Industrialisation in Britain and France, 1750-1870

 

Trinity Term, 2011

 

 

Lecturer and tutor:       

 

Dr. Brian A’Hearn, Pembroke College

                              brian.ahearn@pmb.ox.ac.uk

phone: 276 435

 

Overview

 

Industrialisation in Britain and France 1750-1870 is an optional subject for first-year students in History & Economics. The course offers an introduction to both the substance and the methods of economic history in the context of what might be considered the discipline’s founding question: what were the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution? Students will work with both literary sources and quantitative data, apply theoretical frameworks first encountered in the Approaches to History lectures on economic history (not a prerequisite), and develop a feel for comparative history. I hope the course will provide good preparation for further subjects such as The First Industrial Revolution 1700-1870 and British Economic History since 1870.

 

The course was developed and taught by Patrick O’Brien, fellow of St. Antony’s from about 1970 to 1990. It reflects his interest in comparative history and was the basis for his book Economic Growth in Britain and France 1780-1914: Two Paths to the Twentieth Century (co-written with C. Keyder). The course is intended as a “bridge” between the mostly separate subjects of economics and history.

 

The period 1750-1870 specified in the course title is not an obvious one. In practice there will be more emphasis in the lectures on the 18th century, which allows us to develop themes well established in the literature, namely the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain and of the collapse of the ancien regime in France.

 

 

Organisation

 

Lectures will be Weeks 1-7, Tuesdays at 10:00, in Seminar Room A of the Manor Road Building. In Week 1 there will also be a lecture Thursday in the same time and place.

 

Classes will meet Thursdays in the same time and place during Weeks 2-7.  Classes will primarily be devoted to student presentations of and discussion about the primary sources on the reading list. But there may be other assignments, as well as the opportunity for informal discussion of lecture material.

 

Tutorials will be in my room at Pembroke, in groups and at times we will agree on. Tutorial essays must not exceed 2000 words, should include full bibliographic information on sources they reference, and must be in my pigeon hole first thing in the morning on the day before the tutorial (say 9:00) *and* sent to me by e-mail.

 

 


Outline

 

Week 1. Industrial Revolution, industrialisation, or economic growth?

 

Two lectures devoted to a mostly quantitative description of the historical process of industrialisation and identification of its proximate causes and mechanics. Consequences for standards of living.

 

Readings

Notes

 

Week 2.  Property rights and agriculture

 

Agricultural and industrial revolutions. Large scale capitalist farming in Britain and small scale peasant farming in France. (Builds on Approaches discussion of Marxist-inspired Brenner debate and Smithian perspectives on institutions.) 

 

Essay: Did England’s system of land tenure result in a higher level of agricultural productivity than France’s system of peasant farming?

 

Readings

Notes

 

Week 3. People and resources

 

Contrasting population growth in Britain and France as cause or consequence of industrialisation? Natural resource constraints. (Builds on Approaches discussion of Malthus.)

 

Essay: Did France enjoy higher living standards than Britain? If so was this due to demographic factors?

 

Readings

Notes (1)   Notes (2)

 

Week 4. The state and public finance

 

Limits to government, centralisation, property rights, fiscal pressure, and financial development contrasted in Britain and France.

 

Essay: Is it true that absolutism hindered French economic growth while parliamentary government fostered British growth?

 

Readings

Notes

Week 5. Markets -- stimulus or constraint

Smithian growth, specialisation, and economies of scale. Regional integration, international trade, income distribution, and the industrious revolution. (Builds directly on Approaches discussion of Smith.)

 

Essay: What were the effects trade restrictions on the economic development of Britain and France in the nineteenth century?

 

Possible alternatives: did empire/colonies help Britain? Did Napoleon’s continental blockade benefit French industry and/or harm the British?

Readings

Notes

 

Week 6. Technology / industry

 

Determinants of innovation in Britain and France: property rights, relative prices, science, diffusion. Industry.

