Manuscript Collections

Spencer Papers

Papers of Sir Walter Baldwin SPENCER (1860-1929), biologist and anthropologist

  • eight boxes of material
  • the material includes correspondence, notebooks, loose notes and drawings
  • much of the correspondence has been published in John Mulvaney, Howard Morphy and Alison Petch (eds.), ‘My Dear Spencer: The Letters of F. J. Gillen to Baldwin Spencer (Melbourne, 1997); and John Mulvaney, Alison Petch and Howard Morphy (eds.), From the Frontier: Outback Letters to Baldwin Spencer (St Leonards, 2000). The twenty five letters written from Paddy Cahill at Oenpelli have been published in Paddy Cahill of Oenpelli, by John Mulvaney (2004).

Related Resources

Collections of papers: Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales; Melbourne Museum; Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford; British Library; Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

Collections of objects, photographs, etc.: Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford

National Register of Archives: Spencer, Sir Walter Baldwin (1860-1929) Knight, Biologist and Ethnographer Link to record (external site)

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Spencer, Sir (Walter) Baldwin (1860-1929), biologist and anthropologist Link to article (external site)

Full Listing

Box 1

 

A            Correspondence relating to the Horn Expedition to Australia

 

1            17.4.1894. From W. A. Horn (in Adelaide) to B. S. (?), concerning the preparation of materials for the Expedition.

 

2            09.06.1894. From W. A. Horn (in Adelaide) to B. S. (?), concerning the preparation of materials for the Expedition.

 

3            16.08.1894. From W. A. Horn (in London) to B. S. (in Australia), acknowledging telegram to report the return of the Expedition.

 

4            20.10.1894. From W. A. Horn (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia), concerning the cost of the Expedition.

 

5            15.11.1894. From W. A. Horn (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia), acknowledging receipt of Expedition photographs.

 

6            24.12.1894. From W. A. Horn (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia), concerning non-receipt of reports and list of specimens - Note of peevishness.

 

7            06.01.1895. From W. A. Horn (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). Reports, etc. still not received. Some members of the Expedition have ignored W. A. Horn’s role.

 

8            04.02.1895. From W. A. Horn (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). Anxieties about the success of the Expedition.

 

9            23.02.1895. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. (in U. K.). Handwritten copy retained by B. S., defending the non-dispatch of reports – “ Considerable difficulties”.

 

10          02.04.1895. From W. A. H. (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). W. A. H. defends himself and says B. S. has misunderstood/ details of additional expenditures wanted.

 

11          13.05.1895. From W. A. H. (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). W. A. H. is satisfied with B. S., but not with others. Details of expenditures wanted. Winnecke’s Journal not acceptable.

 

12          18.05.1895. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. (in UK). Handwritten copy retained by B. S. Proposed final form of the report. Suggests publish in Australia, not in the U.K.

 

13          29.05.1895. From W. A. H. (in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). Certain items not yet received.

 

14          02.07.1895. From W. A. H. ( in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). Still short of information. Winnecke’s regrettable attitude.

 

15          18.07.1895. From W. A. H. ( in Damerham) to B. S. (in Australia). Complaints about part of information.

 

16          17.08.1895. From B. S. to W. A. H. More complaints.

 

17          27.08.1895. From B. S. to W. A. H. Handwritten copy retained by B. S. Counter-complaints. Gillen is dissatisfied.

 

18          02.09. 1895. From F. W. Bolt to B. S. Complaints that W. A. H. does not write letters. Money problems.

 

19          17.09.1895. From F. W. Bolt to B. S. Has received authority from W. A. H. to advance £300.

 

20          20.09.1895. From B. S. to W. A. H. Handwritten précis of letter retained by B. S. Asks for decisions about publication.

 

21          21.09.1895. From Bolt and Son (Adelaide Solicitors) to B. S. (in Melbourne). Herewith cheque for £200 on behalf of Mr. Horn.

 

22          02.10.1895. W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Complaints: “The business is very unsatisfactory all round, except for your own work”.

 

23          17.10.1895. From F. W. Bolt (Adelaide Solicitor) to B. S. More trouble expected. W. A. H. has authorized advance of £800 for publication. “ Hoping the curtain will soon be rung down on the Horn Expedition”.

 

24/25     -10.1895. Exchange of telegrams between B. S. and W. A. H. “Cable Number Issue Spencer”. “ Five Horn”.

 

26          22.10.1895. From W. A. H. to B. S. Vigorous defense against B. S.’s “indignant letter”. Claims reasonable grounds of complaint.

 

27          12.11.1895. From F. W. Bolt (Adelaide Solicitor) to B. S. Money troubles. “ I am seriously concerned at Horn’s state of health”.

 

28          25.11.1895. From W. A. H. (in Damerham) to B. S. More troubles, mainly concerning Stirling’s work.

 

29          30.11.1895. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Handwritten copy retained by B. S. Riposte to No 26 above.

 

30          17.12.1895. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Précis of letter retained by B. S. Explains plans of publication.

 

31          23.12.1895. From F. W. Bolt ( Adelaide Solicitor) to B. S. W. A. H. has authorized an additional £300.

 

32          26.12.1895. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Complaints. All except B. S. are treating him badly.

 

33          04.01.1896. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Handwritten copy retained by B. S. Appeals to be allowed to get on.

 

34          27.01.1896. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Things are getting on. B. S. is working 10 hours a day.

 

35          29.01.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Criticisms of anthropology part of paper. “ I was very disappointed”. Winnecke has behaved badly.

 

36          14.02.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Instructions for publication. Winnecke is to receive no credit. “ I don’t mind paying literally, but I won’t be blackmailed”.

 

37          15.02.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Criticism of geological report. More complaints.

 

38          18.02.1896. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Handwritten copy retained by B. S. Forwarding copy of Zoology part. Illness of B. S.’s wife has caused delay.

 

39          26.02.1896. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Handwritten précis retained by B. S. Suggests pattern of distribution of collection: Australia, England, Germany, France, U.S.A. Wants to know what illustrations will be used.

 

40          -03.1896. Envelope addressed to B. S. in Melbourne containing signed photograph of W. A. H.

 

41          03.03.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Defends himself against charge of causing “perturbation of mind” to B. S. Criticisms.

 

42          11.03.1896. From Melville, Mullen, Slade (Melbourne Booksellers) to B. S. (in Melbourne) Acknowledges receipt of cablegram reading “Horn Settled”.

 

43          24.03.1896. From B. S. to W. A. H. Handwritten précis retained by B. S. Asks for specific information on what W. A. H. is doing.

 

44          01.04.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Acknowledges Part II of book. Suggests improvements.

 

45          02.04.1896. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H.  (in London) Copy of telegram  (with cash receipt) reading “Circumstances urgent Send Maps Illustrations For Narrative”.

 

46          08.04.1896. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to W. A. H. Troubles with Winnecke, who must be forestalled in publication. Explains perturbation and criticizes W. A. H.

 

47          29.05.1896. From W. A. H. (in Margate) to B. S. “Your criticisms rather disconcerted me”.

 

48          15.06.1896. From W. A. H. to B. S. Details regarding photographs and proposed presentations.

 

49          06.07.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Defending himself against charge of “not playing fair”. Praises B. S. ’s work.

 

50          02.09.1896. From W. A. H. (in London) to B. S. Details of lithographs.

 

B            Correspondence with Alfred William Howitt

 

1            15.07.1895. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for congratulations on appointment to University of Melbourne.

 

2            20.09.1896. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Making an appointment.

 

3            1897. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Giving information on marriage “rules”. NOA.

 

4            12.06.1897. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Further information.

 

5            12.11.1897. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Regrets for missing a paper read by B. S. Further information.

 

6            21.03.1898. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Request to read A. W. H. ’s daughter MS on folklore.

 

7            02.06.1898. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S.  Thanks for help over A. W. H. daughter’s manuscript.

 

8            12.09.1898. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Thanks for B. S.‘s letter of 10.09.1898 with suggestions.

