Appendix A

“The Meaning of Kingship,” Baghdad Times, 13 August 1921

         For the first time for seven centuries the Arab people are to have a King, to become the visible symbol of their historic past, their present unity, and their future glory and prosperity.  Upon their attitude to the Principle of Monarchy, not less than to the Person of the Monarch, depends the future of the Arab Race.

            How shall they regard him?

            There are lands in which greater weight attaches to Principle than to Person.  In most Eastern, and in some Western, lands, Person is preferred to Principle.  Such are the lands in which, as the result of a disastrous war, Crowns have tottered to their fall.

            Where the King, and not Kingship, is the determining factor in the loyalty of the people, a popular monarch will unite, but an unpopular one will as infallibly destroy.  There is no permanence in the rule of Person; no stability.  The efforts of one generation are swept away by the next.  Powerful Kings will lead a people to victory more disastrous than defeat.  Urged by great ambitions, they will overthrow one free people after another, until they invite the coalition that will destroy them.           

            Recognition of this fact has led one European nation after another to the establishment of a Republic which shall at least guarantee the rule of Principle.  Under the rising wave of Democracy Emperors exist no longer.  Absolutism is swept away, and where Kings still exist, as in Italy and Spain, it is in the teeth of the menace of a great Republican party.

            In Great Britain alone Monarchy still prospers, and a Republican party does not exist.  The reason is to be found in the fact that Great Britain no less truly than France or the United States of America, is governed by Principle, not Person.  In Great Britain the King has no politics.  He is above politics.  Popular and party passions may rage about the persons of his Ministers; Cabinets and Premiers may come and go; but the King remains, the living embodiment of a united people, and the sole link between the Britons of the United Kingdom and of the Britons beyond the Seas.

            But if Great Britain enjoys every liberty inherent to a Republic, free speech, a free Press, democratic Government and popular representation—the King is something more than the hereditary President of a Republic, more than the President of six Republics linked under his aegis over the seven seas.  In his single Person the Englishman beholds the whole history of his race, traditions built up by generations of patient effort, of heroic sacrifice, and of saintly martyrdom.  He is not only the link between Britons everywhere, but the link between the living and the dead.  His Royal Seal guarantees our Liberties, and he is the Defender of every Faith.

            Englishmen unite in honouring George the Fifth, not only as a King, but as a man—the first gentleman of his Realm.  They honour him for his sterling qualities, high moral principle, and devotion to duty and to his people.  Were it otherwise however, they would still unite in honouring the Crown.

            It was not ever thus.  Seven centuries ago two million English, a population less than that of ‘Iraq to-day, were battling for their free Charter of Right against a despotic and tyrannical King, while away across the water in the sun-bathed Land of the Two Rivers the glorious Harun-al-Rashid held enlightened away [sway?] over an Arab Kingdom of twenty millions, and his city of Baghdad, large as modern Paris, was the envy and wonder of the world.

            To-day the descendants of those same English, having not only vindicated their national freedom and the principles of democracy, but triumphed in the cause of Monarchy, hold out a helping hand to the sons of Harun, whose land they have helped to redeem from the pollution of a foreign tyrant, and, while witnessing the renewal of his Sceptre, bestowed by a grateful people upon one who has done more than any living Arab to secure his country’s freedom, wish him a speedy return to the glorious era of the ‘Thousand and one Nights.’

            If in the hearts of the Arab people the wish exists to pay England the sincerest form of flattery, that of emulating her Kingly Constitution, admittedly the most successful form of democratic government yet evolved, they will not fail to honour the Crown as well as the Person of their new King.

            In that Crown they will discover the link that unites, on the one hand, free and allied communities so diverse as those of Basrah and Mosul, as Najaf and Kirkuk; and on the other hand, the shield that defends and safeguards every Faith, whether Moslem or Christian, Jew or Yezid—and every Race, whether Kurd, Arab or Turcoman.

            In that Crown they will see the embodiment of the whole long and glorious history of the Arab Race from its Desert Dawn to the High Noon of its seat among the World’s sovereign peoples.

            Finally, in the Person of their King, they will see an august Presence, possessing every attribute of kingliness and kindliness, whose whole life has been consecrated to the cause of his country’s freedom—the Garibaldi of Arabian independence.

