, Martin Bryan (SOBEMAP) stepped into the breach left by the defection of one of the advertised speakers (Neil Morley) who was to have spoken on the subject "What the Publishers Association is doing about SGML". Since this appears to be "not a lot", this was not probably not too tasking; a booklet introducing the concepts of SGML had just been distributed to all PA members; unlike the American Association of Publishers no DTD specification was envisaged, but publishers were recommended to use a recently published book (by Bryan as it happens) SGML: an authors guide as a source for models. Something called a "management awareness campaign" was also underway.
The last speaker of the day, a M. Moricon from a French software house called Advanced Information Systems, had expected to be invited to speak on hypertext and SGML but (due to another last minute defection) had to prefix this with a brief rundown of events in France. The French Publishers Association had set up a working group chaired by Dominique Vignot, which had taken the AAP's DTD and translated and adapted it for the French market. Some major publishers (Lefevre, Hachette) and printers (Maury, Jouve) were known to be using SGML. The French Electricity Board was reportedly considering its use as a way of coping with the tons of documentation relating to the Nuclear Energy programme; the scientific community was also interested but not at a sufficiently high level to enforce standards. Of more interest than this third hand gossip was the remainder of the presentation in which Moricon talked about the conversion of the CSTB's Building regulations into an SGML-based hypertext. These regulations, which have statutory force in France, are being converted from printed form to an electronic database, from which they can be extracted for printing or excerpting as well as electronic browsing in a hypertext published on CD. There is about 15 Mb of running text, into which tags will be automatically introduced by a combination of YACC and LEX (rapidly) and then corrected manually (slowly). A prototype hypertext had been developed from some sample entries using Hypercard, modified in some unexplained way to support buttons in scrolling fields. The experience had shown that it was quite difficult to get trained drafters of document to understand the difference between implicit and explicit `anchorage' of sections; that SGML tagsets making extensive use of attributes required a lot of complex programming; that a DTD created with hypertext in mind was a good way of identifying all potential linkages; that SGML was useful as a way of defining data entry conventions; that because a DTD identified semantic components it was analogous to an information model.
In a final roundup of European SGML events, Martin Bryan mentioned a recent EEC-funded training session held at Ghent. SGML training should aim to satisfy three distinct groups: management, end-users and document designers. The latter group required similar skills to those needed in database design or systems analysis. A special interest group of the working group was being set up concerned with the interface between SGML and databases proper, in which I expressed an interest.