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12 Appendix 2: A TEI conformant tagset for manuscript description

12 Appendix 2: A TEI conformant tagset for manuscript description

This appendix provides a more detailed description of the TEI extensions already introduced in section 5 above. It is, of necessity, more technical than this earlier discussion, and assumes a more detailed knowledge of the TEI scheme and of the syntax of SGML on the part of the reader. In particular, it omits any discussion or explanation of SGML and of the particular element definitions which currently constitute the TEI Recommendations . (A good introductory collection of papers on the TEI is provided by Ide and Veronis (1996), and up to date information is available from the TEI's web site at http://www-tei.uic.edu/orgs/tei/)

12.1 Basic principles

The goal of this scheme is to provide a framework which the cataloguer can use to model the structure of a manuscript. Unlike, for example, the Encoded Archival Description, which models the finding aid for a manuscript, but not the manuscript itself, our DTD is intended to facilitate the production of an SGML document within which either a full transcription or a set of page images of a manuscript can be embedded, or with which such things can readily be linked. The manuscript description (as opposed to the manuscript) must therefore be treated as metadata.

A further assumption underlying our proposals is that we should depart from the proposals of the TEI only where these are demonstrably inadequate to our needs. In practice, we rely heavily on the basic structure and content of the TEI Guidelines ( Sperberg-McQueen and Burnard 1994) for the bulk of our encoding scheme. This has two implications: firstly, our manuscript description is located firmly within the existing metadata framework provided by the TEI's header; secondly, we do not here describe in any detail those parts of the TEI scheme which we use unchanged.

The TEI requires that metadata be encoded within a special element called the TEI Header (documented in chapter 5 of TEI P3). For documents which consist only of metadata (such as collections of manuscript descriptions), two mechanisms are possible: either a free standing DTD known as the Independent Header (see chapter 24 of P3) may be used, or each set of metadata may be embedded within the standard TEI <biblFull> element, which can then be used within the body of a text in the same way as the other bibliographic elements defined in the TEI scheme.

The TEI system includes a modification mechanism, which has been followed in defining the encoding scheme described here. This scheme assumes that the TEI's base tagset for prose, together with the additional tagsets for figures and for linking are in use. A TEI conformant document using this system will therefore begin with a set of declarations like the following:

 <!DOCTYPE tei.2 system 'tei2.dtd' [
   <!--  Local modifications files to incorporate ms extensions  -->
    <!ENTITY % TEI.extensions.ent  SYSTEM  'wmss.ent'>
    <!ENTITY % TEI.extensions.dtd  SYSTEM  'wmss.dtd'>
   <!ENTITY % TEI.prose 'INCLUDE'>
   <!ENTITY % TEI.figures 'INCLUDE'>
   <!ENTITY % TEI.linking 'INCLUDE'>
  ] >
These declarations associate the system files wmss.dtd and wmss.ent with the parameter entities TEI.extensions.dtd and TEI.extensions.ent respectively, as further discussed in chapter 4 of TEI P3. The following kinds of modification are accomplished by these declarations: At present, we have found no need to remove any of the element definitions included in the TEI prose base extended by the additional tagsets for linking and images.

12.2 The Manuscript Statement

The manuscript statement is embedded as a further alternative component of the <sourceDesc> element, within an otherwise unmodified <teiHeader> element. The <mssStmt> element (by analogy with <recordingStmt>) contains a full description of a manuscript, that is, any object bearing handwriting or inscription. A description should be distinguished from a transcription or an edition: although it may mimic the structure of the object described, and may thus serve as a skeleton for the construction of a transcription or a set of images of a manuscript, a description remains a bibliographic substitute for an object, and as such belongs within the TEI Header.

Since manuscripts in major collections are often composed of several originally quite distinct physical components, the <mssStmt> element may contain a number of distinct descriptions for component parts, as an alternative, or in addition, to the description of the whole manuscript. A distinct <mssStmt> element should be used for each such component part, and embedded within that for the manuscript as a whole. For example, the <mssStmt> for a codex made up of three medieval manuscripts of different date which have subsequently been bound together, would contain a series of elements describing the whole codex, and three embedded <mssStmt> elements, each of which describes features of its components.

Nested manuscript descriptions do not need to repeat elements which have already been specified by their parent. For example, if the <leaves> element at the outermost level of a <mssStmt> specifies that a codex contains parchment leaves, it is assumed that all of its components are parchment, unless a further <leaves> element appears within a nested <mssStmt>.

The components of the <mssStmt> element are listed below. The same component elements are used, whether the description relates to a whole manuscript or a part. If a given element appears both for a part and for a whole, information at the part level is understood to complement or over-ride information at the whole. If no information of a given kind is present at the part level, information of the same kind specified within its immediate parent <mssStmt> is applicable.

The following elements may appear within a <mssStmt> element, relating either to the whole of a manuscript, or to some distinct part within it.