            When his aim is achieved, and the scattered tribes of Shem are united for ever under his peaceful aegis, may the friendship between his people and our people, cemented by the blood of sliders, Arab and English, that has mingled for a common cause, become with both an undying tradition and based upon everlasting foundations.

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Appendix B:

“The Kings of Europe Today,” al-Hilal, 1 May 1922

English Translation

            Roosevelt mentioned in his memoirs that he published on the kings of Europe that the King of Italy called him one day to meet his children, that he formed a very high opinion of their good manners and simplicity, and that he couldn’t help but praise the Queen for her concern with their education and good upbringing.  Roosevelt said: “The King laughed at that moment and said to me that he wanted to prepare his heir apparent to be someday – if necessary – the first president of the coming Italian Republic.

            These words were said before the outbreak of the Great European War, and so what could possibly be said today?  No sooner had the tumult of the war subsided than the thrones were challenged and others collapsed.  And at the forefront of these collapsed thrones are three which had the most exalted status in history: those that held the Romanov, Hapsburg, and Hohenzollern Thrones.

            And if we take a close look in order to consider the holders of the throne whose reigns the war ended, it becomes clear to us that they were the most powerful kings, with the widest influence, and who were the furthest from true democracy.  And no kings remained stable except those who were working truly with the wishes of their nations and respecting their countries’ desires.  And today the flow of the spirit democracy has expanded to all of the royal courts, and the crowned heads have ascertained that their status is not strong unless is it founded on the will of the subjects, and that a good motto to take up is that handed-down saying, “The master of the people is their servant.”

            In order for the noble reader to understand the issue regarding each of the two [types of] regime (royal and republican) today in the European continent, we publish in what follows two lists, one of which shows the monarchical governments, and the other, republican governments, along with the area of each [regime] and their populations.  For this, we relied on the latest and most precise statistics; and we arranged each column according to population.

            (We neglected to offer an account of the Ottoman sultanate because its position in Europe was not settled yet, let alone most of its possessions in Asia.  This is also the case with Albania, because its borders were not decided.  And we neglected also the Emirate of Monaco and the Republic of Andorra, and the Republic of San Moreno, and the Princedom of Liechtenstein, and the free city of Danzig, due to the smallness of their statures.)

            It becomes clear from all this that the number of monarchical governments is equal to the number of republican governments.  Except that when we consider the group of populations in each, from the columns, we would find that the number of peoples in republican regions exceeds the number of those in monarchical ones, by approximately 90 million, whereas the latter had exceeded those [republican ones] before the war.  In other words, three fifths of the population of Europe today is from republics, and two fifths is from monarchies.

            We said that the war finally put an end to the class of despotic kings who were claiming that their power was derived directly from God, and that their right to rule is heavenly, which is not for man to question.  That class has gone, Praise to God, and none remain on the throne except those who handed over sovereignty of the nation and their right to control its affairs.

            The scope of the political responsibility of the crowned heads of Europe is narrow and limited.  Roosevelt wrote to one of his friends one day: “I prefer the most menial of jobs to holding the most exalted throne, for the king no longer has such an important role in reality.”  And Roosevelt especially detested the arrogant kings who considered themselves in a class above the rest of men.  And his great spirit was repulsed by what occurred at the funeral of Edward the Seventh, regarding the competition of some kings and princes – especially those having the most trivial rank status – in advancing one over the other in ceremonies and official events.  And he said:

            “I wanted several times from the strength of my agony, if only I could bite those feeble-minded kings and princes.”

            And he mentioned that for most of them, a conversation on the topic of literature or science was impossible.  Except that he excluded from this judgment the King of Italy and his Queen, and the Queen of Belgium.

            And whoever thinks about the constitutional regimes that the present European monarchies are founded upon will see that the remaining power of the kings is very small, even virtually non-existent.  The King of England, for example, not long ago retreated from using the right of pardon – which is one of his first rights – as stipulated by the counsel of his ministers.

            And that is only because the political responsibility falls on the ministers, whereas the throne-holders don’t assume any responsibility.  And it is one of the basic principles of the English Government that the king “doesn’t make mistakes,” and the King of England is not really anything but a living symbol of England’s dignity and the honor of Britain, and nothing more.

            One thinker has said: “The Kings of Europe became threatened by the loss of their crowns and the specter of republicanism is erected in front of their eyes, permanently.  And in that, there is an incentive for them to fulfill their duties properly.”