 

Essay: Does abundant coal explain British industrial pre-eminence in the 19th century?

 

Possible alternatives: did France suffer from a lack of industrial entrepreneurship?

 

Readings

Notes

Week 7 Revolution and coercion

Economic causes and effects of the French Revolution. The economic importance of Britain’s empire.

 

Essay: Was Britain’s industrialisation dependent on slavery and/or imperialism?  

Readings

Notes


Readings

 

This is a comprehensive list of all readings required for each week’s lecture, class, and tutorial. They are grouped into three categories: priority, further, and primary. Priority readings should be read before lecture. Research for a good essay will take you into the further readings. Primary sources will be discussed in our class meetings. While everyone should do all the primary readings, each week I will ask one or more students to make a presentation on one or more of them. Note that there are packets of copies of the primary readings available at the History Faculty Library, as well as on-line via “weblearn”.

 

General

 

There are several useful works that are either of a general nature or to which we will repeatedly refer during the course.

 

O’Brien, P., Keyder, C. Economic Growth in Britain and France 1780-1914. Two Paths to the Twentieth Century. London: Allen & Unwin, 1978.

 

Floud, R. and P. Johnson (eds.), The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I. Cambridge: CUP, 2004. (A standard reference work with chapters by authoritative contributors.)

 

Heywood, Colin. The Development of the French Economy, 1750-1914. Cambridge: CUP, 1992. (One of the Economic History Society’s overview pamphlets.)

 

Allen, Robert. The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. Cambridge: CUP, 2009. (Reasonably short and an easy read as well as being good.)

 

Mokyr, Joel. The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain 1700-1850. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009. (Only about Britain and seeking to make a particular point not always relevant to the topics here, but offers an up-to-date summary of the evidence and debate on a wide range of issues by a good writer and leading authority.)

 

 

We will often refer to articles from the Journal of Economic History, the Economic History Review, Explorations in Economic History, and the European Review of Economic History. These will be abbreviated JEH, EHR, EEH, and EREH in what follows.

 

 


Week 1: Industrial revolution, industrialisation, or economic growth?

 

Priority

Allen, R., “The Great Divergence in European Wages and Prices from the Middle Ages to the First World War”, EEH, vol. 38 (2001), pp. 411-447.

Crafts, N. F. R., “Economic Growth in France and Britain, 1830-1910: A Review of the Evidence”, JEH, vol. 44 (1984), pp. 49-67.

Mokyr, J., “Accounting for the Industrial Revolution,” Ch. 1 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I. pp. 1-27.

 

Further

Berg, M. and Hudson, P., “Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution”, EHR, vol. 45 (1992), pp. 24-50.

Crafts, N. F. R., “Patterns of Development in 19th century Europe”, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 36 (1984), pp. 438-58.

Crafts, N.F.R. and Harley, C.K., “Output Growth in the British Industrial Revolution: A Restatement of the Crafts-Harley View”, EHR, vol. 45 (1992), pp. 703-730.

Crouzet, F., “The Historiography of French Economic Growth in the 19th Century”, EHR, vol. 56 (2003), pp. 215-242.

Grantham, G., “The French Cliometric Revolution”, EREH, vol 1 (1997), pp. 353-405.

Heywood, C. The Development of the French Economy.

Kemp, T., “French Economic Development – A Paradox?”, Ch. 3 in T. Kemp,  Industrialisation in 19th Century Europe (Harlow: Longman, 1969), pp. 52-80.

Komlos, J., “An Anthropometric History of Early-Modern France, 1666-1766”, EREH, vol. 7 (2003), pp. 159–189.

O’Brien and Keyder Economic Growth in Britain and France. Chs. 1-3, pp. 15-82.

Parker, D. Class and State in Ancien Regime France. London: Routledge, 1996. Ch. 7 “France, England and the Capitalist Road” offers an overview comparison for the pre-1789 period. (See also Ch. 2 “The French Economy: a Case of Arrested Development”.)