The <decoration> element is used to group together information relating to decorative aspects (e.g. historiated or decorated initials, miniatures, borders etc.) of a manuscript or manuscript part. Its components and usage are discussed in section 12.2.1 . More than one such element may be provided for a given manuscript or manuscript part, in a case where there distinct `decorative campaigns' have been identified.

Each of the possibly many <dim> elements within a manuscript description defines a set of measurements for one or more of its leaves, as further discussed in section 12.2.2 .

The optional <leaves>, <foliation>, and <collation> elements and their components are further discussed in section 12.2.3 below. The <scriptDesc>, <rubrication>, and <secFol> elements and their components are further discussed in section 12.2.4 . The <provenance> and <listProvenance> element are further discussed in section 12.2.5 below. The <binding> element is further discussed below in section 12.2.6 .

The <mssStmt>element is formally defined as follows:

<!ELEMENT mssStmt - -
    ((decoration | dim | materialDesc | leaves |
    foliation | collation | scriptDesc | rubrication |          secFol | provenance | listProvenance | binding |            mssStmt)* )   >
<!ATTLIST mssStmt  %a.global
          format    (codex|roll|leaf|fragleaf|fragcodex|cutting) codex>

12.2.1 Decoration

The following elements are available within the <decoration> element. Any or all of them may be used to provide detailed information about particular decorative aspects of the manuscript or manuscript part.

All of these elements have the same sub-components: a sequence of one or more paragraphs, tagged using the TEI <p> element. Here is an example of the use of the <overview> element:

<overview><p>The decoration comprises two
full page miniatures, perhaps added by the original
owner, or slightly later; the original major decoration
consists of twenty-three large miniatures, illustrating
the divisions of the Passion narrative and the start of
the major texts, and the major divisions of the Hours;
seventeen smaller miniatures, illustrating the suffrages
to saints; and seven historiated initials, illustrating
the pericopes and major prayers.</overview>

In a manuscript with little decorative material, an overview of the above kind may be all that is needed. Often however the cataloguer may wish to describe the decoration in greater detail, using the appropriate sub-elements defined above. Whichever of these sub-elements of <decoration> are used, features will most naturally be described in the order of a descending hierarchy, based on such aspects as size, complexity, colour, or materials.

Such hierarchies may conveniently be represented using the standard TEI <list> element, embedded within a paragraph. The range attribute (discussed in section 12.3.1 below) may be used to link each component <item> to the folio on which it appears. The <iconTerm> element discussed in section 12.3.3.1 below may be used to identify particular scenes, events, persons, animals, and objects represented, as in the following example:

<MINIATURES><p>Fourteen large miniatures with arched
tops, above five lines of text:
<list>
<item range="fol. 14r">Pericopes. <iconTerm>St. John writing on
Patmos</iconTerm>, with the Eagle holding his ink-pot and pen-case;
some flaking of pigment, especially in the sky</item>
<item range="fol. 26r">Hours of the Virgin, Matins.
<iconTerm>Annunciation</iconTerm>; Gabriel and the Dove to the
right</item>
<item range="fol. 60r">Prime. <iconTerm>Nativity</iconTerm>; the
<iconTerm>Virgin and Joseph adoring the Child</iconTerm></item>
<item range="fol. 66r">Terce. <iconTerm>Annunciation to the
Shepherds</iconTerm>, one with <iconTerm>bagpipes</iconTerm></item>
</list></p>

Historiated initials may be described in much the same way, using the <historInit> element as follows:

<historInit><p>Seven historiated
initials, six or seven lines high, illustrating pericopes and prayers:
<list>
<item range="fol. 8v">Pericope of Luke. <iconTerm>St. Luke writing,
the Ox beside him</iconTerm></item>
<item range="fol. 9v">Pericope of Matthew. <iconTerm>St. Matthew
writing, the Angel holding a book open</iconTerm></item>
<item range="fol. 11r">Pericope of Mark. <iconTerm>St. Mark writing
(left-handed), the Lion beside him</iconTerm></item>
<item range="fol. 12r">Obsecro te. <iconTerm>The Virgin of the
Apocalypse</iconTerm>, holding the Christ Child, standing on a
crescent moon</item>
<item range="fol. 14v">O intemerata. <iconTerm>The Virgin reading
a book, with St. Joseph(?)</iconTerm></item>
<item range="fol. 18r">Stabat mater. <iconTerm>Pietà, in
front of the Cross</iconTerm></item>
<item range="fol. 177r">Missus est Gabriel.
<iconTerm>The Annunciation</iconTerm></item>
</list></p></historInit>
.

The distinction between historiated and decorated initials is that the former typically depict scenes, events, persons, or animals, whose representational function can be considered to be more than purely decorative, while the latter is for use where initials are decorated in a non-narrative manner. In cases of uncertainty as to whether an image was intended to have more than a purely decorative function, (for example hybrid creatures, dragons, or other similar stock motifs), the <decorInit> element should be preferred.