            These are true words, which nobody who has examined the conditions of European countries can deny.  The present kings attained their true positions, and you see them evoking the contentment of their subjects with different ways and means.  The members of the royal family in England spend a large portion of their time attending state functions; supporting organizations for charity and reform; visiting hospitals and orphanages; and committing to different social projects.

            It is the same in Italy, for the king of Italy has much concern and care for each work aiming for civilizational reform, and moreover has a strong sympathy with the more moderate aspects of the socialists.  And he is almost considered – as Roosevelt witnessed – one of the extreme reformist thinkers in some of his political convictions.

            This is the position of European kings, queens, and princes (all together) today.  And they have removed the obstacles standing between them and their people and learned properly that the best basis for their leadership to be founded on is that of giving, and service, and commitment to the general interest.

            And we saw how the great princes joined the military corps and how they were exposing themselves to risks along the lines of the rest of the military men.  And it is almost one of the settled rules for the training of crown princes in this era that they enter in an army or navy regiment and spend a portion of their time experiencing that austere and crude living.

            The spread of the democratic spirit in the European courts led to the disappearance of the old principle stipulating intermarriage between royal families, while being separated from and refraining from marrying commoners.  The Princess Mary, who is the daughter of the King of England and its queen, finally married a notable who is not from a royal family.  The British newspapers began pointing out both indirectly and explicitly the necessity of the crown prince’s (the Prince of Wales) marriage to an Englishwoman and the lack of ties binding him to marry one of the princesses of the royal family. 

            The Swedish monarchy finally made a law clearly annulling this stipulation in the marriages of its kings and crown princes.  And that is only because the democratic spirit has spread, and the people have become scornful of coercing anyone to marry in spite of his wishes.  And what are kings and princes except men like the rest of men, who have hearts like their hearts and minds like their minds…


[The authors proceed with a discussion of how the world financial crisis has affected the class of kings, as well.]


            Then there is a group of kings and princes who are unrestrained and isolated, and scattered across different regions in Europe, and among them are those whose hands are devoid of money, and who thus started knocking on the doors of different livelihoods, along the lines of everyone else.  And there are those among them who those teaching and those that chose acting, or singing, or writing.


[At this point the authors engage in a discussion of the royal purse]


            During the past summer, a discussion ran in the English Parliament revealing that the sums allocated for King George V are not sufficient for him…And it [the sum] began increasing as a result of the rising expenses and the return of the Court to the pomp and splendor known before the war.

            Lord Chamberlain mentioned in the course of that discussion that the king expressed his wish to reduce the trappings of the pomp and stateliness and then said: “But the British people undoubtedly refuse this proposal due to their belief that the Crown needs to keep on preserving its dignity to the utmost degree possible.  And he said also that the money that is spent towards the throne affords a great benefit, the value of which cannot be estimated…

[The passage concludes with a section detailing the expenditure of several different European monarchies.]

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Arabic Original





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Appendix C

Excerpts from “The Independent Egyptian Monarchy” (Arabic original)

al-Hilal, 1 April 1922, pp. 607-08


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Appendix D:

Covers from al-Musawwar and al-Lata’if al-Musawwara

Example D1:

Al-Lata’if al-Musawwara from 13 January 1930

Example D2:

Al-Musawwar from 1 April 1927

“Great Guest of Egypt” (on the occasion of a state visit by the Czech President)


Example D3:

Al-Lata’if al-Musawwara from 30 December 1929

“Royal Military Ceremony”


Example D4:

Al-Musawwar from 9 August 1929

“His Majesty the King in London”


Appendix E

Replicas of Egyptian Commemorative Coins, 1928-30

Photographed in British National Archives, Kew, London

Fuad’s official visit to France, October 1927
Fuad’s official visit to Britain, July 1927

Fuad’s official visit to Belgium, October 1927

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Appendix F

“The Royal Trip to Upper Egypt – His Majesty among the Monuments of Luxor”

Al-Lata’if al-Musawwara, 22 December 1930

Appendix G

“Father and Son,” the Iraq Times, 8 September 1937

Appendix H

Cover from Kull Shay wa al-Dunya

“Special Edition on His Majesty King Faruq 1”

6 May 1936

Appendix I

Cover from Akhir Sa‘a – “Coronation Edition,” 29 July 1937

(Drawing by Sarukhan)

Appendix J

Images from unnamed and undated photo-book

(all caption translations mine)

Example J1

The Friday Prayer

            “Our beloved king has become famous for upholding the performance of the Friday prayers since his childhood, and therefore on Friday 8 May 1937 the time for prayer had hardly come before His Majesty went to the mosque of our master – al-Hussein – for prayer.  And you see in the above photo crowds of people welcoming him on al-Azhar Street.  In the other picture you see His Majesty in the royal carriage that he rode to the mosque.  His Excellency the Crown Prince Mohammed Ali is alongside him.”


