Manuscript Collections

Balfour Diaries

Diaries of Henry BALFOUR (1863-1939), anthropologist and museum curator

Finmarken and Lapland 1888. 3rd August – 11th September – Notebook

Friday, Aug. 3      Alfred Heneage Cocks + I left Hull in the Wilson Line S.S. “Hero” at 2.45 a.m. Capt. Lawson in Command. Passed through the Grimsby trawling fleet about mid-day. 5 whales passed during the afternoon, Common – and Rudolphi’s Rorquals. Very smooth all day.

Sat. 4th                 Wind freshening, with rain. Sighted land at almost 5, off Hardanger Fjord. Passed the Bergen Fjord, with its two lighthouses. Moderate sea running during the night.

Sunday 5th           Entered a fjord at 10 a.m. Reached Aalesund at 10.30. Cargo discharged into a lighter. Arrived at Molde at 2.45pm + left at 3.15. 13 passengers disembarked. Fine, sunny day. Saw 4 Ospreys about 1 hour from Molde (at Ulsunet). Reached Christiansund at 8pm. Went ashore & about the town, + cruised round the lagoon in a rowing-boat. Large cargo of hoop-iron landed from the “Hero”, for cod-liver-oil casks.

Monday, 6th         Left Christiansund at 1 a.m. + arrived at Throndhjem at 10 a.m. The “Hero” was alongside of a pier. We landed + our luggage was passed unexamined by Customs.

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We took rooms at the Hotel d’Angleterre (Tana). Visited the Cathedral, which was being beautifully restored. Founded in the 11th century, over St. Olaf’s well. We went to the Museum, which has very good National History + Norse antiquities collections. Dined off raw herring, raw reindeer ham + raw bear’s leg – all smoked – the first + last quite good. We went to the theatre in the evening – slight of hand + conjuring show – Booked passage Vardö in SS. “Orion”, + cashed notes at Jensen’s in afternoon.

Tues. 7th               Walked round the quays before breakfast. Bought some specimens at Brun’s, + visited the prison & went all over it. Some very primitive wooden skates were being made by prisoners for sale + I bought some. Revisited the Museum in the afternoon. Wrote to E. [Edith] Went on board the “Orion” (Capt. Grann) + sailed at midnight.

Wed, 8th               We called at several small places at the entrance to Narmsen Fjord. At one part of the fjord was a very fine sight of an Osprey fishing among hundreds of Common-, Herring-, + Black-headed Gulls, with a Lesser Rorqual, a Killer Whale (Orca gladiator) + a school of dolphins (D. alberostris + others). All

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were busy with a shoal of Coal-fish (sej), apparently. Reached Namsos at 2pm. S.Y. “Gralda’ was lying there. Very warm + sunny. We stopped at several places further on. Lovely sunset.

Thurs. 9th             Very wet + misty. “Orion” called at several small villages. A bull was taken aboard at one of them. Crossed the Arctic Circle at 1.30pm. and passed Hestmandö. Passed the “President Christie”, going south, at 5.20. Weather rather brighter. Coast very wild + grand, mountains higher, but with very little snow in small patches. One Puffin seen in Salten Fjord. Passed a school of Caa’ing Whales (Globiocephalus melas), entirely black + of various sizes; some sprang high out of the water. A Lesser Rorqual also seen. Several small fleets of jagts preparing for the herring-fishery. Small herrings have been very plentiful in the latitude of Salten Fjord since Sunday. Reached Bodö at 8.30pm. + went ashore. The houses mostly have grass-covered roofs. The old church is some way from the town. Hay had been cut + was drying on hurdles erected in the fields or is erected on poles.

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Drawing of a tombstone with a star at the top, inscribed:]

“This Stone was Erected by Hendry Miller Shypmaker in Memory of his brother Capn William Miller Shymaster in dundie who died the 11th July 1761 aged 32 years in Drunthom in Norraway – Also Erected at the Desire of Catherine Dick Relict of the said Capn William Miller and their living child Elizabeth Miller.”

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Friday, 10th          Sailed from Bodö at about 1 a.m. + crossed the West Fjord during the early hours; slight beam sea. Reached Henningsvaer in the Lofoteus at 8a.m. Everywhere were the frames or hurdles for drying cod. Stopped at Svolvaer at 9.20 am. Very wet + misty, obscuring all the high land. Off dödingen we saw a school of dolphins chasing the herrings, D. albirostris among them leaping very high. There were probably two species. One dolphin swam close alongside the “Orion”, looking about from side to side as he chivied [sic] the fish. Later, after passing Gräsholmen, there were two more schools of dolphins; and near Havnvik a White-beaked Dolphin (D. albirostris) was jumping for a long time about one spot (white belly + some white on sides).

Sat. 11th               We reached Tromsö at 8 a.m. We went ashore at 9, + saw over the Museum with Herr Schneider. Good collection of birds, a few cetaceans, foetal walrus, etc. Excellent collection of Lapp specimens for which a new house is to be built. A number of [illegible] relics, old Scandinavian wooden lock, a bismar of wood dated 1611, etc. etc. We lunched at the Grand Hotel. Posted letters home. Cocks

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Three illustrations, labelled:]

“Throndenaes church, near Harstad, Hindö. One of the oldest in Norway.”

“White-beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. Gray.”

“Common Porpoise.”

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and I then went across to the Fjeld Lapp encampment (Karesuando Lapps) established for the summer in a valley. We passed a tent with two Lapp men + one woman, + bought from them some knives, reindeer-antler spoons + 2 reindeer skins. Higher up the valley there were 3 turf gamme + some Lapp women + children. One small girl drove hard bargains with us, + laid down the law to the old women. In one gamme was a woman, Christina, with a year-old infant in a cradle (komse), which can be hung on a tree or on a reindeer, with the baby inside, when the mother does not want to carry it. The gamme is built of birch-poles bent over to form a rounded dome-like structure, about 8ft. high at the centre, where a hole is left for smoke. A layer of bark covers the poles + over this is a thick + complete covering of turf. Doorway very low + narrow, with rough wooden door. At a little distance, the hut could be mistaken for a circular mound or turf-covered tumulus, very inconspicuous in a landscape. A mile further up the valley were three more deserted gamme. A herd of about 200 reindeer was being driven in to a rough kind of ‘corral’. At my request one was very skilfully lassoed, a difficult matter in such a crowd of deer. I bought the

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Two illustrations, labelled:]

“Fjeld-Lapp tent”

“Fjeld-Lapp gamme of sods”