The following example describes a typical set of decorated (but not historiated) initials:

<decorInit><p>Four- or three-line initials in blue and
red, enclosing foliage, on a gold ground, at the start of each text
with a large miniature; two-line initals in gold, on a blue and red
ground with white tracery, to psalms, capitula, lessons, etc. and the
KL monograms in the Calendar; similar one-line initials to verses and
other minor divisions.
</p></decorInit>

An example of the use of the <minorDec> element follows. Note that this element should not be used to document such decorative aspects as the use of coloured ink for a paragraph mark, or a calligraphic flourish of the pen as part of the handwriting, which would be better described using the <rubrication> and <script> elements, respectively.

<minorDec><p>Line fillers similar to one-line initials
except that line-fillers from fol.185r-193v are of a stylistically
later type than the rest, and use only painted gold, on
an alternately blue or red square ground.</p></minorDec>

Similar considerations apply to the use of the <border>element, as in the following example:

 <borders><p>The large miniatures and the Lauds initial
surrounded by four-sided framed borders of stylised foliage on a plain
parchment ground, and variously-shaped panels of naturalistic plants
on a painted gold ground; the small miniatures and five-line
historiated initials surrounded by similar three-sided borders (in the
outer margins); similar one-sided border panels on all pages with a
two-line initial</p></borders>

The following example demonstrates the use of a <list> of distinct attributive commentaries relating to different parts of a manuscript, on which at least four main artists have worked.

<attribComm><p>At least four main artists
worked on the book, the division of their work
corresponding to the sections written by the three main
 scribes (see under Script): <list>
<item>Most of the main body of the book (up to fol.182v) was
painted and decorated in one style, having links in style and
iconography with the school of Maître Francois, although several
of the miniatures in this section have been damaged and overpainted at
a later date (e.g. the figure of Christ on fol. 33r; the face of the
Shepherdess on fol. 59v, etc.).</item>
<item>Within this first section, the miniature at the start of the
Hours of the Virgin (fol. 34v), is in another style, more suggestive
of the early 16th. cent. than the late 15th.</item>
<item>The border on fol. 184r is of the same type as those which precede, but the
facing minature appears to be by a later, less able, artist, who was
perhaps also responsible for the coat of arms on fol.184v.</item>
<item>Finally, the miniature on fol. 185r is by a hand working in the
style of Jean Bourdichon: his more sophisticated use of gold
highlights, his more subtle modelling, and his treatment of the
landscape and the framing architecture set him apart from the
miniatures which precede.</item>
</list> </p></attribComm> 

The <decoration> element and its components are defined as follows:

<!ELEMENT decoration      - - (overview?,miniatures?,historInit?,
                  decorInit?,borders?,minorDec?,attribComm?)>
<!ATTLIST decoration  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT overview         - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST overview  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT miniatures       - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST miniatures  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT historInit       - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST historInit  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT decorInit        - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST decorInit  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT borders          - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST borders  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT minorDec         - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST minorDec  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT attribComm       - - (p+)                         >
<!ATTLIST attribComm  %a.global>

12.2.2 Dimensions and areas

Manuscripts and manuscript parts may be measured in a number of different ways, using different units. Each set of measurements given for a particular part defines a distinct <dim> element, defined using the following elements.

At its simplest, a <dim> element may contain only a brief description, as in the following example:

<dim type="leaf">
<p>Ruled in red ink for 18 lines of text per page</p>
</dim>
More usually, however, the description will include measurements of height, width, or depth, or all three, using the following elements:

For each of the above elements, the following attributes may be supplied:

The following example indicates that the leaves of this manuscript range from 157 to 160 mm in height and are all 105 mm in width, while the ruled area on most pages is approximately 90 x 48 mm.

<dim type="leaf">
<height scope=range>157-160</height>
<width>105</width>
</dim>
<dim type="ruled">
<height scope=most>90</height>
<width scope=most>48</width>
</dim>

These elements are defined as follows:

<!ELEMENT dim - - (height?,width?,depth?, p*)>
<!ATTLIST dim  %a.global
          type  (leaf | ruled | pricked | written) #REQUIRED >
<!ELEMENT (height | width| depth) - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST (height | width | depth) %a.global
            unit   CDATA mm
            scope  (all | most | range)  #IMPLIED>

12.2.3 Leaves, material, foliation, and collation

Manuscripts are composed of leaves or sheets of materials such as paper or vellum, which are numbered or foliated according to one or more schemes, and which are bound together physically into one or more groups of gatherings or quires. There are various ways of expressing the arrangement of these quires, using numbers to represent each quire and the number of leaves of which it ias composed: this expression of the structure is called the collation. In this subsection we define elements which may be used to record information about each of these aspects.