Example J2

            “His Majesty the King’s love for sport and his support for sportsmen need no explanation.  His Majesty, in Alexandria, awarded an honor at a swimming meet for the Egyptian championship at the “sporting club” on 7 September 1937.   For the winners, it was an honor to take the prizes from his noble hand.

            And you see His Majesty in the two pictures (1) and (2) giving the championship trophy to the swimming champions.  And as for picture (3), you see him turning around and looking at his Grand Chamberlain Ahmed Hussein Pasha, giving his observations of the race.  To the side of His Majesty is His Highness the Prince ‘Amr Tousson and the noble Abbas al-Halim.”


Example J3

The Royal Insignia

            “The Royal Insignia is placed on everything associated with His Majesty the King, the royal military escort, and the Palace, in order to distinguish them from other things.  The drawing of the crown atop is an image of the crown planted on the throne of His Majesty the King in the royal palaces and in Parliament.  As for the outer frame, it is an image of a red golden-trimmed curtain that drapes the Royal Throne.  And the crown in the interior is an image of the crown that was chosen for the head – king of the country – to be crowned with, and it was adorned with types of precious gems.  And under it is a circle, and it is the image of the necklace of Muhammad Ali with its natural colors.  Engraved on it is the name of Muhammad Ali, with glazing.  And inside the circle, you see a drawing of the modern Egyptian flag possessing the crescent and three stars.  The design of this insignia was set in the era of the Khedive Ismail, but King Fu’ad the First made many modifications to it, and made it into the form that you see here.”


Example J4

Inauguration of the Egyptian section at the Paris Exposition

            “The Egypt section at the Paris Exposition was opened on 16 June 1937 and His Majesty the King attended an inaugural celebration, along with the most prominent Frenchmen.  And you see to his right Monsieur Lebrun, President of the Republic, and the French minister of trade…

            The woman standing to the left of His Majesty the King is the wife of Monsieur Lebrun.  And to the left you see the signature of His Majesty in the guest-book of the dignitaries at the exposition, between the two signatures of Monsieur and Madame Lebrun.”


Example J5

In Paris

            “His Majesty the King speaking informally [without discomfort or affectation] with some of his Egyptian subjects while leaving the Paris mosque.  The spirit of democracy is evident on his face.”


Example J6

To Cairo

            “After a short respite in Alexandria, His Majesty the King rode the royal train and advanced towards the capital of the kingdom.  In the Alexandria station thousands of loyal and faithful sons from among His people came to see him off.  And you see His Majesty greeting religious dignitaries of Alexandria who turned up to bid him farewell at that time.  The second picture is of His Majesty saying farewell with his noble hand from the balcony of the royal train (before departing) to a crowd which had gathered to see him off.”


Example J7

Loyalty (good will) of the People for the King

            “When His Majesty returned from Parliament to ‘Abdin Palace, groups of people came together in the courtyard [of ‘Abdin] to assemble an unrivaled crowd.  The cries of ‘Long Live the King!’ began to rise with impressive power.  And His Majesty the King looked down upon his people and replied to the greeting by saluting with his right hand, while smiling, as you see in the left-hand photo.  The top picture shows the crowd.”


Example J8

Alexandria’s Celebration  with His Majesty the King

            “After the completion of the succession festivities in Cairo, His Majesty the King traveled to Alexandria, capital of the second district, where the celebration of his honoring presence by the Alexandrines was no less [impressive] than that which the Cairenes had demonstrated in the way of appearances of good will and loyalty.  And you see His Majesty in this photo standing in the balcony of Ras-el-Tin Palace, offering (with his noble hand) the Scouting salute of the Young Men’s Muslim Association of Alexandria…”

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