Roehl, R., “French Industrialisation: A Reconsideration”, EEH, vol. 13 (1976), pp. 233-81. 

Voth, H.-J., “Living Standards and the Urban Environment,” Ch. 10 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I. pp. 268-94.

 

Primary

 

None this week; no class.

 

 


Week 2. Property rights and agriculture

 

Priority

Allen, R., “Agriculture During the Industrial Revolution, 1700-1850,” Ch. 4 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I. pp. 96-116.

Allen, R., and O’Grada, C., “On the Road Again with Arthur Young: English, Irish and French Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution”, JEH, vol. 48 (1988), pp. 93-116.

O’Brien, P. K., “Path Dependency, or Why Britain Became Industrialised and Urbanised Long Before France”, EHR, vol. 49 (1996), pp. 213-49.

Rosenthal, J.-L., “The Development of Irrigation in Provence, 1700-1860”, JEH, vol. 50 (1990), pp. 615-38.

 

Further

Allen, R., “Economic Structure and Agricultural Productivity in Europe, 1300-1800”, EREH, vol. 4 (2000), pp. 1-25.

Allen, R., “Tracking the Agricultural Revolution in England”, EHR, vol. 52 (1999), pp. 209-235.

Brenner, R. “Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe,” reprinted in T. Aston and C. Philpin, (eds.), The Brenner Debate (Cambridge: CUP, 1985), pp. 10-63.

Clark, G., “Commons Sense: Common Property Rights, Efficiency, and Institutional Change”, JEH, vol. 58 (1998), pp. 73-102.

Crafts, N. F. R., and Harley, C. K., “Precocious British Industrialisation: A General Equilibrium Perspective”, LSE Working Papers in Economic History 67/02 (2002).

Grantham, G. W., “The Persistence of Open-Field Farming in 19th Century France”, JEH, vol. 40 (1980), pp. 515-31.

Grantham, G., “The French Cliometric Revolution”, EREH, vol 1 (1997), pp. 353-405.

Hoffman, P., “Land Rents and Agricultural Productivity: The Paris Basin, 1450-1789,” JEH, vol. 51 (1991), pp. 771-805.

Hoffman, P. Growth in a Traditional Society. The French Countryside, 1450-1815. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1996. (Chs. 1-3 are a very readable and interesting introduction. Ch. 4 is about the evidence in the JEH article cited above.)

McCloskey, D., “The Enclosure of Open Fields: Preface to a Study of Its Impact on Efficiency of English Agriculture in the 18th Century”, JEH, vol. 32 (1972), pp. 15-35.

O’ Brien, P. K. and C. Keyder. Economic Growth in Britain and France. Ch. 5, pp. 102-145.

 

Primary

Young, A. Travels in France during the Years 1787, 1788 and 1789, pp. 279-300,

312-13. (Page numbers differ for Travels in France and Italy editions.)

Cliffe Leslie, T.E. “The Land System in France”, in Systems of Land Tenure in Various

Countries, edited by J.W. Probyn, 1881, pp. 291-312.

de la Rochefoucauld, F. A Frenchman in England, 1784, pp. 157-242.

Reach, Angus B. Claret and Olives from the Garonne and Rhone, London, 1852, pp.

256-263.

 

 


Week 3. Malthusian dynamics, industrialisation, and living standards

 

Priority

Weir, D., “Life Under Pressure: France and England, 1670-1870”, JEH, vol. 44 (1984), pp. 27-47.

Wrigley, E.A., “British Population During the ‘Long’ Eighteenth Century, 1680-1840”, Ch. 3 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I. pp. 57-95.

 

Further

Cinnirella, F., “Optimists or Pessimists? A Reconsideration of Nutritional Status in Britain, 1740-1865”, EREH, vol. 12 (2008), pp. 325-354.

Feinstein, C., “Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain During and After the Industrial Revolution,” JEH, vol. 58, no. 3 (1998), pp. 625-658.