12.2.3.1 Leaves

A distinction is made between the body leaves of a manuscript, and the fly leaves which may precede or follow them: a flyleaf is here defined as any leaf which was originally left completely or almost completely blank at the beginning or end of a manuscript, regardless of whether it was subsequently used for writing or decoration. The following elements are used to define them:

Attributes for both <flyLeaves> and <bodyLeaves> elements include:

For example, a manuscript containing two fly leaves, followed by 40 body leaves, and two further fly leaves might be described as follows:

<leaves>
<flyLeaves count="2"></flyLeaves>
<bodyLeaves count="40"></bodyLeaves>
<flyLeaves count="2"></flyLeaves>
</leaves>

Alternatively, more information about the leaves making up the manuscript might be supplied, using any of the following elements repeated as often as necessary to describe the materials of which leaves are composed, any watermarks associated with them, and any damage they may have suffered:

A brief description only may be given, enclosed within a paragraph tag, as in the flyleaves of the example below. More usually, at least a <material>element will be used, as in the body leaves below:

<leaves>
<flyLeaves count="ii"><p>modern paper, the first conjoint with the pastedown</flyLeaves>
<bodyLeaves count="184">
<material type="parchment"><p>Parchment, often with a marked
difference between hair and flesh sides, often with irregular edges,
arranged with the spine of the animal running
horizontally</material> </bodyleaves>
<flyLeaves count="ii"><p>modern paper, the second conjoint with the pastedown
</flyLeaves>
</leaves>
These elements are defined as follows
<!ELEMENT Leaves - - (flyLeaves?,bodyLeaves,flyLeaves?)>
<!ATTLIST Leaves  %a.global>

<!ELEMENT  (flyLeaves | bodyLeaves) - - (p | waterMark | damage | material)*>
<!ATTLIST  (flyLeaves | bodyLeaves) %a.global
            count    CDATA #REQUIRED>
<!ELEMENT (waterMark | damage | material)     - - (p*)  >
                   
<!ENTITY % materialType   "(paper|vellum|other|unknown) unknown">
<!ATTLIST material  %a.global;
                   type  %materialType; >

12.2.3.2 Foliation

The term foliation refers to the method used to number the leaves of a manuscript, in order to give each one a unique identifier. It is customary to use the same folio number for the front and back side of a leaf, distinguishing the two by addition of the words recto, for the front side, and verso for the back side (usually abbreviated to `r' and `v' respectively) should be specified. When front and back sides of a leaf are given different numbers, the manuscript is said to be paginated.

For descriptive purposes, it may be useful to record several different sets of foliation or pagination for the same manuscript. One of these must be used consistently as the reference foliation system used by the range attribute discussed in section 12.3.1

This element may simply contain a prose description enclosed in one or more paragraphs, as in the following example:

<foliation original="YES"><p>Fols. 1-34 with near-contemporary(?) ink foliation
in Arabic numerals</foliation>
<foliation original="NO"><p>
the front flyleaf and the remaining folios with modern pencil i and
35-260</foliation> 

Alternatively, more specific detail may be given using one or more of the following elements:

These elements are defined as follows

<!ELEMENT foliation - - (p|period|medium|numbering)*>
<!ATTLIST foliation  %a.global
          original (YES|NO|UNKNOWN) NO >
<!ELEMENT (period | medium | numbering) - - (%phrase.seq;)>
<!ATTLIST (period | medium | numbering) %a.global>
 

12.2.3.3 Collation

The term collation is used to describe the manner in which individual groups of leaves and bifolia are organised into quires or gatherings, including details of the sequence and size of these quires, and indications of added or missing leaves. The collation is usually expressed as a `formula'.

The following elements are provided to record collation information:

For example, the following collation description indicates that there are two distinct groups of gatherings, the first (corresponding with the modern foliation 1 to 13) being composed of a single 12 leaf gathering to which an additional leaf was added at the start; and the second (corresponding with modern folios 14 to 26) being composed of three gatherings, composed of six, four, and two leaves respectively.

<collation>
<quireGroup range="fols. 1-13">
<quireSequence leaves="12+1" N="1">1st leaf added, fol. 1</quireSequence>
</quireGroup>
<quireGroup range="fols. 14-25">
<quireSequence leaves="6" range="fols. 14-19" N="II"></quireSequence>
<quireSequence leaves="4" range="fols. 20-23" N="III"></quireSequence>
<quireSequence leaves="2" range="fols. 24-25" N="IV"></quireSequence>
</quireGroup></collation>

The quire at the start of a new <quireGroup> will normally coincide with some new physical feature, scribe, artist, etc. There is no requirement that all quires of the same size necessarily form a single <quireGroup>.

