Encoding the MS. skeleton

As noted above, the primary purpose of this tagset is not the transcription of entire manuscripts. The TEI scheme as defined in TEI P3 contains a satisfactory basis for such transcriptions; we have however found it necessary for our purposes to extend the standard TEI definitions slightly. These extensions are documented in this section and take the form of one additional global attribute (the range attribute discussed in section ); one additional chunk-level element (the summary element discussed in section ); and some additional phrase level elements for specialized headings and bibliographic references, discussed in sections and respectively.

The range attribute

This additional global attribute enables a consistent reference scheme to be applied to all the various parts of a manuscript description. It may be specified for any element in the manuscript description on order to indicate the folio or folios being described, in a more precise manner than is otherwise possible. The exact format used for this attribute value may vary; at the Bodleian it generally consists of the abbreviation fol.or fols. followed by a folio number, or pair of folio numbers separated by a hyphen to indicate a range. The foliation used will be defined by a foliation element (see section ), and each folio number will consist of a sheet number followed by a letter indicating recto or folio side.

In the simplest case, this attribute is used to indicate the range of some feature defined for the manuscript as a whole, such as damage: several worm holes in lower margins ]]>

More frequently, the range attribute is used to specify the location of some listed component of the manuscript, such as an illustration, or a textual subdivision of the manuscript: Fifteen Joys. Virgin and Child enthroned, adored by angels]]>

Hours of the Virgin, Use of Paris, with nine lessons at Matins; fol. 70v ruled, otherwise blank

]]> Note in the second example above the use of the summary element discussed in the next section, used here as a surrogate for the content of the standard TEI div element.

The Summary element

As noted above, a part of the purpose of this tagset is to enable the cataloguer to provide a framework within which a complete transcription of a manuscript might theoretically be embedded. With this end in view, it is recommended that major components of a manuscript be represented by discrete div, or div1 (etc) elements within front, body, or back elements representing the manuscript text itself, following the structures proposed by the TEI Guidelines (see in particular Sperberg-McQueen and Burnard, 1994, chap 6.).

Since, however, transcribing the whole of a manuscript will generally be an unachievable goal, cataloguers will often wish to summarize such textual divisions, or to provide a container within which parts of them may be transcribed. The summary element is provided for these purposes. summarizes the content of some part of a manuscript. A summary element may appear within a manuscript transcription at any point that a paragraph would be legal, but its most usual location is at the beginning of a division element. It contains a cataloguer-supplied brief description of the text that is available for transcription at this point, possibly containing explicitly quoted materials such as incipits or headings from the original, cataloguer-supplied titles, and bibliographic references, as in the following example:

Gospel Pericopes; John followed (fol. 15v) by the usual Antiphon, Versicle, Response, and Prayer, Protector in te sperantium (pr. Wordsworth, Horae Eboracenses, 32)


This element is defined as follows ]]>

Additional phrase-level elements

When this tagset is selected, some additional elements are defined as members of the global phrase class. These elements allow for more precise identification of the following three concepts already identified in the TEI core tagsets: iconographic subjects; headings of various kinds; bibliographic references.

Iconographic Subjects

It is often convenient to mark particular phrases or words which describe the subject matter of illustrations, particularly where a set vocabulary is used for these. Such phrases may also correspond with pre-existing iconographic classification schemes, such as those developed by the Iconclass project. The following element allows the cataloguer to flag such phrases explicitly wherever they may occur within a manuscript description: an iconographic term or phrase, whether the title for a whole scene (e.g. The Annunciation to the Shepherds), or a generic description (e.g. a shepherd playing bag-pipes, or bagpipes, etc.). Attributes include: specifies the alphanumeric reference code used to describe this iconography, according to the Iconclass scheme.

Here is a simple example of the use of this element:Flight into Egypt ]]>

The following, more complex, example demonstrates that the cataloguer has freedom to decide how much text to mark up as iconTerms, and how to divide up descriptive prose into smaller phrases or individual words: Burial; a priest shovelling earth onto a coffin in a grave, watched by a cleric with aspergill and aspersory, a taperer/crucifer, and mourners. ]]>

This element is defined as follows: ]]>

Incipits, headings, and other phrase level elements.