Goldstone, J., “The Demographic Revolution in England: a Re-examination,” Population Studies, vol. 40 (1986), pp. 5-33.

Heyberger, L. “Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780–1920”, Economics and Human Biology, vol. 5 (2007), pp. 229-54.

Komlos, J., “An Anthropometric History of Early-Modern France, 1666-1766”, EREH, vol. 7 (2003), pp. 159–189.

Lindert, P., “Poor relief before the Welfare State: Britain versus the Continent, 1780–1880”, EREH, vol. 2 (1998), pp. 101-140.

Lindert, P., “Unequal Living Standards”, Ch. 14 in R. Floud and D. McCloskey (eds.), The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (Cambridge: CUP, 1994), pp. 357-386

Milanovic, B. “Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay,” working paper available on-line.

Mokyr, J. The Enlightened Economy. Chs. 13 (“Demographic Transition”) and 18 (“Living Standards and Inequality”), pp. 279-308, 449-474.

Morrison, C. and W. Snyder, “The Income Inequality of France in Historical Perspective”, EREH, vol. 4 (2000), pp. 59-83.

Voth, H.-J., “Living Standards and the Urban Environment,” Ch. 10 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I. pp. 268-94.

Weir, D., “Parental Consumption Decisions and Child Health During the Early French Fertility Decline, 1790-1914,” JEH, vol. 53 (1993), pp. 259-274.

 

 

Primary

Malthus, T.R., An Essay on the Principle of Population, 1798. (Read the first edition, 1798, skimming the chapters devoted to a critique of other thinkers.)  

Faucher, Leon. Manchester in 1844: Its Present Condition and Future Prospects, 1844,

pp. 1-20, 85-152.

Birkbeck, Morris. Notes on a Journey through France in 1814, 99-115.

Colman, Henry. The Agriculture and Rural Economy of France, Belgium, Holland and

Switzerland, 1848, pp. 20-40.

 

 


Week 4. The state and public finance

 

Priority

 

Aftalion, F. The French Revolution: An Economic Interpretation. Cambridge: CUP, 1990. Ch. 1, pp. 11-30.

Clark, G., “The Political Foundation of Modern Economic Growth: England, 1540-1800”, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 26 (1996), pp. 563-88.

Epstein, S. Freedom and Growth: the Rise of States and Markets in Europe, 1300-1750. London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 12-37.

Harris, R. “Government and the Economy, 1688-1850”, Ch. 8 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. 1. pp. 204-37.

North, D., and B. Weingast, “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in 17th Century England”, JEH, vol. 49 (1989), pp. 803-32.

 

Further

Dincecco, M., “Fiscal Centralization, Limited Government, and Public Revenues in Europe, 1650-1913”, JEH, vol. 69 (2009), pp. 48-103.

Mathias P., and P. O’Brien, “Taxation in Britain and France, 1715-1810. A Comparison of the Social and Economic Incidence of Taxes Collected for the Central Governments,” Journal of European Economic History, vol. 5 (1976), pp. 601-650.

Mokyr, J. The Enlightened Economy. Ch. 17, “Formal institutions: the state and the economy”, pp. 392-448.

Norberg, K. “The French Fiscal Crisis of 1788 and the Financial Origins of the Revolution of 1789,” Ch. 7 in Fiscal Crises, Liberty, and Representative Government 1450-1789 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994) P. Hoffman and K. Norberg, eds., pp.  253-298.

Rosenthal, J.-L., “The Political Economy of Absolutism Reconsidered”, in Robert Bates et al. (eds.), Analytical Narratives (Princeton: PUP, 1998), pp. 64-108.

Sargent, T. and F. Velde, “Macroeconomic Features of the French Revolution”, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 103 (1995), pp. 474-518.

Velde, F. and D. Weir, “The Financial Market and Government Debt Policy in France, 1764-1793”, JEH, vol. 52 (1992), pp. 1-39.