 

9            13.09.1898. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Regrets inability to accept invitation.

 

10          01.11.1898. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Saying good-bye. More about daughter’s MS.

 

11          28.12.1898. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Congratulations on completion of B. S.‘s “great work”; and thanks for compliment of dedication.

 

12          20.03.1899. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Thanks for help over daughter’s MS.

 

13          13.04.1899. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Forwarding a MS – FISM(?) is ill.

 

14          01.05.1899. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Asking for information on a “passage”.

 

15          18.12.1899. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Reporting receipt of A. A. A. Soc. Handbook proofs.

 

16          10.02.1900. From A. W. H. (in Malvern) to B. S. Thanks for help given. “Siebert’s Investigations”.

 

17          04.06.1900. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Apologies for failure to return camera lens. He is trying to finish work and get away for a year.

 

18          27.06.1900. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Congratulations on nomination to Royal Society. Anxiety about his own appointment.

 

19          07.07.1900. From A. W. H. (in East Malvern) to B. S. Siebert’s work.

 

20          18.07.1900. From A. W. H. to B. S. Will be glad to contribute to A.A.A. Society publishing fund. He is sending further MS material for criticism.

 

21          25.07.1900. From A. W. H. to B. S. He is sending further material for criticism.

 

22          03.08.1900. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Thanks for trouble taken and valuable criticisms.

 

23          09.08.1900. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Agrees to sit for his portrait. He is sending further MS material.

 

24          13.08.1900. From A. W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Arranging meetings.

 

25          03.10.1900. From A.W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Congratulations on having found funds for expedition. Information about aboriginal words.

 

26          26.01.1901. From A.W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Sending rough draft for criticism. “Your criticisms are of the greatest value to me”.

 

27          07.03.1901. From A.W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Information about aboriginal words.

 

28          30.08.1901. From A.W. H. (in Melbourne) to B. S. Acknowledging several B. S. letters. Congratulations on success of expedition. He is sending another chapter for criticism.

 

29          16.05.1902. From A.W. H. ( in ?) to B. S. Recounting the difficulties he faces in finishing his work.

 

30          15.09.1902. From A.W. H. (in ?) to B. S. He sympathizes with B. S.‘s troubles and anxieties and tells his own. The letter is written on “mourning” paper.

 

31          24.04.1903. From A.W. H. (in ?) to B. S. He is at the “Grand Hotel” for a rest.

 

32          01.06.1903. From A. W. H. (in Sydney) to B. S. He is forwarding a letter from a Mr. Crawley for B. S. opinion.

 

33          02.08.1903. From A. W. H. (in Sydney) to B. S. He thanks B. S. for condolences on death of his wife – written on mourning paper.

 

34          13.10.1903. From A.W. H. (in ?) to B. S. Apology for not answering letters. A.W.H. has nearly finished his work.

 

35          09.11.1903. From A. W. H. (in ?) He accepts invitation to stay.

 

 

C           Letters from Lorimer Fison

 

1            06.02.1899. From L. F. to B. S. Scholarly dispute. L. F. is critical of Tylor and MacGregor.

 

2            ?From L. F. to B. S. Agreement on criticism of Mathew. Details of academic postings.

 

3            ? From L. F. to B. S. L. F. is acknowledging a letter from B.S.

 

4            ? From L. F. to B. S. L. F. has had an accident and reports progress. He does not want to interrupt B. S.‘s “great work”.

 

5            ? From L. F. to B. S. Criticism of Tylor, who has “a malady” – Tylor’s “monstrous” proposal  which “Frazer” has steadfastly opposed – B. S. is going to U.K.

 

6            ? From L. F. to B. S.

 

7            ? From L. F. to B. S. He is unable to accept an invitation.

 

8            10.01.1900. From L. F. to B. S. A provisional acceptance of an invitation to dinner.

 

9            08.09.(?)1900. From L. F. to B. S. Details of a fund-raising project.

 

10          08.11.(?)1900. From L. F. to B. S. Details of written contributions to a publication.

 

11          05.12.1900. From L. F. to B. S. B.  S. is going on an expedition.

 

12          18.05.1901. From L. F. to B. S. Reply to letter D 2. L. F. is acknowledging a letter from B. S. about his journey. “The Duke and Duchess” have been visiting Melbourne. The Bishop of Tasmania’s crazy scheme for uplifting the aboriginals. Details of “sub-incision”.

 

13          ?-05.1902. From L. F. to B. S. Advice on a lecture B.S. is to give. Should nude slides be shown? L. F. says “yes”, but be careful of the law.

 

14          23.04.1893. From L. F. to B. S.

 

15          21.04.1894. From L. F. to B. S.

 

16          30.11.1894. From L. F. to B. S.

 

17         13.06.1895. From L. F. to B. S.

 

18          13.06.1895. From L. F. to B. S.

 

19          04.12.1896. From L. F. to B. S.

 

20          04.12.1896. From L. F. to B. S.

 

21          Undated. From L. F. to B. S.

 

22          Undated. From L. F. to B. S.

 

23          Undated. From L. F. to B. S.

 

24          Undated. From L. F. to B. S.

 

25          Undated. From L. F. to B. S.

 

26          Undated. From L. F. to B. S.

 

D           Letters to Lorimer Fison

 

1            06.08.1900. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to L. F. He is sending the text of a paper. Frazer is asking the authorities to give B. S. (and Gillen) leave of absence for an expedition.

 

2            26.04.1901. From B. S. (in Alice Springs) to L. F. B. S. reports arrival at Alice Springs – A plague of flies – He has begun work. He has attended a “sub-incision” ceremony.

 

3            15.07.1901. From B. S. (in Barrow Creek) to L. F. B. S. reports progress. Six weeks of hard work. Difficult country.

 

4            30.09.1901. From B. S. (in Powells Creek) to L. F. The expedition is moving northwards. Good work has been done. Criticism of R. H. Mathews. The expedition has justified itself.

 

5            12.11.1901. From B. S. (in Bonopoola?) to L. F. Have reached the Gulf. A cannibal tribe.

 

6            24.12.1901. From B. S. (in Bonopoola?) to L. F. Waiting for a boat to take them to Port Darwin. Interesting details of mourning ceremonies. A miserable Christmas Day.

 

7            23.08.1906. From B. S. (in Melbourne) to L. F. B. S. refers to “clever, but utterly misleading and unscrupulous criticism” of Howitt’s work by Andrew Lang. Lang is an “ethnologic charlatan”. He mentions Frazer’s theory of “conceptional totemism”.

 

8            21.11.1896. From B. S. (Alice Springs) to L. F.

 

E            Letters from Alfred Cort Haddon

 

1            11.05.1900. From A. C. H. (in Cambridge) to Mrs. Spencer. Congratulations on the Honor conferred on her husband. “He has accomplished one of the very best pieces of work in anthropology that has ever been done”.

 

2            23.10.1900. From A. C. H.  (in Dublin) to B. S. Congratulations and advice. B. S. must take a “kinematograph and a phonograph on his expedition”.

 

3            27.07.1901. From A. C. H. (in Cambridge) to B. S. A. C. H. asks where B. S. is and how he is getting on. News of B. S. is eagerly awaited. Frazer’s “Golden Bough” has caused a commotion by its explanation of the crucifixion. News of Tylor and other academic colleagues.

 

4            05.05.1902. From A. C. H. (in London) to B. S. News of B. S.’s expedition is eagerly awaited. A.C.H. sends congratulations as President of the Anthropological Institute. “As Englishmen we are proud of you”.

 

5            04.09.1921. From A. C. H. (in Cambridge) to B. S. A. C. H. thanks for B. S. having sent a copy of his Presidential address to the A. A. A. S. B. S. has offered to be an Honorary Reader in Ethnology at Cambridge.

 

6            13.05.1923. From A. C. H. (in Cambridge) to B. S. A. C. H. is planning a visit to Australia. He offers advice on organization of Ethnological studies in Australia.