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lasso, which is of cord with running ‘eye’ of reindeer antler. Some of the reindeer took fright + stampeded, a lassoed buck bolting with lasso, mooring log and all + making for the mountains; a doe and calf also got well away. Reindeer grunt as they walk + make a very peculiar clicking noise in the toe joints. This is not, as commonly believed, produced by the tips of the hooves clicking together as the foot is raised from the ground, since the sound occurs when all four feet are on the ground together. It may be due to a tendon, but is rather puzzling. All the antlers were in the velvet. In colours the deer ranged from almost pure white to dark brown. They form the principal currency of the Lapps – a literal pecuniary unit – the value of an adult being 18 Krone = £1. On returning to Tromsö Cocks + I went to supper with Hendricksen. There were 16 men present all together, many of them enemies of Cocks. The evening passed off all right nevertheless. We bought some braxy (still-born) reindeer skins at Dreyer’s shop. Returned on board at 11.45pm + the ‘Orion’ started off at midnight, in romonto. We had previously, at 11pm. Heard the town watchman singing out the “all’s well” through a speaking trumpet from the church belfry. [P.S.] During the

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morning we had visited a former whale-factory, now converted into a train-oil factory, + went all over it in spite of the stench. The skeleton of a Blue Rorqual (Blaa Hval) was lying near. I got some baleen-plates of a Lesser Rorqual.

Sunday, 12th         Misty during the morning, clearing later. We saw numbers of Kittiwakes near Bergsfjord. They seem to take the place of Common Gulls (L. canus) from about this point. At Bergsfjord at 9.15 am. A Fjeld Lapp man, Per Anderssen Baark, aged 44 years, from Kautokeins, came on board. He was in full Lapp summer rig, with Lasson + hide head-stalls for reindeer. We photographed him on board. He left the boat again at Oxfjord. At Hasvik a boat with 3 Sea Lapps – a man + two boys – came alongside with reindeer-meat for sale. At different times we had various Kvaens + Russians on board as passengers for short distances. A Kvaen who had come on board at Throndheim, after release from the prison there, where he had been serving a 10 years’ sentence, went ashore at Bergsfjord. One of his legs had been amputated in prison, + he had a wooden leg. He was rather a ‘person’, since a spell in Throndhjem gaol is regarded as a finishing touch to education!

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Two illustrations, labelled:]

“Kvaen who had just done 10 years in Throndheim gaol”

“ ‘pram’ “

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We reached Hammerfest at about 5pm. Some Russian schooners + a sealing-boat were in the harbour. Went ashore + looked round the quays. Numbers of Sea Lapps (Fisk Finner), Kvaens and Russians were about, also a few good types of Field Lapps. Immense quantities of stockfish (dried cod) were stocked, ready for export. Quantities of halibut + bergilt had been brought in in the Sea Lapp boats, for sale to Russians + stinking pretty badly. In the town I bought a model of a boat used in the seal-fishery, also some photos + a Lapp fibula of silver-gilt. After walking round a small lake, we dined at the Nordpol Hotel + met there Mr D.N. Ostrovsky, Russian Consul, a very amusing + interesting man. We walked to the Meridian monument + then went on board at 11.45 pm + sailed at midnight.

Monday 13th        There was a beautiful combined sunset and sunrise over the Arctic Ocean. The “Orion” went between Magerö and the mainland, arriving at Kjelvik at 9.20 a.m. (S.E. end of Magerö), then up the Porsanger Fjord, passing Tamsö, where eiders nest in myriads, the island being very valuable in consequence. The down is collected from the nests three times, the first

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Four illustrations, labelled:]

“Fjeld-Lapp on the quay, Hammerfest.”

“Sea Lapp.”

“Hut at Hammerfest, of stones, turfs & wood, half Kvaen, half-Norwegian.”

“Kvaen’s hut of sods with foundations of stones. Neat inside, with white curtains, etc. Hammerfest.”

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lot being the most valuable, the third lot poor in quality. At the romontory between Porsanger Fjord + Laxe Fjord is a famous bird-rock, Svaerholt-klubben, where the cliff is the resort of many thousands of Kittiwakes, together with Guillemots, Puffins etc. The gulls were sitting in long serried rows on the ledges, looking like strings of pearls + practically covering the cliff-face. When the ship whistled, about half rose into the air, a dazzling + most beautiful sight. There are fixed ladders on one face of the cliff, for collecting the eggs. We steamed up the Laxe Fjord to Lebesby, getting there at 11pm. At Svaerholt there are 3, perhaps 4, well-marked raised beaches.

Tuesday 14th       Nordkyn, the most northerly point of the mainland was rounded during the night + we entered the Tana Fjord at about 9.30 am. There is a smaller Kittiwake cliff at the entrance to the fjord. We reached Finkongkjellen a little later. It is curiously situated at the end of a creek with high rock cliffs; a very desolate looking settlement. Next, we steamed to the head of the Tana fjord, to Stangenaas, where were some River Lapps from the Tana R. with long, narrow boats, steered with a single paddle, + punted up the river.

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                            Returning down the Tana Fjord we turned eastwards + reached Berlevaag at 5.30pm. A very cold wind + heavy rollers were coming in from the N-E. Further east, at Syltefjord, we noted, at the west side of the entrance, a large bird-cliff with thousands of Kittiwakes + a great many Shags. After clearing Syltefjord a dense fog came on, + we hung about a long time before finding Havningsberg, keeping very close in to the shore + reckoning position by the sound of the breakers on the rocks; a rather daring expedient in a very thick fog. We kept so close inshore that occasionally we could see the gleam of the breakers, though practically nothing was visible at 50 yards range!

Wed. 15th             We arrived at Vardö at about 7a.m, seven hours late on account of the fog. We went ashore + took rooms at Lund’s Hotel – quaint + primitive – we then visited some whale-factories. A Common Rorqual had been brought in during the night + was being flensed, in large blanket pieces, which were hauled up the slip-way by chain + winch as they were being cut out. Stench colossal. The beach on one side of the island,

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facing the Sound, was strewn with pieces of ‘crang’, bones of whales + gelatinous material, waste products of the factory, + if one tried to reach the water’s edge, one had to walk over the quaking mass, 7 or 8 inches deep + liable to let one through at any moment – very unpleasant when not wearing sea-boots! We spent some time at the factories, + then went on board the “Labrador” which was lying in the Sound, getting ready for a voyage up the Yenesei. Capt. Wiggins, famous for his opening up of the trade route via the Kara Sea to the Yenesei, was very cordial. He offered to take us on as passengers in the Labrador to the Yenesei, an offer which I was much tempted to accept, though I doubted whether I could reach Archangel even, so as to be back in Oxford in time for term, and the Yenesei would have been quite impossible for me. Eventually we decided by the toss of a coin whether we would go with Wiggins to Archangel, or whether we would go up country into Lapland. The coin decided upon the latter scheme. We visited the Harbour-master’s office to see a small American bomb-lance, which had been cut out of a whale captured by a Vardö

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whaler, a kind not used on the Scandinavian coast + therefore probably fired into the whale on the other side of the Atlantic. We photo’d the lance. Wrote letters for the “Orion” to take back tomorrow.