White, E. “The French Revolution and the Politics of Government Finance, 1770-1815,” JEH, vol. 55 (1995), pp. 227-255.

White, E. “France and the Failure to Modernize Macroeconomic Institutions,” working paper available on-line, presented at 12th International Economic History Conference, Madrid, 1998.

 

Primary

Chaumont, F., Memoire sur la France et l’Angleterre, 1760 (English Translation) 

Nickolls, J. (L.-J. Plumard de Danguel). Remarks on the Advantages and Disadvantages of France and Great Britain, 1754, pp. 1-48.

(The Chaumont reading is more closely tied to this week’s topic.)


Week 5. Markets and industry

 

Priority

de Vries, J. “The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution”, JEH, vol. 54 (1994), pp. 249-270.

Harley, C. K., “Trade: Discovery, Mercantilism and Technology”, Ch. 7 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I.

 

Further

Bogart, D., “Turnpike trusts and the transportation revolution in 18th century England,” EEH, vol 42 (2005), pp. 479-508.

Daudin, G., “Domestic Trade and Market Size in Late Eighteenth Century France”, working paper available on-line.

de Vries, J. The Industrious Revolution: Consumer Behavior and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present. Cambridge: CUP, 2008.

Fairchilds, C. “The Production and Marketing of Populuxe Goods in Eighteenth-Century Paris”, Ch. 11 in J. Brewer and R. Porter (eds.), Consumption and the World of Goods: Understanding the Household Economy in Early Modern Europe (London: Routledge, 1994), pp. 228- 48.

Horrell, S., “Home Demand and British Industrialization,” JEH, vol. 56, no. 3 (Sept. 1996), pp. 561-604.

Lewis, G. “Proto-Industrialization in France,” EHR, vol. 47, no. 1 (Feb. 1994), pp. 150-64.

Lindert, P., “Unequal Living Standards”, Ch. 14 in R. Floud and D. McCloskey (eds.), The Economic History of Britain Since 1700, 2nd ed., vol. 1 (Cambridge: CUP, 1994), pp. 357-386

Milanovic, B. “Level of income and income distribution in mid-18th century France, according to Francois Quesnay,” working paper available on-line.

Morrison, C. and W. Snyder, “The Income Inequality of France in Historical Perspective”, EREH, vol. 4 (2000), pp. 59-83.

Nye, J., “Firm Size and Economic Backwardness: A New Look at the French Industrialization Debate”, JEH, vol. 47 (1987), pp. 649-61.

Nye, J., “The Myth of Free-Trade Britain and Fortress France: Tariffs and Trade in the Nineteenth Century”, JEH, vol. 51 (1991), pp. 23-46.

Nye, J. War, Wine, and Taxes. The Political Economy of Anglo-French Trade, 1689-1900. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2007. (Repetitive but an easy and interesting read.)

O’Rourke. K., “Tariffs and Growth in the Late 19th Century”, Economic Journal, vol. 110, no. 463 (April 2000), pp. 456-83.

Weisdorf, J. “Consumer Revolution, Industrious Revolution, and Industrial Revolution: Why England, not France?”, working paper, Dept. of Economics, University of Copenhagen, 2009. Available on-line.

 

On grain market integration:

Clark, G., “Markets and Economic Growth: The Grain Market of Medieval England”, working paper, Dept. of Economics, University of California – Davis. Available on-line.

O’Grada, C. and J.-M. Chevet, “Famine and Market in Ancien Régime France”, JEH, vol. 62 (2002), pp. 706-733.

Persson, Gunnar. Grain Markets in Europe 1500-1900, Integration and Regulation. Cambridge: CUP, 1999.

Shiue, C. and W. Keller, “Markets in China and Europe on the Eve of the Industrial Revolution”, working paper, University of Colorado, 2006. Available on-line.

Chevet, J.-M. and P. Saint-Amour, “L'intégration des marchés du blé en France au XIXe siŹcle”, Histoire et Mesure, vol. 6 (1991), pp. 93-119.