 

F            Letters from (Sir) Edward Burnett Tylor

 

1            17.06.1897. From E. B. T. (in Oxford) to B. S. E. B. T. acknowledges a letter from B. S. Will do best to further B. S.’s project. Is delighted that B. S. has made his mark in Anthropology.

 

2            18.12.1898. From E. B. T. (in Oxford) to B. S. E. B. T. has heard B. S.’s paper which was excellent. Criticism of Frazer. Difficulties in finding a publisher for Miss Howitt’s “Australian Folk Tales”.

 

3            04.01.1899. From E. B. T. (in Oxford) to B. S. More about Miss Howitt’s MS. Another dig at Frazer.

 

4            25.07.1899. From E. B. T. (in Oxford) to B. S. More about Frazer’s change of view as a result of B. S.’s work.

 

G           Miscellaneous Letters: 1892 – 1928

 

1            16.11.1892. From Dr. C. Pichet (in Geneva) to B. S. C. P. is thanking B. S. for his letter and the dispatch of specimens and promising to send others in return.

 

2            13.06.1893. From L. C. Miall (Yorkshire College, Leeds) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for dispatch of specimens. Can offer nothing in return.

 

3            02.07.1893. From S. J. Hickson (Jersey) to B. S. Welcoming B. S. back to England and inviting him to Cambridge (Downing College).

 

4            08.07.1893. From A. Sedgwick (Zoological Labs Cambridge) to B. S. Inviting B. S. to be a contributor to a special number of the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science coming out in honor of Prof. Ray Lankester’s 25 years of editorship.

 

5            16.10.1893. From A. Klinckowstrom (?) (Stockholm) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for letter and sending copies of document asked for.

 

6            09.02.1894. From J. Symington (Queens College of Science, South Kensington) to B. S. Welcoming offer by B. S. to send specimen of brains of Echidna.

 

7            17.04.1894. From H. Bernard (?) (Royal College of Science, South Kensington) to B. S. Thanking B. S. who is back in Australia for sending papers and asking for specimens.

 

8            16.05.1894. From Kchobius (?) (Natural History Museum, Berlin) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for letter and dispatch of specimens.

 

9            17.06.1894. From J. S. Hall (University of Melbourne) to B. S. Reporting on progress of work at the University.

 

10          25.11.1894. From S. J. Hickson (Manchester) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for congratulations on S. J. H.’s appointment to the “Queen’s College Chair” in succession to “poor Marshall”. Asking for specimens and photographs.

 

11          19.12.1894. From Dr. W. Michaelsen (Natural History Museum, Hamburg) to B.S. Thanking B. S. for sending papers and proposing an exchange of specimens.

 

12          25.06.1895. From R. I. Pocock (British Museum, Natural History) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for letter and discussing specimens.

 

13          13.07.1895. From A. Liversidge (University of Sydney) to B. S. Discussing Polynesian philological materials.

 

14          07.01.1896. From F. McCoy (National Museum, ? Australia) to B. S. Accepting valuable donations of specimens on behalf of the National Museum.

 

15          30.01.1896. From E. C. Pelly (?) (Redhill, Surrey) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for specimens.

 

16          12.05.1896. From S. J. Hickson (Manchester) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for papers on the Horn Expedition. S. J. H. has recently married a former pupil, which has removed “ a cloud of sorrow and disappointment which has shadowed my life ever since I have been here”. Reporting on progress in the Department at Manchester. Seven women are working in the laboratory for the first time.

 

17          22.07.1896. From O. Thomas (British Museum, Natural History) to B. S. O. T. has received B. S. papers on Central Australian mammals. Asks for duplicate specimens and offers help.

 

18          16.11.1896. From A.Thomson (The Museum, Oxford) to B. S. Belated thanks to B. S. for an important specimen. Interesting Oxford gossip. “Balfour” at the Pitt Rivers has been in very poor health for some time”.

 

19          25.11.1897. From W. A. Squire (Durban, Natal) to B. S. Giving details of his life since coming to S. Africa. Regretting inability to let B. S. have the full information he has asked for.

 

20          01.01.1898. From W. Krause (Berlin) to B. S. Recommending a book by T. Einem, Professor at Tubingen, on natural selection of butterflies. Cutting from bookseller’s catalogue enclosed.

 

21          19.05.1898. From J. Mathew (? Coburg) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for letter and papers. J. M. is writing a book on Australian languages.

 

22          12.12.1898. From H. Jackson (Trinity College, Cambridge) to B. S. Asking questions about the implications of B. S. discoveries.

 

23          01.01.1899. From John Lubbock (?) (Farnborough, Kent) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for his “important work on Central Australia”.

 

24          12.02.1899. From John Lubbock (?) (Farnborough, Kent) to B. S. Has now read the book at 23. Asks for information about their religious views.

 

25          19.04.1899. From Cecil Wilson (Bishop of Melbourne) to B. S. Thanks for copy of B.S.’s book on the native tribes of Central Australia.

 

25a         19.05.1899. From R. Etheridge to B. S. Meagerness of local collections.

 

26          01.07.1899. From E. S. Hartland (The Folk-Lore Society, Gloucester) to B. S. Sending a copy of his review of B. S.’s book.

 

27          07.12.1899. From C. Winnecke (Eagle Chamber, ? Melbourne) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for a letter and inviting him to come and stay. C. W. has taken unto himself “ a little wife”. 

 

28          28.12.1899. From E. B. Boulton (University Museum, Oxford) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for specimens and sending Vol.I of his book for the University of Melbourne – E.B.P. is on the Exec. Comm. of the National Antarctic Expedition. Gives details of finances and hopes : a) Prof. Gregory of Melbourne University can be released to lead scientific staff; b) Melbourne will make a financial contribution.

 

29          17.07.1900. From H. J. Mackinder (Christ Church, Oxford) to B.S. Acknowledges B. S. letter which he received on return from Africa. H. J. M. is working on the founding of “a college in Reading” and on starting Geographical work at Oxford. Interesting details of Oxford personalities.

 

30          31.03.1901. From H. R. Hogg (?) (London) to B. S. Asking for news of B. S. Details of work and individuals at the Natural History Museum, S. Kensington.

 

31          31.07.1901. From P. Baracchi (?) (Observatory, Melbourne) to B. S. Thanks B. S. for details of thermometer readings, and asks him to undertake further observations.

 

32          09.09.1901. From H. R. Hogg (London) to B. S. Thanks B. S. for letter dated 18 June. Emphasises value of B. S.’s “work”. Details of work on spiders. Reports the discovery of the Okapi in Upper Congo.

 

33          23.05.1902. From H. R. Hogg (London) to B. S. H. R. H. has heard that B. S. is  back in Melbourne. Enquires about part of the country he has traveled through. Will it do for grazing cattle?

 

34          07.07.1902. From H. H. Giglioli (Professor of Zoology, University of Florence) to B. S. Offering congratulations personally and on behalf of the Anthropological Society of Italy. On B. S. safe return. Refers to B. S. “magnificent book”. Would be obliged for duplicate specimens, especially of stone implements.

 

35          01.03.1903. From G. C. Henderson (Auckland N.Z.) to B. S. G. C. H. thanks B. S. for a letter. Description of the Maori. News of Sir George Grey’s MSS papers.

 

36          27.03.1903. From H. H. Giglioli (Florence) to B. S. H.H.G. thanks B. S. for letter and for specimens safely received. Would welcome more.

 

37          22.05.1903. From W. E. Hoyle (Owens College, Manchester) to B. S. W. E. H. thanks B. S. for letter and specimens. Has a white-washed room, but no cases for display. Shortage of money. Chalmers Mitchell has replaced Sclater in the Zoo secretaryship.

 

38          28.05.1903. From R. Kirkpatrick (British Museum Natural History)     to B. S. Details of a missing specimen.

 

39          01.06.1903. From R. Etheridge (Australian Museum, Sydney) to B. S. Enquiring about supposed discoveries of the late J. Archibald.