The following example indicates that the flyleaves and pastedowns at both the front and back of the volume are original; and that the main body of the MS. consists of three discernable internal groupings, each defined by the fact that textual and physical divisions of the volume correspond with one another; the first of these occupies fols. 1-138, and consists of 13 quires (quires I-XIII, fols. 1-130) each composed of 10 leaves, and one quire (quire XIV, fols. 131-138) of 8 leaves; the second textual-structural unit occupies fols. 139-238, and consists 10 quires (quires XV-XXIV), of each of 10 leaves; the third textual-structural unit occupies fols. 239-258, and consists of 2 quires (quires XXV-XXVI) each of 10 leaves:

<collation>
<p>The written leaves preceded by an original flyleaf, conjoint
with the pastedown</p>
<quireGroup>
<quireSequence leaves="10" range="fols. 1-130" n="I-XIII"></quireSequence>
<quireSequence leaves="8" range="fols. 131-138" n="XIV"></quireSequence>
</quireGroup>
<quireGroup>
<quireSequence leaves="10" range="fols. 139-238" n="XV-XXIV"></quireSequence>
</quireGroup>
<quireGroup>
<quireSequenceleaves="10" range="fols. 239-258" n="XXV-XXVI"></quireSequence>
</quireGroup>
<p>fols. 259-60 are two further original flyleaves, conjoint with two
pasted-down leaves</n>
</collation>

The <evidence> element is used to present the evidence relating to the collation. It may contain either a sequence of paragraph elements, a discussion of the inscribed marks supporting the formula, or both, using the following elements:

In the following example, the only evidence for the quire formula cited is the presence of one surviving catchword.

<evidence>
<p>a trace of a catchword survives at fol. 127v</p>
</evidence>

In the following example, more detailed evidence of catchwords is supplied:

<evidence>
<markings form="catchword" presence="most"
         position="lower centre"
         orientation="horizontal">
Catchwords are present at the end of all quires except XIV, XVI, XXIV,
and XXVI, written horizontally near the centre of the lower margin, in
the same hand as the main text, usually between two
dots</markings></evidence> 

These elements are defined as follows

<!ELEMENT collation - - (quireGroup*,evidence?)>
<!ATTLIST collation  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT quireGroup - - (quireSequence+)>
<!ATTLIST quireGroup  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT quireSequence - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST quireSequence  %a.global
          leaves  CDATA  #REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT evidence - - (markings|p)*>
<!ELEMENT markings - - (%phrase.seq;)>
<!ATTLIST markings     %a.global
            presence    (all | some)  some
             position    CDATA         #IMPLIED
             orientation (horizontal | up | down)  horizontal
             form  (catchword | quiresig | leafsig | other)
#REQUIRED>
 

12.2.4 Script, rubrication, and secundo folio

The three elements defined in this subsection are used to describe aspects of the way in which a manuscript is written: the kind of script used, the presence of any rubrication, and any identification information provided by the secundo folio.

12.2.4.1 Script

The script in which a manuscript or ms part is written may be described using the following elements. Note that the TEI Guidelines propose that a definitive list of the identified scripts or `hands' used in a manuscript should be supplied as a <handList> element within the <profileDesc> element of a standard TEI Header. The <hand> elements defined there do not however permit of the additional information proposed here; however, to retain compatibility it is recommended that <scriptNote> elements should be linked with a corresponding <hand>element (using the hand attribute on the former) wherever possible.

<scriptDesc>
<scriptNote hand=H1><p>written in a gothic liturgical bookhand in two sizes,
according to liturgical function</p></SCRIPTNOTE>
</scriptDesc>

These elements are defined as follows

<!ELEMENT scriptDesc - - (scriptNote+)>
<!ATTLIST scriptDesc  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT scriptNote - - (p+)  >
<!ATTLIST scriptNote  %a.global
          hand  IDREF  #IMPLIED>
 

12.2.4.2 Rubrication

The term rubrication is used here both literally, to refer to text written in red, and more generally to refer to any text distinguished from the surrounding script by use of colour or other marks such as paragraph marks, run over symbols etc. A description of the rubrication practice used in a manuscript or manuscript-part may be supplied using the following element:

A typical example of the use of this element might be:

<rubrication><p>headings in red, capitals touched with a yellow
wash</p></rubrication>

<rubrication>headings, occasional paragraphs and underlinings in red,
capitals touched in red; guides for rubrics often
visible</rubrication> 

This element is defined as follows:

<!ELEMENT rubrication - - (p+) >
<!ATTLIST rubrication  %a.global>

12.2.4.3 Secundo folio

In the Middle ages and beyond, a commonly used means of distinguishing one copy of a text from another was to note the words beginning at a specific point in the text, generally the start of the second leaf, since no two handwritten copies of a given text are likely to have reached exactly the same point in the text after writing both sides of the first leaf. This practice makes it possible to match surviving manuscripts in modern libraries with references to them in medieval inventories and library catalogues.