Thurs. 16th           We walked to the factories, but no fresh whales had been brought in. We booked passages in the ‘tramp’ steamer “Valund” (Capt. Christophersen), 505 tons nett, to Yeretiki, on the Murman Coast. Then we went shooting along the shore between the factories. We bagged some Ruffs, Dunlius and Purple Sandpipers. (I shot 5 Ruffs, 3 Dunliu + 1 Purple Sandpiper + Cocks bagged others.) We meant to take these to Capt. Horne at Yeretiki, but, unluckily, left our bag on the factory pier. Packed what we wanted for the trip, had a meal, + at about 10pm. Started looking for the Chief Engineer of the “Valund” – as Capt. Chrisophersen had asked us to bring him on board with us. We did not suspect what we were letting ourselves in for! – Nowhere in Vardö could we find him. So we returned to the hotel to have a drink + think things out. While we were sitting at a table in the ‘spisesal’, my foot encountered something

[Inserted into pages of diary is a postcard with the caption on the back: “S/S “PRINSESSE RAGNHILD”, “DET NORDENFJELDSKE DAMPSKIBSSELSKAB – TRONDHEIM (NORWAY)”]

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hard, + when I looked to see what it was, I saw a boot. I said to Cocks “a boot under the table may have an engineer attached to it”, so we hauled on the boot +, sure enough, out followed our engineer, dead drunk + entirely incapable. We got him onto his legs with difficulty and frog-marched him 3/4 mile to the beach, though he broke away once or twice + on one occasion rushed at a stolkjaerre which was being driven by two stout Norwegians, and seizing the axel-box gave a heave + all but overturned the cart, to an accompaniment of shouts + curses from the Norwegians. We got him to the water’s edge + pushed him into the boat which had come for us to take us on board; but when we shoved off, the engineer, having got thoroughly excited, insisted upon taking the sculls. He gave three hefty strokes, two deep in the water, the third in the air, missing the water entirely. This made him shoot backwards off the thwart, + he hit his head hard upon the forward thwart. That, luckily, stunned him, + we then rowed to the ship. There were five of us in the very small boat (2 boys, Lund, the Engineer, Cocks + myself). The “Valund” lay

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at anchor, 1 1/2 miles away in the Sound. With much difficulty we got the engineer up the chock ladder + on board by 1.30 am, + presented him to the Captain with a “here’s your beastly engine-driver.” The Captain merely said “Oh, he always gets hopelessly drunk ashore; I why I asked you to bring him with you.” We replied “thanks”, or words to that effect, + asked what was done next. “I always do the same thing,” said the Skipper, “I seat him on the steel combing of the engine-room hatchway, + if he does not go down his ladder into the engine-room in 10 minutes, I give him a shove with my foot + down he goes.” So I hung about awaiting events. When the 10 minutes was up, the engineer being still seated on the combing, the Skipper went behind him + launched him with his foot, as per programme. There was a slithering sound + a dull crash on the steel landing at the foot of the ladder. The engineer had reached his engine-room. And so, to bed.

Friday 17th           The “Skjold”, a whaler was alongside the “Valund” when we went on board at 1.30 a.m. We saw some whales being towed in + another

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lying on the mainland beach, At 6.30 a.m. the engines started, the engineer having sufficiently recovered, under the stimulus of the smells of his glory hole, + we steamed out of Bussesund, + left Svartnaes at 7.30 am. After coasting round the Ribachi Peninsula we arrived at Yeretiki (on the Murman Coast) at about 2.30 p.m. The engineer was now quite sober + very lively + amusing, keeping us all alive. Capt. Horne, manager of the whaling station, met us + put us up at his house + treated us most luxuriously. He grows potatoes + other vegetables on the island. A remarkable man, charming, speaking English fluently + extremely well-up in English literature of all kinds. The deadly aroma of a whaling-station is a curious environment for so cultured a man. We visited a small lake on the mainland in the evening.

Sat. 18th               Coffee in bed, breakfast at 11.30 am. Cocks shot a Richardson’s Skua in the morning + two others later (one of the ‘Northern’ + 2 of the ‘Southern’ variety), also a Red-throated Diver, stunned by a single pellet on the head; it fell onto its back in the water,

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+ could not right itself, though, apparently, little the worse for the shock. We fished from the boat with ‘pilks’ in the afternoon + very soon caught 90 Cod and Haddock. The “Valund” unloaded coal + men came round to the factory to load up the refuse (whale meat, bone + offal), for conversion into patent manure in Leith. After fishing in the evening Capt. Christophersen + I walked back over the island, but saw nothing worth shooting.

Sunday 19th         Coffee in bed + late breakfast. I sketched a Russian fishing-boat (Murman Coast type) which was built with strakes stitched together, not nailed or clinkered, a type which is rapidly becoming obsolete. Cocks photographed Capt. Horne + the whole personnel of the whaling-station, + the houses. I obtained some pieces of skin of a Humpbacked Whale (Megaptera longimana) infested with Coronula + Conchoderma, parasitic barnacles which only seem to occur on this species of whale. Most Humpbacks have quantities of them imbedded in the epidermis around the lower jaw and on the huge flippers. We were shown some locally made chairs made entirely of whales’ bones; they were to be sent to the St. Petersburg Exhibition.

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Two illustrations, labelled:]

“Murman Coast fishing-boat at Yeretiki.”

“Detail, showing bulkhead, stitching of strakes & trenailing of ribs.”

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We said good bye to Capt. Horne, to whom we were very greatly indebted for his cordial hospitality, + went on board the “Valund”, which cast off at 3.45 p.m. We put in to Zip Navolok (on the Ribachi Peninsula) at 6.15. We went ashore + photo’d the church + some Russian fishing boats. Returning on board, we found several local people on board, visiting. Capt. Christophersen asked me if I would like to see a beard. This did not sound particularly thrilling, + I said that, if he had nothing better in the way of ‘sideshows’, he might produce it. He walked up to a man, a Norwegian named Fredericksen, who was the first colonist upon the Murman coast, 25 years ago, and took hold of his beard, which seemed a very ordinary one, and proceeded to tug at it, with remarkable results. The greater portion of the beard was stowed away under the man’s waistcoat, + when hauled out, hand over hand, its full length more than reached the ground, with 2 or 3 inches to spare. It had worked itself into two long, felted ropes; not a pleasant sight, as it appeared to be, incidentally a living text-book of invertebrate zoology! Fredericksen was under a vow not to trim his beard, but the objective of the vow I did not learn.