 

40          14.07.1903. From A. Smith Woodward (B. M. Natural History) to B. S. Acknowledging a letter from B. S. and two plates.

 

41          10.09.1903. From R. Kirkpatrick (B. M. Natural History) to B. S. Acknowledging a letter and parcel. The specimen discussed in No38 has been found.

 

42          21.12.1908. From A. H. S. Lucas (Gordon, N. S. Wales) to B. S. Inviting B. S. to accept nomination to the Presidency “of the Association” for 1911.    

 

43          04.05.1915. From Mrs. H. Cross (Blackheath) to B. S. H. C. thanks B. S. for taking an interest in her work. The weaknesses of R. H. Matthews’ work.

 

44          02.08.1916. From A. Smithells (GHP Home Forces, Whitehall S.W.1) to B. S. Congratulations on B. S.‘s honor ( ? the knighthood). News of mutual old friends.

 

45          06.11.1916. From W. W. Merry (Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford) to B. S. Inviting B. S. to become a Hon. Fellow of Lincoln.

 

46          31.10.1921. From A. Keith (Royal College of Surgeons, London) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for sending a copy of his “Presidential Address”.

 

47          24.11.1921. From Everard im Thurn (E. Lothian) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for sending a copy of his Presidential Address to the Australian Anthrop. Assoc.

 

48          23.03.1925. From L. K. Ward (Adelaide) to B. S. Denunciation of the “Australian Aboriginal” by H. Buselow, a German scientist. L. K. W. has been given the task of “searching for water for a million sheep”.

 

49          02.01.1927. From A. R. Radcliffe-Brown (University of Sydney) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for letter. Discussion of methods of spelling for Australian and other native languages.

 

50          30.10.1928. From E. Westermarck (London) to B. S. Acknowledging B. S.’s treatise on the initiation ceremonies of the Arunta.

 

H           Correspondence with Gilbert Charles Bourne

 

1            08.01.1889. From G. C. Bourne (in Plymouth) to B. S. Encouraging B. S. to stick it out in Melbourne and not return to U. K. “I can understand your feeling of isolation and your want of scientific sympathy”. News of academic appointments. Maneuverings for the Linacre Professorship.

 

2            05.12.1893. From G. C. Bourne (in Oxford) to B. S. Regretting having missed B. S. on his visit to Oxford. “I want to convince you that there is a kick left in Zoology yet”.

 

3            14.12.1893. From G. C. Bourne (in Oxford) to B. S. As above. Good wishes on B. S.’s  return to Australia.

 

I             Correspondence with (Sir) E. Ray Lankester

 

1            29.01.(?)1897. From E. R. L. (Putney S.W.) to B. S. Arranging a meeting. Congratulations on B. S.’s achievements. Your films and phonographs are absolutely thrilling”.

 

2            25.03.(?)1897. From E. R. L. (London) to B. S. Advising B. S. on problems of his work in Melbourne. A great scientific library must be built up. The difficulties of scientists both in Australia and the U. K. “ How gross and absurd are the interests and preoccupations of the Philistine”. E.R.L. says that the Archbishop of Canterbury and Acland have conspired to keep him out of Oxford. “I should not like Oxford very much, but should like a fixed life income of £900 a year”.

 

3            20.11.(?). From E. R. L. (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford) to B. S. Thanking B.S. for specimens. Diatribe against the state of affairs at Oxford. “The state of things in Oxford is very bad, as bad as can be. Nearly all the colleges are dead set on running their institution as a mere classical and historical upper class of a public school”.

 

4            28.01.1898. From E. R. L. (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for specimens. E. R. L. has put him up for F. R. S.

 

5            01.01.1899. From E. R. L. (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford) to Professor Howes. E. R. L. thinks B. S. was quite right not to apply for Oxford. “ He would not like it”. Recommending an articulator for the Melbourne Museum.

 

6            15.10.(?)1899.  From E. R. L. (Dept. of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford) to Professor Howes. Thanking B. S. for a letter. Congratulations on appointment as Director of “ the Museum”.

 

7            19.12.1916. From E. R. L. (London) to B. S.

 

8            24.04.1917. From E. R. L. (London) to B. S.

 

J            Correspondence with G. B. Howes

 

1            27.07.1899. From G. B. H. (University of London) to B. S. (in Australia) Acknowledging letters from B. S. and explaining action taken on various commissions. News of academic personalities. References to Lord Kelvin, A. J. Balfour, and Prof. Elliott Smith. Details of the setting up of the “London University” and the Victoria and Albert Museum.

 

2            24.04.1901. From G. B. H. (Royal College of Science) to B. S. (in Australia). Further developments at London University. Details of a new school-living exam. “The war still flourishes”, i.e. the Boer War. 2d has been added to Income Tax, making it 1/2d in the £.

 

3            30.05.1901. From G. B. H. (Royal College of Science) to B. S. (in Australia). Condolences on B. S.’s bereavement. Congratulations on his achievements. More complications at London University. Troubles over the Antarctic Expedition.

 

4            29.06.1902 (incomplete). From G. B. H. (Chiswick) to B. S. (in Australia) Congratulations on developments in Melbourne. News of Elliott Smith’s work. Zoology as an academic subject. Details of Edward VII’s Coronation preparations.

 

5            28.08.1902. From G. B. H. (Royal College of Science) to B. S. (in Australia) News of academic colleagues. Edward VII’s success following the Coronation.

 

K           Miscellaneous Papers

 

1            Pages of notes in B. S.’s writing.

 

2            07.09.1906. Copy of B. S. ‘s letter to Professor Rhys, dealing with aboriginal beliefs, particularly the belief that child-bearing has no connection with intercourse.

 

 

Box 1A

 

A            Correspondence from W. Baldwin Spencer to Patrick M. Byrne

 

1            09.07. 1895. From B. S. to P. M. B. [Letter incomplete] Contains anecdote about Baron Von Mueller’s topcoat.

 

2            06.01.1896. From B. S. to P. M. B. [Letter incomplete] Discussed tjuringa (Gillen’s churinga). Gillen getting together lots of information about such matters. B.S. felt that Gillen’s work should be corroborated and asked for Byrne’s help. Hopes to go to Charlotte Waters in the next year.

 

3            02.03.1897 (incomplete). From B. S. to P. M. B. Visited with French to Black Spur as feeling “seedy”. Discussed situation re: Winnecke and Horn Expedition volumes.

 

4            11.04.1899. From B. S. to P. M. B. Finished “magnum opus” but still no spare time. Reviews of work being received.

 

B            Correspondence from Patrick M. Byrne to W. Baldwin Spencer

 

1            10.09.1894. From Byrne to B. S. Byrne is collecting information about Urtathurta (shoes used in revenge parties) and coordaitcha with difficulty, because the custom has died out. He details the information, he has obtained. Now shoes are only made at request of whites.

 

1a           Undated. From Byrne to B. S.  

 

2            05.10.1894. From Byrne to B. S. Byrne brings Spencer up to date with the “scientific mania” at Alice Springs (mainly biological). Byrne sends B. S. some animal specimens, acknowledges species names given by B. S. and comments on dry season.

 

3            19.11.1894. From Byrne to B. S. Further discussion of animal specimens, drought continuing, all stock is transferred to Finke. He thanks B. S. for “Hudson’s book”.

 

4            16.12.1894. From Byrne to B. S. Byrne is sending B. S. further specimens. He discusses Hudson’s book on birds and South America and Darwin’s theories. The prospectors in the West have been unsuccessful. The weather is still dry. Byrne to be alone “with the Chinaman” at Christmas.

 

5            15.03.1895. From Byrne to B. S. He commiserates with B. S. ’s awful journey to Oodnadatta. Palmer bitten by a snake. Discussion of Horn’s publication of record of Expedition at home and specimens, Byrne hopes to get further specimens via 2 old ladies. “I hope the Photos [presumably taken by B. S.] – especially the Studies of the Nude – turned out well. If they have, no doubt they will prove one of the Greatest attractions in Winnecke’s little Museum”. Discussed prospectors in the West and their prospects.