The following element is provided to enable the recording of secundo folio:

The global range attribute should be used to specify the actual location of the secundo folio in terms of the standard foliation used for the manuscript. The locus may of course be the true second folio of a whole volume, or it may ignore coeval prefatory material, or other preceding material, or it may take account of a missing first folio, etc. For example, the following <secFol> indicates that the words `venientem in' appear at the beginning of what was originally the second folio of the text part of this manuscript, but which is now the 15th leaf:
<secFol locus="Text" range="fol. 15">venientem in</secFol>

More than one element may be supplied, as in the following example. Here, the true second leaf (fol. 2r), which falls within added material, starts `te dilecto'; the second leaf of the original manuscript (fol. 5r) falls within a Calendar, and starts `KL Sporkelle'; while the second leaf of the main text of the original manuscript (fol. 18r) starts `sijn volc want':

<secFol locus="Added material" range="fol. 2r">te dilecto<secFol>
<secFol locus="Calendar" range="fol. 5r">KL Sporkelle</secFol>
<secFol locus="Text" range="fol. 18r">sijn volc want</secFol>

This element is defined as follows

<!ELEMENT secFol - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST secFol  %a.global
          locus CDATA   #IMPLIED>

12.2.5 Provenance information

The <listProvenance> element is used to group one or more <provenance> elements, usually in chronological order (most recent last).

A <provenance> element may contain a short prose note, as in this example:

<provenance><p>Perhaps made for use in Paris, and presumably still
there when bound in the late 16th-cent.; fol. 1 may have been added at
the same time</p></provenance

Alternatively, a <provenance> element may contain detailed information about (for example) the former owner of a manuscript, together with a brief summary of the evidence for this ascription, as in the following example:

<provenance><p>Rt. Hon. T. R. Buchanan probably by 1874; inscribed by him (?)
in pencil <q>10.</q> in the top left corner of the upper pastedown;
given to the Bodleian in 1939 by his widow, Mrs. E. O. Buchanan.</provenance>

A series of detailed <provenance> elements may be supplied, as in the following example:

<listProvenance>
<provenance><p>Unidentified 18th/19th-cent. owner: inscribed in black ink
in the top left corner of the upper pastedown <q>No. 12.</q>; the same
hand wrote <q>No. 19.</q> in the same place in London, BL, Egerton MS.
3271 (see 4., below).</provenance>

<provenance><p>M. A. van der Linde, before 1864: <bibl>Catalogue de la
bibliothéque de M. A. van der Linde</bibl> ... La vente aura
lieu du 7 au 16 avril 1864 ... à la libraire G. -A. van trigt,
Bruxelles, 1864, lot 202.</provenance>

<provenance><p>Rt. Hon. T. R. Buchanan, probably after 1874, but before
1891 (when it was exhibited at the Burlington Fine Arts Club); given
to the Bodleian by his widow, Mrs. E. O.
Buchanan, in 1941; inscribed in pencil <q>D[onated]. 28.v.1941</q> with
the present shelfmark on fol. 1r, and with the shelfmark alone on the
front pastedown.</provenance>

</listProvenance>

These elements are defined as follows

<!ELEMENT listProvenance - - (provenance+) >
<!ATTLIST listProvenance  %a.global>
<!ELEMENT provenance - - (p+) >
<!ATTLIST provenance  %a.global>

12.2.6 Binding description

The <binding> element contains a description of the state of the present and former bindings of a manuscript, including information about its material, any distinctive marks, and provenance information.

<binding><p>Sewing not visible; tightly rebound over
19th-cent. pasteboards, reusing panels of 16th-cent. brown leather with
gilt tooling à la fanfare, Paris c. 1580-90, the centre of each
cover inlaid with a 17th-cent. oval medallion of red morocco tooled in
gilt (perhaps replacing the identifying mark of a previous owner); the
spine similarly tooled, without raised bands or title-piece; coloured
endbands; the edges of the leaves and boards gilt.Boxed.</p></binding>

Considerable additional work is needed to specify more detailed information relating to the components and format of bindings. At present, this element is defined as follows:

<!ELEMENT binding - - (p+) >
<!ATTLIST binding  %a.global>

12.3 Encoding the MS. skeleton

As noted above, the primary purpose of this tagset is not the transcription of entire manuscripts. The TEI scheme as defined in TEI P3 contains a satisfactory basis for such transcriptions; we have however found it necessary for our purposes to extend the standard TEI definitions slightly. These extensions are documented in this section and take the form of one additional global attribute (the range attribute discussed in section 12.3.1 ); one additional `chunk-level' element (the <summary> element discussed in section 12.3.2 ); and some additional phrase level elements for specialized headings and bibliographic references, discussed in sections 12.3.3 and 12.3.3. respectively.