It is often necessary to distinguish titles supplied by the cataloguer from headings, incipits, and similar phrases quoted verbatim from a manuscript, as it is to distinguish all such phrases from the prose surrounding them, for example within a summary element. The following additional elements are provided for this purpose: contains an incipit, i.e. the opening words of a text contains an explicit, i.e. the closing words of a text contains a colophon contains any heading or title appearing in a manuscript contains a heraldic description: further work is needed to define the substructure of this element.

The standard TEI title element can be used for any title conferred by a cataloguer, as distinct from titles and headings actually appearing within a manuscript. For these, one of the above should be chosen, in preference to the standard TEI head element, since this may appear only at the start of the division to which it pertains. The elements listed above can appear at any point in a document.

In the following examples, ellipsis (...) is used, as is customary, to indicate words that have been omitted from the transcription

The Five Joys of the Virgin, Salutationes ad honorem beate marie, Ave cuius conceptio solempni plena gaudio ... ... auxiliatricem sentiamus. Per ... ]]>

Heraldic descriptions may appear at almost any point within a manuscript description, but are most likely to occur as a component of the provenance element described in above, as in the following examples:

A member of the Whetenhale/Whetenall family: with the arms (fol. 2r) vert, a cross ingrailed argent with a crescent for difference, perhaps of Oliver Whetenall, who became vicar of Besthorp, Norfolk, in 1445 A small red leather bookplate (fol. ir), stamped in gilt, shows a coat of arms with three fleurs de lys, a bordure with eight scallop shells, encircled by the chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece, with links composed of pairs of facing initial 'C's, surmounted by a closed crown, and flanked by two angel supporters holding banners with, and wearing, fleurs de lys, above the motto DEUS ET DIES ]]>

The colophon element is also likely to appear in the context of a provenance note, as in the following example:

Signed by the priest Dionisius de Castello, of S. Giovanni in Conca, Milan, 1464-65: dated .1464. in red ink at the end of the Hymnal (fol. 291v), and with a colophon in red ink at the end of the volume (fol. 480v): .1465. Deo. Gratias. Amen. Finis, and Istud breuiarium est presbiteri dionisij de Castello. In sancto Iohanne ad Concham mediolani porte romane intus beneficiato. manu sua propria scriptum .M.CCCClxiiijo. et finitum die sabbati .xviiijo. mensis Ianuarij. 1465. Ad honorem dei et gloriose eius matris uirginis marie. (in Milan in the fifteenth century the start of the year was reckoned from Christmas). ]]>

These elements are defined as follows ]]>

Bibliographic references

The TEI Recommendations follow standard library practice in defining, in some detail, structured elements for the representation of bibliographic records. However, these elements (bibl, biblStruct or biblFull) are not entirely appropriate for the recording of information about manuscript sources. For one thing, following standard bibliographic practice, they provide little scope for the recording of copy-specific data, such as the current location of a manuscript, or its presumed origins. We have therefore found it necessary to define a small number of additional elements for these purposes

contains the name of a place at which a manuscript was originally produced. groups information about the name and geographical location of an institution in which a manuscript is stored contains the name of a collection to which a manuscript belongs. contains the name of a location within a repository, where a manuscript is stored contains the name of a city or town at which a repository is located. contains the name of a repository or library where a manuscript is held

These additional elements are defined as members of the TEI bibliographic model class, and can therefore be included anywhere within a standard bibl element without further modification, and without the need to define a specialised element for bibliographic references to manuscripts. Other members of the same class (for example, author, title, date, and idNo (for shelf mark) may also be used, as appropriate.

This extended bibl element may be used within the sourceDesc to provide the basic bibliographic details for the manuscript being described, as in this example: France, Paris s. XVin. -XVIex. MS. Buchanan e. 10 MS. Lat. liturg. e. 31 Buchanan ]]>

The same element may be used to mark references to a manuscript elsewhere within a description:

Rt. Hon. T. R. Buchanan, probably by 1874; inscribed by him(?) in pencil 10. in the top left corner of the upper pastedown; given to the Bodleian in 1939 by his widow, Mrs. E. O. Buchanan, when it was accessioned as OxfordBodleian Library MS. Lat. liturg. e. 31; re-referenced as OxfordBodleian Library MS. Buchanan e. 10 in 1941


These elements are defined as follows ]]>