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Monday 20th        We arrived at Pasvik early in the morning + went ashore at 9 am. Took photos of the whaling-station + some Sea Lapp huts with turfed roofs. The “Valund” took another 50 tons of whale bones, and stacked them on deck, thereby adding materially to the already overpowering stench of the cargo, which battened-down hatches covered with three layers of tarpaulin had failed to control. Effluvium in excelsis! We sailed from Pasvik at 3 pm., crossed the Varanger Fjord + reached Vardö a little before 7 pm., having passed the whaler “Hvalen” bound for Jarfjord with a Humpback + a Finwhale in tow. I wrote some letters to go with the “Valund” for posting in Leith. I bought a beautiful little steel model of a modern explosive whaling-harpoon from Capt. Christophersen, made by W. Eriksen, engineer of the “Welda”, Yereteki. Before rowing to Vardö, Cocks + I went across to the mainland to see a recently caught Humpback (Knöl) and a Lesser Rorqual (Sei hval), which had been beached at one of the factories, we took photos of these. We also saw a Spaekhugger (Killer-whale, Orca gladiator), or rather, the flensed remains of one. We were rowed across Bussesund to Vardö by a couple of genial pilots, and went to Lund’s Hotel.

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Two illustrations, labelled:]

“Dorsal adipose fins of (A) HUMPBACK, Megaptera boops, ‘Knöll” (Norw.), & (B) RUDOLPHI’S RORQUAL, Balaenoptera borealis, ‘Sej hval’ (Norw.).”

“Flipper of ‘Spaekhugger’ (Killer Whale, Orca gladiator).”

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Tuesday 21st        We borrowed a boat from Seliken, a rather little tub which leaked like a sieve, + rowed across the Sound to the mainland, to photograph the remains of the Killer Whale, seen yesterday. It was 22ft 2in long. Returning to Vardö, we photo’d a Finwhale (Common Rorqual), 71 English feet long. It was being flensed (afspekket), and seemed to be of the socalled Bastard variety. In the afternoon I was rowed with Capt. Christophersen across Bussesund to see Capt. Ongvald Bryde, of the whaling-steamer ‘Thecla’, to ask him if he would take Cocks + me with him to Elvenaes in Sydvaranger. He said that he would. For recrossing Bussesund, we had another cranky little tub with barely room for the three of us + , as there was a good sea running it was difficult to keep afloat + the crossing was a very wet one.

Wednesday 22nd  We went to Evensen’s factory and photo’d a large Blue Whale (Sibbald’s Rorqual), which had been picked up dead at sea + was in a very advanced state of decomposition. Stench undescribable, even to windward. It was 97 feet long. Received my first letter from home. I pickled the Humpback parasites, to take to Oxford. Professor Sars, the Norwegian zoologist, arrived at the Hotel.

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Thursday, 23rd     Cocks + I went down to the Whale-factories in the morning, + also went on board the “Labrador” to see Capt. Wiggins. We stayed on board to lunch, + met the members of the expedition – McClellan, the 1st mate; Crowther, 2nd mate; Sullivant, agent; Sewell, a botanist from Edinburgh; and Morier, son of Sir Robert Morier, ambassador at St. Petersburg – a very jovial crowd. Wiggins was very cheery + quite sanguine as to success of his venture. He was awaiting the arrival of the “Seagull” to act as tender to the “Labrador”; but she was not yet signalled from Bergen, + a long delay in starting from Vardö seemed inevitable. In the afternoon Cocks + I went shooting along the shore. He got some Ruffs + Knots and a Merlin, and I shot some Purple Sandpipers. We skinned the birds in the evening.

Friday 24th           More bird-skinning in the morning, + then down to the whaling-stations. I went for a walk by myself afterwards + when I got back, I heard that the “Thecla” was waiting + Capt. Bryde impatient to start. There was less than 3/4 hour in which to dine, pack + go on board. The “Thecla”

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One illustration, labelled:]

“The hay-crop from the house-top, drying on hurdles erected on the roof – Vardö.”

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started at once. Very strong wind, a heavy beam sea + wet decks for the first few hours crossing the Varanger Fjord. A meal (rather crude and oily) in the stuffy little saloon, which reeked of whale, proved too much for Cocks, who turned various shades of green + then bolted up the companion way to spend the next hour or two absorbed in the contemplation of marine problems. As he had chaffed me unmercifully about my having succumbed to the undulations of the Vest Fjord, I could not help taking a malicious delight in ‘getting my own back, + I sauntered past him smoking one of the skipper’s cigars (Norwegian + cheap!). I then went up the ratlins + into the ‘crow’s nest’, a large barrel at the mast-head. The sensation was peculiar +, at first, disconcerting, as in the heavy rolling, the ‘crow’s nest’ travelled through a tremendous arc + it felt as though one must be shot out at the end of each swing. Also, looking down upon the small vessel, gave the impression that she was incapable of righting herself, with the down-drag of a huge barrel containing 10st 6 of humanity at the mast head. I got used to it after a bit + stayed up there for 3/4 hours. When I came

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down, Cocks was still very pensive + adhering to the gunwale. He never afterwards made any pointed allusions to ‘sea-legs’, ‘sea-sickness’ + such-like topics of relativity. The “Thecla” is one of the typical modern Norwegian whaling steamers, of 26 nett + 80 gross tonnage, with low free board except at the forecastle where the harpoon gun + gunner’s platform are mounted. She boasts about 8 horse-power. The run to Elvenaes, at the head of Bögfjord, took 5 1/2 hours; distance about 50 English miles. We were hospitably received by Lendsman Klerk + put up at his large + comfortable house, beautifully situated where the fjord + the tidal lowest reach of the Pasrig R. merge.