12.3.1 The range attribute

This additional global attribute enables a consistent reference scheme to be applied to all the various parts of a manuscript description. It may be specified for any element in the manuscript description on order to indicate the folio or folios being described, in a more precise manner than is otherwise possible. The exact format used for this attribute value may vary; at the Bodleian it generally consists of the abbreviation ``fol.''or ``fols.'' followed by a folio number, or pair of folio numbers separated by a hyphen to indicate a range. The foliation used will be defined by a <foliation> element (see section 12.2.3 ), and each folio number will consist of a sheet number followed by a letter indicating recto or folio side.

In the simplest case, this attribute is used to indicate the range of some feature defined for the manuscript as a whole, such as damage:

<damage range="fols. 1-18">several worm holes in lower margins</damage> 

More frequently, the range attribute is used to specify the location of some listed component of the manuscript, such as an illustration, or a textual subdivision of the manuscript:

<item range="fol. 166v">Fifteen Joys. <iconTerm>Virgin and Child
enthroned</iconTerm>, adored by angels</item>
<div range="fols. 26r-91v" type="section">
<summary><p><title>Hours of the Virgin, Use of Paris</title>, with nine lessons at Matins;
fol. 70v ruled, otherwise blank</p></summary>
</div>
Note in the second example above the use of the <summary> element discussed in the next section, used here as a surrogate for the content of the standard TEI <div> element.

12.3.2 The Summary element

As noted above, a part of the purpose of this tagset is to enable the cataloguer to provide a framework within which a complete transcription of a manuscript might theoretically be embedded. With this end in view, it is recommended that major components of a manuscript be represented by discrete <div>, or <div1> (etc) elements within <front>, <body>, or <back> elements representing the manuscript text itself, following the structures proposed by the TEI Guidelines (see in particular Sperberg-McQueen and Burnard, 1994, chap 6.).

Since, however, transcribing the whole of a manuscript will generally be an unachievable goal, cataloguers will often wish to summarize such textual divisions, or to provide a container within which parts of them may be transcribed. The <summary> element is provided for these purposes.

A <summary> element may appear within a manuscript transcription at any point that a paragraph would be legal, but its most usual location is at the beginning of a division element. It contains a cataloguer-supplied brief description of the text that is available for transcription at this point, possibly containing explicitly quoted materials such as incipits or headings from the original, cataloguer-supplied titles, and bibliographic references, as in the following example:

<div range="fols. 14r-19v" type="section">
<summary><p><title>Gospel Pericopes</title>; John followed (fol. 15v)
by the usual Antiphon, Versicle, Response, and Prayer, <incipit>Protector
in te sperantium</incipit> (pr. <bibl>Wordsworth, <title>Horae Eboracenses</title>,
32</bibl>)</p></summary>
</div>

This element is defined as follows

<!ELEMENT summary  - - (p+)>
<!ATTLIST summary %a.global>

12.3.3 Additional phrase-level elements

When this tagset is selected, some additional elements are defined as members of the global phrase class. These elements allow for more precise identification of the following three concepts already identified in the TEI core tagsets:

12.3.3.1 Iconographic Subjects

It is often convenient to mark particular phrases or words which describe the subject matter of illustrations, particularly where a set vocabulary is used for these. Such phrases may also correspond with pre-existing iconographic classification schemes, such as those developed by the Iconclass project. The following element allows the cataloguer to flag such phrases explicitly wherever they may occur within a manuscript description:

Here is a simple example of the use of this element:

<iconTerm class="73B6411">Flight into Egypt</iconTerm>

The following, more complex, example demonstrates that the cataloguer has freedom to decide how much text to mark up as <iconTerm>s, and how to divide up descriptive prose into smaller phrases or individual words:

<iconTerm>Burial</iconTerm>; a <iconTerm>priest shovelling
earth</iconTerm> onto a <iconTerm>coffin</iconTerm> in a
<iconTerm>grave</iconTerm>, watched by a <iconTerm>cleric</iconTerm>
with <iconTerm>aspergill</iconTerm> and <iconTerm>aspersory</iconTerm>,
a <iconTerm>taperer/crucifer</iconTerm>, and
<iconTerm>mourners</iconTerm>.

This element is defined as follows:

<!ELEMENT iconTerm - - (%phrase.seq;)>
<!ATTLIST iconTerm  %a.global
          class CDATA  #IMPLIED>

12.3.3.2 Incipits, headings, and other phrase level elements.

It is often necessary to distinguish titles supplied by the cataloguer from headings, incipits, and similar phrases quoted verbatim from a manuscript, as it is to distinguish all such phrases from the prose surrounding them, for example within a <summary> element. The following additional elements are provided for this purpose:

The standard TEI <title> element can be used for any title conferred by a cataloguer, as distinct from titles and headings actually appearing within a manuscript. For these, one of the above should be chosen, in preference to the standard TEI <head> element, since this may appear only at the start of the division to which it pertains. The elements listed above can appear at any point in a document.