 

6            18.04.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Discussions of specimens and Horn’s decision to publish “at home”. “Stirling’s personal deficiency in Nature lore dies not surprise me as I thot [sic – thought] from the first that he relied on his Professional brother [Gillen] at A. G. [Alice Springs] for all information. Still if Gillen has supplied the notes some interesting chapters could surely be written…which would add to the value of the work”. Byrne heard nothing of Gillen lately. He gives details of Gillen’s political views. Rabbits are beginning to spread, they have reached Henbury.

 

7            24.05.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Discussion of specimens. B. S. ’s letter to Horn should bring him to his senses. Gillen left Alice Springs on 19th, but the weather is bad and Byrne does not expect him to arrive at Charlotte Waters in less than a fortnight’s time. Byrne promises to discuss anthropology with Gillen when he arrives. Need new religion now Booth and Theosophy finished.

 

8            26.06.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Letter from Jms G. Grout/Grant at Crown Point Station. Offers B. S. moles.

 

9            26.06.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Glad to hear Horn book is nearly ready and hopes it will be published in Melbourne. Discussion of Darwinism. Gillen was unwell whilst with Byrne. He will probably abandon the trip to the North and go straight to Adelaide instead. During his stay he took several good photos including some of rain dance and initiated Byrne into mysteries of developing etc. Discussion of specimens. Rumour says that Cowle has had a haircut and will not appear until his appearance returns to normal.

 

10          21.07.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Gillen will arrive tomorrow on way to Adelaide and Byrne will send “beasts” with him. Discussed Darwinism and specimens. [22nd] Gillen arrives with lots of totem stones and vermin. Brought letter from Crown Point re moles (letter 8 above).

 

11          02.08.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Discussed specimens. “I expect Gillen is spreading Socialistic views, and sedition generally, amongst the bucolic inhabitants of Clare prior to disporting himself in your metropolis (Melbourne).

 

12          06.09.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Discussed specimens. B. S. must be heartily sick of Horn. Gossip about Gillen, Baron von Mueller and Cowle.

 

13          10.10.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Proofs of part of Horn book received – plates of specimens good. It is pity that Horn did not publish all work in Melbourne. B. S. has reported on Gillen’s trip to Melbourne. Since his (G) return from Adelaide he has plunged into mining and has asked Byrne to join him in various speculations. Discussed specimens.

 

14          11.10.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Gillen just arrived bursting with news. He has not given ground to Stirling (on giving information to be included in Stirling’s contribution to Horn book). Regarding his information on coordaitcha B. S. “can lick them into shape” and publish them if he wants.

 

15          12.11.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Gillen says he has not given any information to Stirling, but Byrne doubts this. Byrne suspects that Gillen is thinking of entering parliament. Daer died of diabetes, Giles left for West Aust. B. S. sent bullroarer belonging to Pultara class.

 

16          20.12.1895. From Byrne to B. S. Byrne received notes and plates including Kurdaitcha notes. He agrees with the Kurdaitcha statements. He gives details of a discussion with Gillen about Kurdaitcha and the fact that three lizards are involved (of which he lists the species). Discussion of Horn and his attitude to the books. He is been unable to get moles. Discussion of specimens and of prospects of Goldfields. Byrne is having Christmas on his own.

 

17          06.02.1896. Discussion of the disputes between England and Germany, relationship between England and USA and the impact of the Boer situation in South Africa might have on West Australia (deemed favourable). Sends bullroarer to B. S. that is used in initiation ceremonies and describes use and production. He also intends getting two other beating time as others he had obtained were to rough. Discussion of lizards.

 

18          29.02.1896. From Byrne to B. S. Sorry to hear of B. S. ’s “home trouble”. Byrne received another Horn volume and collected some specimens. He is still alone at Charlotte Waters and does not hear from anyone. He tells anecdote about Gillen’s reported behaviour, which is said to have adversely affected by his anthropological activities! Byrne saw rain corroboree dances. He says he will get them to go through the series of dances when B. S. is there.

 

19          30.04.1896. From Byrne to B. S. Discussion of specimens. The trouble is still continuing for Spencer with Horn and Winnecke.

 

20          08.06.1896. From Byrne to B. S. Received Horn Expedition Geology volume.

 

21          21.07.1896. From Byrne to B. S. Continued discussion of geological matters. Describes Gillen at work amongst the tribes. Byrne had visited the Anderson Range and looked at Geology.

 

22          04.09.1896. From Byrne to B. S. Byrne assisted in floating Alice Springs Mining Properties in Adelaide. Discussion of fossils. Sent B. S. bags made at Charlotte Waters “blackfellow”. Gillen still at work.

 

23          26.03.1897. From Byrne to B. S. Further discussion of geology. Eylmann is a clever observer, but because he cannot take specimens he takes full notes. Wheal Fortune mine at Artlunga not been successful. Discussion of specimens.

 

24          11.05.1897. From Byrne to B. S. Discussion of Brown’s new geology map. Still no rain. Relates message from Gillen re Archilpa wanderings. Discussion of specimens.

 

25          01.08.1897. From Byrne to B. S. Discussion of politics, still no rain. Cowle arrived at Charlotte Waters looking well and is going to start photography.

 

26          01.07.1898. From Byrne to B. S. Discussion of politics and specimens. Reference to Roth’s theory on subincision and the “female operation”. Water bore work continuing and Wheal Fortune and Star of North mines under management of Gillen and Besley a “great success” (i.e. not a success at all).

 

27          13.08.1898. From Byrne to B. S. Discussion of B. S.’s overwork. Arltunga mines still continuing. Local groups are holding ceremonies brought in from Queensland. Discussion of specimens and politics. Gillen to visit in 2 or 3 weeks en route for Oodnadatta where he will leave Mrs Gillen and return to Alice Springs. The “blacks meditate shifting their camp to Oodnadatta while he is in their vicinity”.

 

28          25.03.1899. From Byrne to B. S. Received copy of magnum opus. Gillen is leaving for Moonta in next month. Discussion of specimens.

 

29          25.07.1921. From Byrne to B. S. Congratulations to B. S. (on knighthood). Since B. S. last at Charlotte Waters there have been many changes and rabbits have replaced marsupials.

 

30          16.12.1925. From Byrne to B. S. Byrne wistful of past and for people who have died or left. He feels that the real origins of Australian aborigines are unknown.

 

C           Letters from James Edge-Partington

 

1            09.11.1897. From E-P to B. S. Thanks B. S. for notes on the album. Haddon has been to Torres Straits Islands – pity he has returned there and not gone somewhere new.

 

2            08.07(?).1898(?). From E-P to B. S. E-P asks for any photos B. S. can send to illustrate E-P’s work. Re Gillen’s collection of ceremonial objects – does not see how British Museum can purchase them as is large sum out of year’s purchasing budget, however Trustees will be grateful for any specimens that B. S. can send (presumably free of charge) and the Anthropological Institute [?] for any photos.

 

3            11.07.1898. From E-P to B. S. E-P thanks B. S. for sending drawing of ethnological specimens, and looking forward to B. S. / Gillen’s book being published.

 

4            15.12.1899. From E-P to B. S. E-P congratulates B. S. on having secured Gillen’s collection for Melbourne, hopes B. S. will remember the British Museum when there are duplicate objects as there is little from central Australia in the museum, invites B. S. to stay with him on visit to England.

 

5            28.02.1902(01?). From E-P to B. S. E-P sends first edition of “Man” to B. S. Melbourne ought to be Central Museum under Federated Australia. E-P has discovered the lowly position of ethnography in museum hierarchies.

 

6            25.07.1901. From E-P to B. S. Very bad summer – 105 degrees in Cambridge Museum. Hopes B. S. on way home safely.

 

7            15.02.1922. From E-P to B. S. E-P congratulates B. S. on recognition of work (knighthood), since leaving Hampshire E-P has devoted time to collecting Australian books and prints as ethnographic specimens have become too cumbersome for modern home. His collection went into store.