Saturday 25th       We went to see Mr Winholt, an Englishman who had come for the salmon-fishing + who had badly sprained his ankle the first day of his fishing. He was laid up in the little log hut + got no fishing this year. He gave us some small salmon flies to use for the trout + grayling up river. After this we crossed the river + walked to Boris Gleb, a Skolte Lapp village, which includes a few

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Kvaens + Russians. There is a Russian priest and a new and an old Russian church. The old one is a very small wooden structure, with small windows on one side only; a very low porch where one has to stoop to enter. Said to be 300 years old. The new church a far larger and more pretentious wooden building. The village consists of log huts, many with turf roofs. The huts are built on short ‘legs’, giving a space underneath the floor, where sledges etc are kept + where sheep can huddle. Numbers of Kjerris + summer-sledges were lying about. The Reindeer-Lapps pass through the village in March + go off to fish for salmon, returning late in the year to go back to the fjelds. We photo’d the village and also the priest, who put on his robes, but insisted upon donning an outrageous hard felt hat (a recent purchase) for the first photograph, reluctantly removing it for a second photo. He entertained us with milk, aquavit + sweets. We returned to Elvenaes by water, rowed by a Skolte Lapp. In the afternoon we went + whipped a lake for trout, but without success. Played cards in the evening. The household at the time in residence consisted of Herr Klerk, his wife, fröken Mina Klerk + one of three sons.

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Sunday 26th         Cocks + I walked along the shore + saw a pair of Merlins flying around our heads quite close. The “Thecla” started back to Vardö, firing her gun as a parting salute. In the afternoon we walked to Jarfjord, about 8 miles, had a talk with Capt. Hoff + saw one of his whaling-steamers. We drove back in a springless cart over a rough road.

Monday 27th        We looked up Mr Winholt again. He was waiting to catch the next mail-boat to return home, having had no sport because of the accident. I walked towards Kirkenaes with my gun, but saw nothing worth shooting. Later, had a walk in the woods with the ladies + Consul Ostrovsky, who had joined us in Elvenaes. The ladies treated us to songs. After this Cocks + I went to try our luck on the same small lake as on Saturday. Cocks took three 1/4 lb trout – poor sport. We made a bargain with some Skolte Lapps for a couple of boats, two Lapps to each as crew, for journey up the Pasriq R. to Lake Enãre (Inãri). Four men at 4 kroner per day going upstream + 2km Kr per day coming down, plus ‘drikke penge’.

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One illustration, labelled:]

“Herr Klerk’s house, Elvenaes, 27.8.1889.”

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Tuesday 28th        Nothing very particular. We tried fishing without success. Made further arrangements for the river trip.

Wednesday 29th   We packed our kit, procured some provisions + left Elvenaes in two very cranky boats for Boris Gleb. Cock’s crew consists of Philip Ivanovitch and Ivan Ivanovitch; mine were Ilya (Elias) + Feodor. All were Skolte Lapps from Boris Gleb. Before we had got far, we found that a provision hamper had been left behind, + Cock’s boat went back for it. I went on to Boris Gleb. When Cocks arrived we had some food before starting for the boats above the big fos. I picked up on the shore some Lapp net-sinkers, made of a stone encased in birch-bark, + a milk-churning stick. We walk about a mile to a landing place above the fos + found our boats there. They were even crankier than those we had had below. Each about 14ft long, roughly constructed with three planks to a side, these being stitched together with the roots of the Red Fir, + pegged with the trenails to the ribs. No iron nails or clinkers. My boat was especially leaky, + required bailing out every 1/4 or 1/2 hour, which kept me busy all the time while afloat – in fact, to keep her afloat–

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One illustration, labelled:]

“Wooden rowlock, or Hrole-pin, with loop of birch branches. Pasvig R.”

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We started from the landing above the Klysder Fos at 3.15p.m. and rowed to the next fos, negociating [sic] some rapids on the way, punting being resorted to to get up some + towing for others. At the second fos we disembarked + the boats were portaged over land, using tree-trunks for sleepers; the ascent was long + steep. The fall is a fine one, its narrowness causing a heavy rush of water. Above it the Pasrig becomes a series of lakes some of considerable size, connected by river-reaches. We had a rough time on one of the lakes + shipped a great deal of water over the bows; much baling required. A head wind made progress very slow + it was extremely hard work to get the boats along at all. After a time the river bent sharply to the right + became rapid again with a complete bar of shallows right across it. Higher up was a double fos, on either side of an island. We portaged the boats again over transverse logs. Above were wide lakes. By this time it was dark, but we reached a Kvaen’s (Per Pedari) hut at 11.15pm. + found the family asleep in various corners, men + women in one room. They gave us a small hut to sleep in + made hay beds with reindeer skins for blankets for us. We had a meal of sorts + turned in. The Scotch firs

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which are scarce + stunted around Elvenaes + Boris Gleb increase in size as the coastal area is left + large trees are seen thickly scattered amid the predominant birches. A few willows also occur.

Thursday 30th      Got up at 6.30 am. + had breakfast in the hut; we paid 1.50kr. for our lodging + started in the boats at 8.10. The lake was very rough + there was considerable danger of swamping. We had to skirt all round the shores to try to keep under the lee of the promontories. We saw several huts along the shores. The river turned to the right + about here duck were very numerous, mostly Tufted Duck; a good many Divers + Mergansers. Cocks shot a Pintail [female]. At noon we reached some long rapids, involving towing + poling, + at 12.20 we went ashore + beached the boats for portaging. Here we lunched + cooked coffee at a wood fire. Very picturesque spot in a mixed birch + fir forest. The portage was long + arduous + we did not get afloat again till 3.30pm. At 5.20 pm we reached a fall, Ramalgoski (Lappish) + Haka-gaski (Kvaensk), a very fine fall, 300 yards wide. Grayling were plentiful below the fall. It took a long time to tow the boats up the rapid +

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+ haul them overland past the fall. We got away again at 7.30 pm. + rowed on in rough water + finally reached a headland leading into a large lake. Here the full force of the head wind burst upon us + we had the greatest difficulty in rounding the headland. My crew only just managed by sticking to it very pluckily. When clear of the point we decided not to try to push on further, for fear of swamping in the heavy surf. We landed + cut down some trees for fire-wood. We hauled one of the boats ashore + turned it upside down to serve as a hut for Cocks + myself, stuffed moss between the gunwale + the ground to keep the wind out, + spread fir + birch branches for beds. We soon had a roaring fire + cooked grayling for supper. We inspected the camp of our Lapp crews, + all we could see was 4 sheep-skin bags on the ground, presumably each with a Lapp inside, arranged around their fire. We then turned in, the night being clear + the wind less strong, and slept, disturbed by mosquitoes + other small vermin. Had to get up several times to replenish the fire, to try and smoke off the mosquitoes + midges which were distressingly active + pertinacious.