In the following examples, ellipsis (...) is used, as is customary, to indicate words that have been omitted from the transcription

<div><summary range="fols. 12-34">
 <title>The Five Joys of the Virgin</title>,
<heading>Salutationes ad honorem beate marie</heading>,
<incipit>Ave cuius conceptio solempni plena gaudio ...</incipit>
<explicit>... auxiliatricem sentiamus. Per ...</explicit>
</summary></div>

Heraldic descriptions may appear at almost any point within a manuscript description, but are most likely to occur as a component of the <provenance> element described in 12.2.5 above, as in the following examples:

<provenance><p>A member of the Whetenhale/Whetenall family: with the arms
(fol. 2r) <heraldry>vert, a cross ingrailed argent with a crescent for
difference</heraldry>, perhaps of Oliver Whetenall, who became vicar
of Besthorp, Norfolk, in 1445</provenance>
<provenance>A small red leather bookplate (fol. ir), stamped in gilt,
shows a coat of arms with <heraldry>three fleurs de lys, a bordure
with eight scallop shells, encircled by the chain of the Order of the
Golden Fleece, with links composed of pairs of facing initial 'C's,
surmounted by a closed crown, and flanked by two angel supporters
holding banners with, and wearing, fleurs de lys, above the motto
<q>DEUS ET DIES</q></heraldry></provenance> 

The <colophon> element is also likely to appear in the context of a provenance note, as in the following example:

<provenance><p>Signed by the priest Dionisius de Castello, of S. Giovanni
in Conca, Milan, 1464-65: dated <q>.1464.</q> in red ink at the end of
the Hymnal (fol. 291v), and with a colophon in red ink at the end of
the volume (fol. 480v): <colophon lang="LAT">.1465. Deo. Gratias. Amen.
Finis</colophon>, and <colophon lang="LAT">Istud breuiarium est
presbiteri dionisij de Castello. In sancto Iohanne ad Concham
mediolani porte romane intus beneficiato. manu sua propria scriptum
.M.CCCClxiiijo. et finitum die sabbati .xviiijo. mensis Ianuarij. 1465.
Ad honorem dei et gloriose eius matris uirginis marie.</colophon>
(in Milan in the fifteenth century the start of the year was reckoned from
Christmas).</provenance>

These elements are defined as follows

<!ELEMENT heraldry - - (%phrase.seq;)>
<!ATTLIST heraldry  %a.global
                    reg  CDATA #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT (incipit | explicit | colophon | heading) - - (%phrase.seq;) >
<!ATTLIST (incipit | explicit | colophon | heading)  %a.global>

12.3.3. Bibliographic references

The TEI Recommendations follow standard library practice in defining, in some detail, structured elements for the representation of bibliographic records. However, these elements (<bibl>, <biblStruct> or <biblFull>) are not entirely appropriate for the recording of information about manuscript sources. For one thing, following standard bibliographic practice, they provide little scope for the recording of copy-specific data, such as the current location of a manuscript, or its presumed origins. We have therefore found it necessary to define a small number of additional elements for these purposes

These additional elements are defined as members of the TEI bibliographic model class, and can therefore be included anywhere within a standard <bibl> element without further modification, and without the need to define a specialised element for bibliographic references to manuscripts. Other members of the same class (for example, <author>, <title>, <date>, and <idNo> (for shelf mark) may also be used, as appropriate.

This extended <bibl> element may be used within the <sourceDesc> to provide the basic bibliographic details for the manuscript being described, as in this example:

<bibl>
<origPlace>France, Paris</origPlace>
<date>s. XVin. -XVIex.</date>
<idNo type="Bod">MS. Buchanan e. 10</idNo>
<idNo type="former">MS. Lat. liturg. e. 31</idNo>
<collection>Buchanan</collection>
</bibl>

The same element may be used to mark references to a manuscript elsewhere within a description:

<provenance><p>Rt. Hon. T. R. Buchanan, probably by 1874; inscribed by him(?) in pencil <q>10.</q>
in the top left corner of the upper pastedown; given to the Bodleian in 1939 by his widow, Mrs. E. O.
Buchanan, when it was accessioned as
<bibl><repository><city>Oxford</city><libraryName>Bodleian Library</libraryName></repository>
<idNo>MS. Lat. liturg. e. 31</idNo></bibl>; re-referenced as
<bibl><repository><city>Oxford</city><libraryName>Bodleian Library</libraryName></repository>
<idNo>MS. Buchanan e. 10</idNo></bibl> in 1941</p></provenance>

These elements are defined as follows

<!ELEMENT repository - - (#PCDATA | city | libraryName | location)*>
<!ATTLIST repository %a.global>
<!ELEMENT (city | libraryName | location | origPlace | collection) - - (%phrase.seq;)>
<!ATTLIST (city | libraryName | location | origPlace | collection) %a.global>


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