DAVID is a newly funded project in structured programming and document manipulation, based at the University of Minho's computer science department and funded by JNICT (Junta Nacional de Investigação Científica e Tecnológica: i.e. the Portuguese national research council). Its goals are to build on the department's expertise in formal methods and grammars, exploring new ways of applying them to text processing and information handling. To start the project off, they organized a three day workshop on "Algebraic document processing" in Braga last week, inviting a small number of guest speakers (myself, James Clark, and Sebastian Rahtz) to share their ideas in a pleasantly relaxed environment. There were about a dozen participants, mostly from the department itself, but also from other Portuguese universities.
I was asked to give an overview of SGML and then to describe the TEI architecture and ways of using it. I took the opportunity of reorganizing the standard TEI workshop slightly, also introducing a little more technical content than usual. Following the now-traditional account of the problems of realizing the full potential of electronic texts, I presented a version of the Gentle Introduction to SGML expanded to include all (but only) the SGML features actually used in the TEI scheme. Sebastian Rahtz followed this with a nicely contrasting account of the practical difficulties of applying SGML in the production-line world of Elsevier's journals division. Elsevier has committed itself to using SGML for the archival storage of their several hundred scientific and technical journals, using a version of the ISO 12083 dtd with various varyingly satisfactory accomodations to cope with the enormous amounts of maths, graphics etc. needed. This policy is expected to pay off in terms of re-usability, with such ventures as the Science Online database due to start next year, which will deliver full text of 300 scientific journals on the web, complete with links to relevant bibliographic databases and abstracting services, for those well-enough funded to access them, at least.
After lunch (pizza of course), I gave the traditional TEI architecture presentation, focussing rather more explicitly on the nitty gritty of its class system and how the modularity of the dtd is implemented. I then gave the document analysis presentation, followed by a group tagging exercise. This last was quite successful, unexpectedly, since the text chosen as vehicle was an obscure 17th century English political pamphlet, which several participants found linguistically rather challenging. The first day concluded with a brief account of the motivation for, and contents of, the TEI header, after which I was more than ready for a cool beer and the obligatory bacalhao.
Day two began with the audience's choice of TEI tagsets: offered a choice of TEI-ana, TEI-spoken, and TEI-lite, they plumped for the first two, which is what I duly gave them. This was a pleasant change, for me at least; in retrospect it's a great shame that I had not prepared more on the feature structure tagset, since such mention as I was able to make of it was clearly of considerable interest to this audience. I concluded my presentations with a brisk canter through available SGML tools and strategies for handling TEI texts.
James Clark then improved considerably on my superficial account of what a parser does by giving a detailed presentation of his SP parser, complete with some glimpses of its 60,000 lines of C++ code. The new version of SP implements everything defined in ISO 8879, even the silly bits. Unlike his earlier parser, sgmls, it supports multi-byte character sets such as Unicode, maintains non-ESIS information such as comments and use of white space, and also allows for modification of the concrete syntax. It is also reportedly at least twice as fast. SP is actually a general purpose C++ class library, with a well defined entity manager, and comes with a number of useful implementations; it is completely free of charge, and has already been incorporated into a number of leading SGML products (notably Technoteacher, Balise, and Microstar's SGML Author for Word).
After lunch, Sebastian Rahtz' second presentation described an ingenious approach to the rather unusual problem created by Elsevier's document management policies: the need to convert from LaTeX into SGML (rather than the more usual reverse). Authors' use of LaTeX varied so much, and LaTeX itself was so flexible, that in some cases it would be cheaper to throw away the author's source and retype it from scratch, or to throw away the TeX markup and retag it. Automatic conversions based on parser technology inevitably fell foul of the macro-processing nature of the TeX system sooner or later, and so the optimum solution seemed to be to use TeX itself to process the input, but tweak its macros so as to emit appropriate SGML tagging along with the formatted text. Probably you have to be a TeX hacker of Sebastian's expertise to even think of this solution, let alone to implement it, but it does apparently work more reliably than any of the alternatives. Sebastian also outlined various strategies for presenting maths on the web and tried very hard to persuade us that using PDF was a good idea.
Day three was mostly devoted to DSSSL, the new Document Style Specification and Semantics Language, ISO 10179. José Ramalho from Braga began with a brief overview of the contents of this important new standard, which complements the standard syntax offered by SGML with a standard way of defining its semantics. DSSSL has four components: a language and a processing model for transforming one SGML document into another; a query language called SDQL for identifying portions of an SGML document; a style language for applying formatting characteristics to an SGML document, expressed in terms of things called "flow objects"; and a powerful expression language derived from SCHEME which ties the whole thing together.
James Clark then presented his new piece of software: JADE (believed to be short for James's Awesome DSSL Engine). He began with an impressive proof of concept which involved converting the 300 pages of the DSSSL standard itself directly into RTF before our very eyes, and showing the results, but then descended (or ascended) to showing us large amounts of the code in Jade. I regret to report that my comprehension of object-oriented techniques, already somewhat overstretched, did not allow me to follow as much of this as it should: but the availability of a DSSSL style sheet for TEI texts (on which work is currently proceeding) will no doubt change this.
After lunch, Jocelyn Payne described a system he has developed called Web-o-matic, which appears to be a way of doing what most people do with CGI scripts but using object-oriented Rexx. The system is used by a do-it-yourself economic modelling web site at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. It wasn't clear to me what the point of this approach might be, but it's always nice to hear what Jocelyn is actually up to. I wonder whether he knows that at least three internet service providers use the term web-o-matic to describe their tacky home-page creating scripts?
Finally, Pedro Henriquez and José João Almeida gave an overview of their plans for the DAVID project. They have three years funding from JNICT, the Portuguese government research funding agency, to explore new techniques and ideas in textual information and processing. Their strong background in language processing, with a corresponding emphasis on representation of meaning as abstract syntax trees, together with their large resources of programming skills (they have already developed a specification language and prototyping environment called Camila, and applied it to the task of defining a `literate programming' application) clearly give them a head start (over me at least) in understanding DSSSL and applying it to new and interesting areas.
This was an unusual workshop, with a high degree of technical content in a pleasantly relaxed atmosphere. For me, it was also a comparatively painless way of finding out what the excitement about DSSSL is all about; my thanks are due to the organizers and to my co-speakers for making this an occasion to remember.Lou Burnard