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Friday 31st           Up at 6 am. Grayling for breakfast; struck camp by launcing [sic] our “bed-room”, + started on the lake. Water still very rough, necessitating long detours to try + keep under the lee. We had to haul the boats up several extensive rapids. We did a little fishing en route. Lunched on the Russian side. The pines beginning to predominate over the birches. Reached Vaga Tim (“Tim” = old Lappish for “lake”) and landed on an island, Sevri Suolo, where we put up at a log hut belonging to Mr Klerk of Elvenaes. We had numerous visitors. Eight families of Skolte Lapps live on the island in log huts. We visited several of the huts which are very crowded. Many looked in upon us in our hut during our evening meal. Their chief focus of interest was our candle stuck into a beer-bottle. This greatly intrigued them. We bought some “syk” (Corregonus sp.) + new potatoes, the former were 2 a penny, the latter a penny for twelve. Inquisitive cows + sheep blocked the doorway. I made a sketch of the view from the hut, with cows breathing heavily over the paper + sniffing at my ‘komager’ (Lapp boots of reindeer-skin which I wore throughout the trip). An interested crowd of Lapps added to the difficulties

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                            of sketching. A raised wooden platform overspread with birch-branches formed our beds. The hearth was raised + built of flat stones + had a rough chimney.

Saturday Sept. 1st My night was disturbed by zoological derivatives from the Lapps; bed very hard + the knapsack-pillow unyielding. Trout for breakfast. Cocks photographed some groups of the Lapps. We paid 50 öre (6 1/2 d) for our firing + a bottle of milk. The younger of my two men, Feodor Japhimvitek, stayed behind, and his father, Jephim, took his place in my boat. I also exchanged the boat I had so-far used for a slightly better one. We started off in the boats at 10.50 a.m. Very fine and warm, though there had been a storm during the night. The boats were hauled up the Jordani fos. We passed the last Skolte Lapp settlement in this direction in Botsjärvi (Kvaensk) or Brijan (?) järvi (Lappish). We saw a good many nesting-boxes, made from sections of tree trunks, fixed to Scotch firs, + put there for ducks (mostly Golden-eye) to nest in. The Lapps + Kvaens take the nests afterwards. We saw a man + woman cutting the long sedge-grass growing in shallow water. This would be dried + well beaten, to be

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One illustration, labelled:]

“Door-hinge, entirely of wood, Pasvig R.. They are sometimes made of reindeer antlers.”

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used as a stuffing for filling the komager. This kind of hay ‘sock’ is excellent, as I can testify from experience. Thanks to this expedient, my feet were never cold, even when my body was shivering with the cold. Later on we saw men cutting with small scythes the same sedge-grass for hay. We tried to get some ducks but were unsuccessful. At 3pm. we lunched at a Kvaen’s hut + started again at 5. We passed a rapid about a mile long, the boats being towed + poled up it. Below this rapid we caught some grayling + trout, the former averaging about 3/4 lb or more, one trout being about the same weight. We arrived for the night at a Kvaen’s hut at 8.10 pm. + were given one half of the hut + dried (or, rather, somewhat wet) grass for beds. Grayling for supper.

Sunday, 2nd          The night was cold + the ‘beds’ very hard. In the middle of the night I discovered a wide gap in the wall close to me, through which blew an icy draught. I plugged this up with grass from the bed. Very early in the morning we were visited by a small child who was promptly ejected. After a grayling breakfast we packed our kit +

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paid the woman, who would only take 1 krone, for our lodging, bought some more potatoes + got started at 8.50 am. There were few lakes, the river being narrower. Very long rapids. We lunched at a Kvaen’s hovel, the man being away. Caught some grayling. One rapid at the Finland-Norwegian frontier took 1 1/2 hours to ascend. Mosquitoes + midges very bad. Very fine most of the day. We saw many reindeer in the forest. Later the river narrowed still more + the stream was very strong indeed, so that towing had to be resorted to, one of the crew keeping the boat’s head straight with a pole. The Finland bank was high + composed of coarse shingle and sand. Night came on very dark + , as it was dangerous to try + ascend one of the rapids in the dark, we had to camp in the bush under one of the boats, at the end of a small creek, well sheltered. Very cold night.

Monday, 3rd         Cold grayling for breakfast. I shot two Siberian Jays (LavsKrike), which we had heard calling with a peculiar note. We started away in the boats at 8.50 am. Rapids were practically continuous + progress was slow. Fine during

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most of the day. We lunched at the end of a log run overland at a powerful fos. In the evening I shot a young cuckoo (this year’s bird) from the boat. Lovely evening. At 7.40 p.m. we came up with two Lapps who had encamped for the night below a fos, so we joined them + pitched our camp there. Trout supper.

Tuesday, 4th         Very cold night + in the early hours I had to get up to make up the fire. Got up for good before 6 a.m. Beautiful morning. After breakfast of cold trout, we struck camp + started at 8.30 am. I had a walk in the forest + shot a squirrel (red-tailed variety). Later we saw about 14 swifts hawking together, also great numbers of ducks + mergansers. At 11.40 a.m. we surmounted the last fos + entered Lake Inãri (or Enãre), the source of the Pasrig R. The lake is quite narrow + river-like at this end. We came across some Lapps +, further on, some more, so we landed there for our meal of toasted trout. The Lapps (mostly half-bred Kvaens) had a birch-bark tent + a smaller canvas one. One of these had a primitive locally-made flint-lock

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musket with the action of a ‘snaphaunce’. Cocks changed to a larger lake boat + took one of these Lapps as a pilot across the big Lake Enãre. The lake widened out gradually as we left the river outlet. It is very thickly studded with islands, most of them evidently part of the fir-forest. We turned S. + S-E., away from our main course, in order to call at the piloting Lapp’s hut for some of his belongings; we arrived there at 6pm. + found the establishment a prosperous one, but the living hut was as filthy as usual – it was a ‘living hut’ in the sense of being alive with vermin – The owner had 5 young but full-grown foxes + had just shot another. In the hut was a lot of inner bark of the fir, kept for pounding up with meal for making soup. He had 2 flint-lock muskets of the crudely made ‘snaphaunce’ type, one of which I bought from him; also 2 percussion rifles of primitive make, all very old + with small rough stocks. Cocks + I were given a small, indescribably filthy inner room. We had squirrels + trout for supper. The situation was very pretty, at the end of a creek with a small river running into it. Fish plentiful + large.

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Some of the doors had hinges of reindeer-antler. Our evening meal was eaten in the midst of an admiring, or, any rate, wondering crowd. The man gave us a ‘syk’ (Corregonus) + some potatoes.