 

8            16.04.(?) From E-P to B. S. Would like to see B. S. ethnographic collection, but has little chance of getting to Australia. E-P wishes he had never started collecting. The British Museum has taken what it wants of his collections and now he only gets small things or top quality.

 

D           Letters from Walter Edmund Roth

 

1            B. S. Wrapper for letters.

 

2            10.05.1890 From Roth to B. S. Roth and B. S. won’t agree on totemism. Roth suggests small group should be set up to standardize use of terms etc. Roth has private collection of 600 objects and has collected from many areas. He has arranged them on a Pitt Rivers typological basis, but can’t be seen to as good a vantage as in a museum. Now Roth govt. official all objects will go to his department. Met Haddon and party at Normanton, expedition may find links between New Guinea, Malaya and Cape York. Discussion of anthropometric measurements, marriage systems and taboos. Roth got lots of Mss to hand but can’t publish without permission of his department. He is not anxious to publish until he has worked through all of Cape York.

 

3            22.12.1897. From Roth to B. S. Still discussing totemism. Roth sets out in detail his definition of totemism. He is hoping to spend 10 years in anthropological work in the North and will pay greater attention to anthropometric and orteological data.

 

4            19.01.1898. From Roth to B. S. Even more detailed discussion of totemism. The impact of totem on sexual orgies and the avoidance of incest. Discussion of use of bullroarers. Useless to ask about patterns as get different answers from same person! Discussion on avenging parties. Publishing and obscenity discussed. Roth lucky to be protector of whole Northern and Central Districts but this will prevent him learning languages thoroughly. Roth got double medical qualification in London in 1891 and 92.

 

5            08.10.1898. From Roth to B. S. Roth is very busy doing work as protector. Discussion of names of individuals and groups, pleased with names B. S. suggested for classification.

 

6            02.03.1899. From Roth to B. S. Roth thanks B. S. for copy of book. Roth worked at Princess Charlotte Bay in November and December and attended initiation ceremonies. Masks were photographed, going to learn Cape Bedford grammar and visit pearling fleet to check if native women aboard as Roth had forbidden them to be.

 

7            28.03.1899. From Roth to B. S. Roth understands B. S. preferring Melbourne to a position at Oxford, discussion of mutual Oxford acquaintances. Roth just completed Cookstown grammar with assistance of missionaries, spelling in line with the Royal Geographical Society. Asks for help in attending Association meeting in Melbourne. Going to distribute presents to coastal Aborigines who helped ship wrecked crew.

 

8            12.11.1899. From Roth to B. S. En route for Thursday Island, he had taken notes of coastal people between Duyphen Point and Albatross Bay. Strange burial custom reported. Explains background to recent interview in Brisbane Courier, he will not publish reports (which have all been sent to Home Sec) until he has completed ethnographic survey of whole Peninsula.

 

9            10.01.1900. From Roth to B. S. Roth is disappointed not to go to the Association meeting. He has had malaria. Starting in March or April on new area for ethnographic work.  

 

10          02.04.1902. From Roth to B. S. Discussion of totemism in Northern Queensland. Discussed first contacts between blacks and whites, he had discussed this with Petrie who had come out in 1837. Annoyed at way his information has been changed by Lang. He is going North with geologist/surveyor and will look at hollowed out dwellings on Alleyn Island.

 

11          26.04.1902. From Roth to B. S. Discussed menses traditions and beliefs about intelligence. Will complete ms on Superstition in next month and putting together notes on domestic implements and utensils.

 

12          06.10.1902. Holding enquiry on Peninsula into murder cases. Spent lot of time with Batavia and Pennefather River people. Roth will send B. S. a copy of mss as soon as completed. Also sending copy of Annual Report giving results of various mission inspections. Roth has different views on missionaries to B. S. Roth believes Missions are workhouses (favourable comment). He gives his views on the future of blacks. Roth’s salary has been reduced by 15%.

 

13          30.01.1903. (N.B. Letter from Spencer to Roth) Comments on Roth’s mss. B. S. feels “young but looking older”, further discussions on missionaries.

 

14          08.02.1903. Discussion of Oxford mutual acquaintances and a blackguard who may have stolen someone’s work. Roth to send advance copies of Bulletin to B. S. and Tylor.

 

15          03.01.1903[?]. Asks B. S. to check through proofs, which Roth will send within two days.

 

E            Miscellaneous letters – Marshall, Moseley, Hartoz[?], Keel, Ross, Besley, Rivers, Winnecke, Crawley, Stott, Kempe, Marett.

 

1            17.08.1880. Marshall, St Johns College. Congratulated B. S. on success, argues benefits of Cambridge science facilities over Oxford.

 

2            23.10.1880. H. N. Moseley, Univ. of London. Need to adhere to regulations to hold Exhibition and asks B. S. to renounce his.

 

3            13.11.1882. Hartog? Owens College Manchester. Name submitted for Professor of Natural History, Cork, Ireland, asks B. S. to relieve him a.s.a.p.

 

4            16.11.1882. Marshall (as letter 1), Owens College Manchester. Pleased to hear B. S. could relieve Hartog.

 

5            20.11.1882. Hartog (as letter 3) Details of relief work.

 

6            15.12.1893. Keel, Powell’s Creek, thanks for letter and book sent to him by B. S.

 

7            28.04.1893. Keel (as above) news of Gillen.

 

8            13.09.1893. Keel (as above).

 

9            10.09.1898. Ross, Crown Point. Writes about 10 moles sent by parcel post and thanks B. S. for case of fruit.

 

10          15.03.1900. Besley. Sending animals bottled at Barrow Creek, offers to collect information, place very dull now that Gillen’s family has left, found tree graves of dogs. Large number of people died of whooping cough and flu.

 

11          08.07.1900. Ross, Oodnadatta. Accepts B. S. offer of £20 for moles. Bad drought.

 

12          03.12.1900. W. H. R. Rivers, St John’s College, Cambridge. Haddon asked him to write in connection with B. S. planned expedition and the statistical methods dev. in the Torres Straits expedition and the perception of colour tests. Asks if Eylmann has published any work as interested in his methods.

 

12a         18.12.1900. Winnecke, Adelaide. B. S. had asked Winnecke if there were any localities worth visiting – W suggests two – Buchanon River and Sandover NE of Alice Springs. Poss. of W having found in that area in the past traces of lost explorer Leichardt. Wishes Gillen and B. S. every success with the expedition.

 

12b        21.12.1902. Ernest Crawley. Asks for info on aspects of B. S. / Gillen published work.

 

13          02.03.1903. Campbell. [NB this is a letter which was initially sent to Gillen (see Gillen letter 164) which he sent on to B. S.] Seeks further information about dancing boards as writer wishes to publish details. Urged Protector to form refuges with medical advice for blacks. Seeks information about jobs of this type in South Australia.

 

14          16.03.1903. Stott, Burrundie. News of Gillen, remembers few months writer spent with Gillen and B. S. in Borroloola. Tells news of other mutual acquaintances, he has got married and had a baby.

 

15          02.04.1903. Crawley (as letter 12b) asks for further information.

 

16          02.11.1903. Kempe. News of Gillen, he has decided to keep his (K) partnership, his hard life has taken toll with his life.

 

17          22.04.1914. B. S. to Marett. Still not finished distribution map of Australian tribes. Hoping to get govt. grant (for work associated with publishing).

 

18          24.06.1927. B. S. to Marett (B. S. in England). News of mutual friends. B. S. unable to come as invited, currently proofreading for Macmillans.

 

19          B. S. Cover for other letters.

 

F            Letters from (Sir) Edward Charles Stirling

 

1            B. S. cover for letters from Stirling

 

2          08.05.1902. Zeitz to be sent to Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney to see Museum displays. News of Gillen.