 

Primary

Note: these are not closely linked to this week’s other readings or lecture.

Taine, H. Notes on England, 1872, pp. 153-75, 272-99.

Ledru-Rollin, A.P.A. The Decline of England, 1850, pp. 19-32, 189-225, 249-62, 282- 91, 328-47.

Symons, J.C. Arts and Artisans at Home and Abroad with Sketches of the Progress of Foreign Manufacture, Edinburgh, 1839, selections.

 


Week 6. Technology / industry

 

Priority

Bruland, K., “Industrialisation and Technological Change,” Ch. 5 in The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, vol. I.  pp. 117-146.

Allen, R.C. The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective. Cambridge: CUP, 2009. Part II – The Industrial Revolution, pp. 133-276 (NB: long!).

 

Further

Fremdling, R., “Transfer Patterns of British Technology to the Continent: The Case of the Iron Industry”, EREH, vol. 4 (2000), pp. 195-222.

Griffiths, T., P. Hunt and P. O’Brien, “Inventive Activity in the British Textile Industry, 1700-1800”, JEH, vol. 52 (1992), pp. 881-906.

Khan, Z., “An Economic History of Patent Institutions”, EH.net Encyclopaedia. http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/khan.patents.

Landes, D. The Unbound Prometheus. Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge: CUP, 1969 or 2e/reprint 2003). Ch. 3 “Continental Emulation” pp. 124-192.

Mokyr, J. The Gifts of Athena. Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy. Princeton: PUP, 2002. Chs. 2-3, pp. 28-118.

Mokyr, J. The Lever of Riches. Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. Oxford: OUP, 1990. Ch. 10, pp. 239-269; Chs. 5-6, pp. 81-148.

Mokyr, J. The Enlightened Economy, chs. 6-7: “The Origins of British Technological Leadership” and “Technological Change and the Industrial Revolution”, pp. 99-144.

Moser, P.  “How Do Patent Laws Influence Innovation? Evidence from Nineteenth Century World Fairs”, The American Economic Review, vol. 95 (2005), pp. 1214-1236.

Nye, J., “Firm Size and Economic Backwardness: A New Look at the French Industrialization Debate”, JEH, vol. 47 (1987), pp. 649-61.

O’Brien, P., T. Griffiths and P. Hunt, “Technological Change During the First Industrial Revolution: the Paradigm Case of Cotton Textiles , 1688-1851” Ch. 9 in R. Fox (ed.), Technological Change (Routledge, 1998), pp. 155-176.

O’Brien et al “Political components of the industrial revolution: parliament and the English cotton textile industry, 1660-1774,” EHR 1991 394-423.

 

 

Primary

Baines, E., History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain, 1835, pp. 512-26.

Marshall, F., Population and Trade in France in 1861-62, chapters 7 and 8.

Great Exhibition, The Industry of Nations as Exemplified in the Great Exhibition of 1851, 1862, pp.156-207.

 

 


Week 7. Revolution and coercion

 

Trade/Slavery/Imperialism

Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. Robinson, “The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change, and Economic Growth,” American Economic Review, vol . 95 (2005), pp. 546-79.

Broadberry, S. and B. Gupta, “Cotton Textiles and the Great Divergence: Lancashire, India and Shifting Competitive Advantage, 1600-1850,” CEPR Discussion Paper 5183, 2005.

Allen, R. The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective, Ch. 5 (“Why Britain Succeeded”), pp. 106-131.

Crouzet, F. “War, Blockade, and Economic Change in Europe, 1792-1815,” JEH, vol. 24 no. 4 (1964), pp. 567-590.

Cuenca Esteban, J. “Comparative Patterns of Colonial Trade: Britain and its Rivals,” ch. 2 in Exceptionalism and Industrialisation: Britain and Its European Rivals, 1668-1815, L. Prados de la Escosura ed.(Cambridge: CUP, 2004), pp. 35-66.