Wednesday 5th     We had a cold-fish breakfast + started in the boats at 6.30 a.m., Cocks’s boat hoisted sail + presently took my smaller boat in tow. A miserable day. The wind veered to E. + N.E., + a downpour of rain drenched me to the skin. At 11 am we landed at a Kvaen’s hut near the middle of Lake Enãre. He was divided the very small stock of provisions, squared our accounts + parted company – Cocks to cross the lake to Enãre village, + I to return down the Pasrig R. with my two Lapps. I had a late + meagre lunch at a hut just at the top of the fos where the river emerges from the lake. The roof was mostly off, but I managed to get moderately dry. Owing to the lateness of my ‘middags mad’, we did not get started again till evening. I walked down the first hundred yards of the fos, the boat being let down by tow-rope + boomed out with a pole; but we shot the rest of the

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                            rapid in the boat. We had a very lively time in the heavier surf, which often rose far above the gunwale + we all-but got swamped. Soon after we stuck broadside on to the rapid in a bad place in mid-stream, and the blade of one of the sculls was smashed, while another went overboard, but luckily was recovered. After this I was lowered down the rest of the rapid by tow-line from the shore, + this rapid provided no further incident. There was a long reach of smooth water leading to the next fos, but as night overtook us, we elected to camp in the bush on the river bank. The rain had never ceased + I was drenched to the skin + everything I had was the same. The boat was turned over to provide a partial roof + wind-break, + I arranged some very wet birch-branches for a spring mattress on this I made a ‘corduroy’ bed of billets of fir-wood, to keep me out of the standing water. It was impossible to make a fire, + anyway, as I had been unable to shoot or fish, there was nothing to cook, so I turned in on the billets to get out of the rain + slept, a wringing-wet ulster + macintosh doing duty as bed-clothes. The leaky boat dripped

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One illustration, labelled:]

“My camp on the bank of the Pasvig R, Sept. 5th”.

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water onto me, but as I was already as wet as I could be, this made little difference. The wood billets were hard + angular, +, Lord, it was cold! I was shivering all over, but somehow I managed to get off to sleep.

Thursday 6th        Woke up at about 5am. Still drizzling. I found that during the night my weight had caused the ‘bed’ to sink into the spongy, mossy ground, and that I had been lying in some inches depth of water. At any rate, the part of me which was under water was distinctly less cold than the part which wasn’t, although all was equally sodden; so it didn’t matter. I got up, caught a trout + toasted it for breakfast, + roused my two Lapps from their sheep-skin bags, in which they had been quite warm. We launched the boat at 6.30 am. + shot the upper part of the next fos. I had to land while the boat was let down the lower part where the rapids were worse. Below this fos we came at once to our camping-ground of Monday night. A sea-eagle, with white tail sailed by. We next went down a nearby continuous run of rapids, with never more than 1/2-3/4 mile

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                            of peaceful water between. We came to our lunching-place of Monday, at the top of a log-run. Later we past a Kvaen colony, with several huts on the left bank. A little later we passed the creek where we had bivouacked on Sunday. Immediately below this is the frontier between Finland and Finmarken on the left bank + Finland + Russia on the right bank. The frontier is marked by a dead-straight clearing through the forest, about 12 yards wide or so. At about 3 or 4 pm. we came to another log-run on the left bank. Here we met the Kvaen at whose hut we had stopped on Saturday night (Rather like General Pitt Rivers in the face, though not in stature). We landed + tried unsuccessfully to light a fire, but everything was too wet + it was impossible. Had to lunch off cold squirrel at about 5pm. Meagre meal, but supplies were exhausted. At about 6.30 pm we passed the Kvaen’s hut where we lunched on Sunday, on the left bank. After this I took the sculls and sculled for a few miles, to give Jephim a rest, down a fine reach of smooth water; then we came to a rapid, part of which involved a portage over a log-run on the right bank. Next came a long, smooth reach, after which we came

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Diagram showing river, frontier clearing and Finland, Finmarken and Russia.]

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to the Kvaen hut where we had spent Saturday night. We asked if we could put up for the night there again; but they had no room + politely declined. So we had to go on again. At about 10.30pm. We arrived at the hut of another Kvaen, the worst character on the river, against whom Lendsman Klerk had especially warned us, as the man was already suspected of murder and was ‘wanted’ for the even worse crime of reindeer-stealing. He had never been apprehended as he could so easily hide away in the forest, when pursued, + a ‘pin in a haystack’ is conspicuous as compared with a Kvaen in a forest. At first I did not recognise the place + my crew beached the boat + we landed. I then spotted it + realised that as I was fagged out + would probably sleep heavily, it was undesirable to stay in that hut at the mercy of a scallywag Finn, who might covet my gun + other possessions + might not be particular as to how he got them. So I elected to go on. My Lapps, not understanding the point + being pretty well played out, after working hard since 6.30 a.m. refused to proceed further. I could not explain to them my reasons, as they spoke Lappish + a little Russian, neither language being of any use to me.

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So I had a great game getting them into the boat, for when I had got one in + was busy trying to insert the other, the first got out again. After about half an hour of this I luckily managed to push Elya (my headman) over the gunwale + before he could right himself + crawl out, I corked him up with Jephim. I then shoved off quickly + got in myself + the boat started drifting rapidly downstream. The Lapps then sulkily took the skulls + we went on. Elya remained morose, but Jephim, always a boisterous humourist, who had previously saved other awkward situations, soon recovered + roared with laughter. The first reach was a grand one + a fine sunset lit it up beautifully. We next rowed along a long lake at the end of which we came to a fos, down which we made a sensational ‘shoot’ in the dark. The surf was very heavy + it would have been a nasty rapid in broad daylight. To negociate it in the pitch dark was a real triumph + Elya’s steering + piloting was a masterpiece of skilful navigation. It is a puzzle to me how we got down without swamping + I was too sleepy + fagged to care too much. Below this fos was

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was a long reach of lake + some time after midnight [I had busted my watch by sleeping upon it the previous night under water, + could only guess the time] we reached the island of Vaga Tim (Sevri Suolo) where we had spent Friday night. I went to Mr Klerk’s hut + had it to myself. The Lapps of the village had all turned in, so I was not worried by a crowd. We had travelled in one day a distance which required three days on the upward journey, + mostly in drenching + cold weather. I knew that my two Lapps were quite spent, so I gave them some whisky, under the influence of which they became very genial + contented. ‘Gamle Papa’ (alias Elya) brought me a huge syk (Grayling) for which he gladly accepted 5 öre (about 1/2d). I also had potatoes which I fried in some derelict bacon fat which I discovered in my kit – an excellent + most welcome supper. I then turned in on the platform strewn with birch branches, with log pillow covered with wet macintosh; but did not sleep much, on account of the fleas, which must have been fasting since last Friday, + seemed quite enthusiastic at my return to the hut. It was also very cold.