 

3            25.07.1902. S. S. tells B. S. about Gillen’s lecture which was successful. E. C. S.  will do all he can for Miss Lambert (one of B. S. ‘s students). Zeitz is not able to visit other colonies at present due to funding difficulties in museum. E. C. S. hopes to be in Melbourne soon and he has been ill. E. C. S. will let B. S. know Zeitz’s plans.

 

4            05.11.1902. Zeitz will be in Melbourne on 18th. Mt Lofty (E. C. S. ’s home) good at this time of year. Miss Lambert visited E. C. S. last night, E. C. S. took the chair at her lecture which was too long. Seen references to Melbourne Univ. finances, funding of Adelaide Museum cut, all salaries reduced by 20%.

 

5            26.06.1903. Sending case containing casts with stands and list of specimens.

 

6            06.10.1903. E. C. S. thanks B. S. for seeds sent which E.C.S. has planted. Asks for letter from Olsen-Leffer back as E. C. S. will have to reply to it.

 

G           Letters from James Field

 

1               30.01.1896. [Alice Springs] F. has not succeeded in getting mouse as requested by B. S. Discussion of specimens. News of Gillen and Cowle. Everyone is sick of Gillen’s anthropological work.

 

2               29.01.1901. [Private Hospital, Adelaide] F. hopes to be discharged in a week’s time. Field hopes to see B. S. in Adelaide and at Tennants Creek. Unlikely to get any animals, because of drought. Field has seen Gillen, and got a lot of eggs for Keartland.

 

3               16.02.1902. [could be 18th or 10th instead] F. thanked B. S. for news of Borroloola. New steamer expected in a week so B. S. will probably be released from Borroloola by the end of the month. B. S.’s libel about Tennants Creek published in Leader has caused comment. Another drought relieved by thunderstorm. News of mutual friends.

 

4          22.10.1902. French has said B. S. very busy since return, pleased to hear about successful lectures. News of Gillen’s lecture. No one else collecting so B. S. need not worry about the lizard. News of mutual friends.

 

5          29.03.1903. Gillen very busy preparing for his “corroborees”, Field hopes to get some lizard skins. Had good rainfall. Discussion of stone implements. Field has collection of at least 150. B. S. caution to people via papers about not rushing to gold fields in Winnecke’s Depot useless. Cowle very ill and gone to Adelaide. News of mutual friends.

 

6          02.10.1903. Got lizards, but Field cleaned the skins badly. Heard that B. S. and Gillen been to Williams Creek. Foster is rearing three cats for Field to settle problem of pouches. Winnecke field is defunct. Cowle still ill. Glad to hear B. S.’s book is completed. Field still having problem with his foot. Find at Helens Spring of tracks in stone of kangaroos etc., similar tracks also occur at Mosquite Creek, which Field is prepared to visit if B. S. interested.

 

H           Letters from Sydney J. Hickson

 

1            B. S. cover sheet for letters

 

2            22.05.1887. Friend of Hickson’s arriving on sailing ship. H. asks B. S. to take care of him and show him sights. H. is continuing research at Museum in Cambridge, went to Balfour’s grand wedding. News of other mutual friends, prospects for H’s future employment not good as all posts filled.

 

3            01.01.1889. H. had very disastrous ’88. No prospects of any position because of recent losing of deputy chair [?] at Oxford. Relates details. Thanks B. S. for specimen H. will publish book on Celebes before seeking another appointment. Two different schools of thought in science in Britain and US (Weismannism and Neo-Lemarckism).

 

4            25.12.1900. Manchester. H. hopes B. S. will have good time in North with Gillen. News of mutual friends, glad to hear Roth had a place that suited him.

 

I             Letters from Charles Ernest Cowle

 

[N.B. “specimens” refers to biological specimens not anthropological ones]

 

1                   30.07.1894. Sending specimens and asks for more spirit and bottles.

 

2            14.11.1894. Sending specimens and discussion of others. Everyone is getting ready for Alice Springs Races. News of mutual friends. Cowle has been following a group of young men who have been cattle-raiding [?]. Cowle’s garden is doing well, he celebrated his birthday with lots of whisky.

 

3            16.11.1894. Sending specimens.

 

4            22.12.1894. Cowle has been searching for more specimens but had no luck, little water at present. Daer confident of success at Races. Cowle is invited to Gillens for Christmas but decided to stay at Illamurta. The garden is in good condition.

 

5            18.02.1895. Lots of rain, discussion of specimens sending some. Cowle received B. S.’s wire about Stirling. C. will obtain further specimens for B. S. and has obtained many eggs for Keartland. C. thanked B. S. for tobacco and photographs. Daer won 4 races.

 

6            11.04.1895 Cowle missed seeing B. S. at Charlotte Waters, sending further specimens and lots of eggs for Keartland. Gillen is very busy with “ nigger stones”. Cowle has been traveling and seen many “niggers and Camera spots”.

 

7            16.05.1895. Discussions of specimens. Gillen is taking Mrs G. towards Adelaide where he will go later. Cowle may also go South in winter. His mother died recently. Willshire is leaving Victoria River Downs Police Camp and asks C. if he wishes to be recommended as replacement.

 

8            19.06.1895. C. has been traveling around with Coulthard. News of mutual friends. Sending specimens. C. asked if he would like to transfer to Northern Territory, but he declined, also asked to go on year’s leave and travel to West Australia prospecting.

 

9            23.07.1895. Discussion of specimens. Gillen got a lot of stones, everyone else also is collecting specimens.

 

10          05.10.1895. B. S.‘s letter describing Gillen’s trip to Melbourne amusing. Cowle got some stones (Gillen’s “churinga”). Been busy with horsethieves and been on long trip. Discussed specimens. The garden is flourishing.

 

11                05.11.1895. Sending specimens. Heard little from Gillen. Horn book is finally going to press pity it can’t include chapters on experiences of B. S. while compiling volume.

 

12          13.12.1895. Daer dead from diabetes. C. has been traveling and there has been bad weather. He is hoping to have a quiet Christmas.

 

13          28.01.1896. C. had quiet Christmas. He sent Gillen some stones and other objects which Gillen accepted because they were genuine whereas he [G] had recently obtained some objects from Barrow Creek, which had turned out to be “manufactured… for the occasion”.

 

14          12.03.1896. C. thanks B. S. for Part II of Horn. Suggests areas to be visited if B. S. revisits Central Australia next Christmas. Discussion of specimens. Cowle is intending to visit Byrne in May. Seeing Gillen before next mail. Visited Hermannsburg Mission. Blacks seen rabbits locally.

 

15          17.04.1896. Discussed specimens. Seen Gillen. Discussed arrangements for B. S.’s next trip. Sent French pair of cockatoo eggs. Discussed problems with Horn and Winnecke Re Horn volumes.

 

16          30.05.1896. C. has been traveling a lot since last letter on police business. News of mutual friends. Glad B. S. will have more time for next trip. Discussed arrangements.

 

17          07.07.1896 Discussed further arrangements for trip. Gillen is photography mad. Cowle tells anecdote of Gillen obtaining information from “my boy”.

 

18          22.08.1896. C. instructed to help B. S. on the next trip. Discussion of specimens. Kean and Cowle had to help in confinement of woman and baby. Stirling’s contribution to Horn volumes to press. C. will let B. S. know if there is rain.

 

19          09.10.1896. C. has been tracking cattle killers. Discussed arrangements for a trip.

 

20          09.02.1897. C. tells of traveling experiences since he left B. S. Got some

artifacts, a big ceremony (“Ungoora”) is to be held. Eylmann turned up at Illamurta and is exploring the country. C. has been promoted. Sending specimens.

 

21                05.08.1897. C. has been to Melbourne to see family, taking up B. S.’s mss to Gillen.

 

22                15.03.1897. Two aborigines speared Beattie. C. is sending specimens.

 

23          20.10.1897. Drought. Discussed photography with Gillen, sending flint to B. S.

 

24          08.01.1898. Still drought. Seen Gillen and Mission. Sent 4 skins to French and will try to get another photograph of “Boomerang” (person with deformation of the legs). Had quiet Christmas.