Daudin, G., K. O’Rourke, and L. Prados de la Escosura, “Trade and Empire, 1700-1870” Document de Travail OFCE (Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques) no. 2008-24 (2008).

Findlay, R. and K. O'Rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, Ch. 6 "Trade and the Industrial Revolution". Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007.

Harley, C.K. “Trade: Discovery, Mercantilism and Technology,” Ch. 7. in Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, pp. 175-203.

Inikori, J. Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England: A Study in International Trade and Economic Development. Cambridge: CUP, 2002.

Mokyr, J. The Enlightened Economy, Ch. 8 “Britain and the World: An Open Economy”.

O’Brien et al “Political components of the industrial revolution: parliament and the English cotton textile industry, 1660-1774,” EHR 1991 394-423.

O’Brien, P., “Inseparable Connexions: Trade, Economy, Fiscal State and the Expansion of Empire” in Marshall, P.J. (ed.) The Oxford History of the British Empire. The Eighteenth Century, Oxford: OUP, 1998.

O'Brien, P. and S. Engerman, "Exports and the Growth of the British Economy from the Glorious Revolution to the Peace of Amiens," Ch. 8 in Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System, Barbara Solow, ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991. pp. 177-209.

Ormrod, D. The Rise of Commercial Empires. England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650-1770: Cambridge, CUP, 2003.

Solow, B. “Caribbean Slavery and British Growth: the Eric Williams Hypothesis,” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 17 (1985), pp.99-115.

Revolution

Aftalion, F. The French Revolution: An Economic Interpretation. Cambridge: CUP, 1990.

Broers, M. "Can We Stop the French Revolution?: Reflections on the Revisionist Revolution," History, vol 76, no. 246 (1991), pp. 56-73.

Crouzet, F. "Les conséquences économiques de la Révolution francaise: Réflexions sur un débat," Revue Économique, vol. 40, no. 6 (Nov. 1989), pp. 1189-1203. This is a special edition of the journal dedicated entirely to the theme "Révolution de 1789: Guerres et croissance économique".

Cullen, L. "History, economic crises, and revolution: understanding eighteenth-century France," EHR, vol. xlvi, no. 4 (1993), pp. 635-657.

Fohlen, C. "France, 1700-1914," Ch. 1 in The Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. 4, part 1 (The Emergence of Industrial Societies), Carlo Cipolla, ed. Glasgow: Collins, 1973.

Horn, J. The Path Not Taken: French Industrialization in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1830. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Kemp, T. Economic Forces in French History. London: Dobson Books, 1971.

Milward, A. and S. Saul. The Econonomic Development of Continental Europe 1780-1870. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973. Chs. 4-5, pp. 248-364.

Norberg, K. “The French Fiscal Crisis of 1788 and the Financial Origins of the Revolution of 1789,” Ch. 7 in Fiscal Crises, Liberty, and Representative Government 1450-1789 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994) P. Hoffman and K. Norberg, eds., pp.   253-298.

Rosenthal, J.-L. The Fruits of Revolution: Property Rights, Litigation, and French Agriculture, 1700-1860. Cambridge: CUP, 1992.

Sargent, T. and F. Velde, “Macroeconomic Features of the French Revolution”, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 103 no. 3 (June 1995), pp. 474-518.

Sutherland, D. “Peasants, Lords, and Leviathan: Winners and Losers from the Abolition of French Feudalism, 1780-1820”, JEH, vol. 62 no. 1 (March 2002), pp. 1-24.

Tombs, R. France 1814-1914. Longman, 1996. Ch. 7 "The State and the Economy", pp. 147-163.

Velde, F. and D. Weir, “The Financial Market and Government Debt Policy in France, 1746-1793”, JEH, vol. 52 no. 1 (March 1992), pp. 1-39.

White, E. “The French Revolution and the Politics of Government Finance, 1770-1815”, JEH, vol. 55 no. 2 (June 1995), pp. 227-255. (White has several other useful pieces on similar themes.)