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Friday 7th             Beautiful morning. I paid the Skolte woman who had helped with supplies etc. 50 öre, with which she was delighted. Packed kit + we got away in the boat at about 9.30 am, I guessed. A crowd of chattering, good-tempered Lapp ladies watched our preparations for departure, + some kept running up with things which my men had forgotten – such as beaten hay for stuffing into the reindeer-skin boots, etc – Crossing the lake I picked up a recently drowned lemming (‘sapli’ in Lappish), it presumably had been migrating. I watched an Osprey fishing in the lake. We passed an island on which all the trees were burnt. There was a small bar at this point over which we passed easily. Further on we came to a strong rapid with heavy surf down which we shot successfully. After crossing a large lake we reached a rigorous rapid, + I had to walk in order to lighten the boat. Elya, who took the boat down, shipped a large wave + was half swamped, which did not improve the condition of my already sodden kit. We next navigated along a rather monotonous lake or series of small lakes past our camping-ground of Thursday (Aug. 30th). Rain started again +

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+ continued without cessation. A miserable evening. We reached the biggest fos, where there is a double log-run portage, and soon after we came to a long fos with a portage at least 1/2 mile long. It was very hard work for the three of us, dragging the boat over, through 1/2 mile of water-logged bush + I got drenched to the bone. After this came a long, smooth reach, most of it in the dark. I rowed most of the way, as Elya + Jephim were exhausted. It was pitch dark when we came to a small Kvaen hovel, where we asked to be put up for the night, to get out of the rain. After a cold supper of scraps, I turned in on some reindeer-skins spread on the floor with others for blankets. It was impossible to change my drenched clothes, so I had to sleep in them, but got quite warm under the skins. The Kvaen, his wife (who was smoking a huge pipe), my two Lapps + myself all slept in the same small room, the hut consisting of one room only. The [illegible] was epoch-making, though I was only too glad to get warm again. My wet clothes made the atmosphere steamy, like a ‘Finnish bath’, quite appropriate to the locality!

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Saturday 8th         I gave the Kvaen 75 öre for my lodging. It came on to drizzle again + during the whole day it never ceased drizzling, exepting [sic] when it changed to rain + sleet. Most unpleasant. We began with a long, monotonous row against a head-wind, + came to a big, double fos with a long portage, the logs of which were well laid, some even being pegged down. After this another lake ending in another fall with a very bad + steep log-run. It was well on in the afternoon when we stopped in the next reach for lunch, for which I had a squirrel which I had shot. Soon after this we reached the big fall a mile above Boris Gleb. We disembarked at the top of the rapid leading to the fall, and shouldered our kit + walked to the village. Soon after, I borrowed the Russian priest’s boat + we reached Elvenaes at about 7 p.m. I was not sorry to be in a real house again, with the prospect of a bath + of getting dry after having been wet through ever since Wednesday morning. A good meal, too, was very acceptable. I found letters + various newspapers had arrived for me. The newspapers were nearly the cause of a serious disaster. I got into bed,

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and, not realising how completely fagged out I was, I started reading a newspaper by the light of a candle. I do not fancy that I read one word + the next experience was waking with a start + a feeling of warmth. The paper was burning away + the bed-clothes were alight + I was in the midst of flames. I nipped out of bed + with the help of the pillow managed to beat out the fire. I had been taught a lesson. The house was a wooden one + I only just woke in time to stop the conflagration before it gained control. I turned in on the charred remains of the bed-clothes + slept the clock round without a break.

Sunday 9th           When I got up + joined the family in the afternoon, I had to go into the confessional + explain what had happened. They took it very well, considering. I paid for the damage + nothing more was said about it – but I expect that they thought a lot! It rained all day + I stayed indoors.

Monday 10th        In the morning I rowed across the fjord + down to Trifan’s Cave, a small recess in the rock cliff, which is a place of pilgrimage for

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                            the Skolte Lapps. It is also called St. Boris’ Cave. I climbed up to it + found in it a roughly carved + inscribed wooden panel, on which were coins and small loaves etc left by the Lapps on their way down the fjord to the sea-fishing. They come down from Vaga Tim and the upper river about the end of April, go to the coast for sea-fishing + return up-river again during August for the reindeer tending. In winter they eat reindeer-meat, salted fish, + through the summer fish is the staple diet. Many of them visit + hang about the whaling-stations, + are allowed to take quantities of the whale-meat which they put into barrels for salting. I had previously seen Lapps so engaged at some of the whaling-stations; cutting off enormous masses of muscle from the carcasses; they would cut a slit through the mass, through which they could insert an arm + so carry the heavy mass. One particularly enterprising Lapp climbed inside the enormous mouth of a Fin-whale, which had been picked up dead at sea + was distinctly ‘far gone’, and crawled on to the top of the colossal tongue, which, being in an advanced state of decomposition,

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One illustration, labelled:]

“Shrine-panel & offerings-board in St. Boris’ Cave.”

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                            promptly gave way under his weight + he found himself buried up to his waist in the putrid mass – ugh!! He had to be driven away from the factory, down wind. I don’t know what steps he took, but he had no change of clothing. He did not appear to mind very much, but nobody loved him, + everyone was relieved when he was out of sight + olfactory range. But this is a digression. Towards evening I walked to Kirkenaes, about 7 miles there, + returned over the hills, passing several small fresh-water lakes. Just as it got dusk I saw a huge Lapp Owl quite close on a low birch tree. I was not more than six feet from it. It flew away in a hurry. I also saw a Short-eared Owl. It soon got dark, + while I was passing a very small lake, I heard a series of piercing shrieks, blood-curdling, coming it seemed from the other side. I thought that a Lapp must be murdering his wife + ran round the lake to the other side, only to find no one there. Presently the shrieks started again + I again ran round to the far side – again nothing. I was non-plussed. The moon had emerged from the clouds by now + partly lit up the water +

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One illustration, labelled:]

“Kirkenaes” church.

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in the beam of light I first discerned a small, dark object floating in the middle of the lake. With my glasses I saw what it was – a Black-throated Diver that explained the heart-rending shrieks. It was the first time I had heard one of these birds fairly let himself go vocally. Later, a hare got up right under my feet. It was pitch dark when I got to Boris Gleb, except for occasional moon-light, + I rowed back to Elvenaes, arriving late at night.

Tuesday 11th        I packed up my kit for the journey home. Bought three squirrel skins, prepared by Miss Mina Klerk. Two were of the red variety which frequent the pine trees, + one was the grey variety frequently birch woods. All were in winter dress. I was very sorry to leave this delightful place. Mr Klerk took me + my kit in his small boat + we sailed down the long fjord to Kirkenaes, almost 8 kilometres.

                            I returned home by the Norwegian Coast, via Throndhjem & Hull, + arrived in London on Monday, Oct. 1st.