 

25                25.02.1898. Sending photographs, drought still bad in Illamurta.

 

26          17.04.1898. C. feeling very negative about aborigines.

 

27          24.06.1898. C. has been tracking cattle-killers. Seen Gillen and Byrne.

 

28          07.08.1898. Eylmann at Mission. C. is tracking cattle-killers. New man has replaced Kean at Illamurta.

 

29          01.09.1898. Tracking another group. Glad to hear good progress with the book.

 

30          18.03.1899. C. has been taking another group to trial. C.  destroyed  lots of spears that were being manufactured. Gillen’s reaction to publication of book and lectures etc. outlined. Maurice has been up obtaining information and artifacts. C. had encounter with a snake.

 

31          15.04.1899. C. has not yet been able to read the book but gives preliminary comments. Has been traveling since last wrote.

 

32                10.05.1899. Present at ceremony for Gillen. C. has been to Horseshoe Bend for voting.

 

33          10.06.1899. Discussion of returning boomerangs. Discussion of C.’s  view of character of aborigines and position of squatters. Trouble with trackers “boys” because of women.

 

34          09.07.1899. C. congratulates B. S. on “magnum opus, still trouble with “boys” and women. Gillen left for Moonta. Chance also moved there.

 

35                03.09.1899. C. congratulates B. S. on Directorship of Museum, has been travelling. Gillen is settling down at Moonta.

 

36          13.04.1900. Had rains, discussed caterpillars. Got artifacts. Asks B. S. for photographs to give to Kelly.

 

37          28.05.1900. Been tracking. Discussion of specimen and artifacts. Very bad whooping cough at mission. Discussion of what should be done with personal collections of artefacts. Thanks B. S. for sending photographs to Kelly. Asks if B. S. wants his notes of “churina”.

 

38          08.07.1900. Congratulations on FRS, sending seeds. New man replacing Barlow. Got a lot of “churina”.

 

39          31.08.1900. Sending notes on churina and obtained many. Discussion of new man.

 

40          30.09.1900. Hopes arrangements for next trip are going well. Been travelling. Discussion of preparation of specimens.

 

41          23.11.1900. Been away over Elections. Glad got funding for trip from Syme. C. had possibility of getting Tempe but didn’t take it and regrets it. New man resigned. Got a lot of “churina” and will send off. Discussed artefacts.

 

42                29.12.1900. Sent “churina”, man killed in store and C. travelled over Christmas.

 

43          17.02.1901. C. victim of anonymous letter accusing him of indecencies which he has had to refute. Had rains. Lots of rumours about how B. S. and Gillen are to come up.

 

44                14.04.1901. Asks B. S. to look into totems during Alcheringa. List of “churina” and myth associated attached.

 

45          12.04.1902. Congratulates B. S. on safe return. C. went to Melbourne and then returned where he found white boy dead up the Goyder.

 

46          20.09.1902. Followed B. S. and Gillen through details in press. Conditions very bad and reports of starving people. C. does not support feeding programmes. News of mutual friends. Winnecke dead.

 

47          25.11.1902. Sent churina and other artefacts with list, no rain.

 

48          21.01.1903. Got patchy rains. C. had health problems. News of mutual friends.

 

49                17.02.1903. Still health problems – sends notes.

 

50          17.06.1903. In private hospital and not very well, news of mutual friends.

 

51          26.05.1920. Still in ill health (more or less bed-ridden) gives details of joint activities in 1896 and 1897 (for B. S.’s book) and discusses current management of interior and news of mutual friends.

 

Diary entries for 01.01.1897 – 22.01.1897. List of numbers totalling 657 (in B. S. handwriting).

 

 

Box 2    

 

Correspondence with Francis (Frank) James Gillen (1894 – 1904)

 

Box No. 2 of the Spencer Papers contains 185 items, almost all letters, but including a few telegrams, sent by Gillen to Spencer. It is not known from the Box where Baldwin Spencer’s letters to Gillen are to be found, but it contains a slip of paper, apparently in B. S. ‘s writing saying – “Gillen Diaries, Barr-Smith Library in Adelaide University”. It may therefore be that Spencer’s letters are there also.

 

Apart from their shared anthropological interests, and the contents of the well-known “book(s) which they produced jointly, the letters contain material of possible interest to scholars interested in Australian history, political and economic, in the general history of anthropological studies at the turn of the 19th/ 20th century, and in Irish Nationalist feelings at the same era.

 

1            08.09.1894. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Sending good wishes and some photographs. News of the Alice Springs community.

 

2            12.10.1894. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Acknowledging B. S. letters. News of photographs and collections.

 

3            16.11.1894. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Thanks for B. S.’s letters. Sending photographs and specimens. News of personalities.

 

4            - .12.1894. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Thanks for photos sent B. S. Denunciation of Stirling and his article in “Nature”. Stirling wrongly considered the scientific leader of the Expedition.

 

5            02.02.1895. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Thanks for congratulations on birth of another Gillen child. B. S. ‘s interest in moles. More of the Stirling dispute. Sending specimens.

 

6            09.03.1895. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Gillen has sent more specimens. Offers to look for more, or provide information for anthropologists. Interesting details about internal Victorian politics…”the unscrupulous greed of the corrupt ruling classes of years gone by”.

 

7            “Good Friday” 1895. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Has sent further specimens. Thanks for prints. F. J. G. has collected a lot of Chooringa stones, and other materials, which women and boys must not see. More arguments about Australian politics.

 

8                   29.07.1895. From F. J. G. (Oodnadatta) to B. S. F. J. G. is on a journey to

              Adelaide and is sending plates and specimens.

 

9                   13.08.1895. From F. J. G. (Mount Gambier) to B. S. Again writing on route to Adelaide and Melbourne.

 

10                30.08.1895. From F. J. G. (Mount Gambier) to B. S. Writing after visit to

Melbourne. Sends B. S. a copy of a negative letter. F. J. G. has written to Stirling.

 

11                01.09.1895. From F. J. G. (Mount Gambier) to B. S. Acknowledging letter from B. S.

 

12                11.09.1895. From F. J. G. (Adelaide) to B. S. Informing B. S. of conversations with Stirling, for whom he will not provide more information. Urges B. S. not to overwork.

 

13          22.09.1895. From F. J. G. (Clare) to B. S. F. J. G. reports an awkward discussion with Stirling.

 

14          11.10.1895. From F. J. G. (Charlotte Waters) to B. S. More complications with Stirling and plans for publication.

 

15          07.11.1895. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. The Gillen family is safely back at Alice Springs. Sending specimens. Gillen has lost money in stocks and shares. Reports on the additions he has made to his collections. More suspicion of Stirling. Talks with Aborigines.

 

16          20.12.1895. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Thanks for B. S. ‘s letter and presents. Aboriginal woman refuses to be photographed. Sending specimens. Difficulties over photography. Complications over publication of results of the Horn Expedition. 

 

17          31.01.1896. From F. J. G. to B. S. F. J. G. ‘s Irish Nationalist sentiments. B. S. thanks God he is an Englishman. F. J. G. thanks God he is not! Abuse of Britain! Sending specimens. Details of the quarrels over the Horn Expedition. Aboriginal Class systems, and sexual arrangements. Influence of white navvies on aboriginal life.

 

18          13.03.1896. From F. J. G. to B. S. Condolence on illness of B. S.’s wife and death of small son. Sending notes on table of aboriginal relationships, which has presented many difficulties. How F. J. G. got the information required. Details of the rain-making ceremony, as well as others. Attack on Horn for misuse of F. J. G.’s photographs. Discussion about cause of deaths decisions by “Railtchawa”.

 

19          14.03.1896. From F. J. G. to B. S. Following up No18. Sending more photographs. More information about “churinga”. 

 

20          25.04.1896. From F. J. G. to B. S. More academic jealousies. Is Stirling poaching information? Thanks for B. S.’s encouragement. F. J. G. believes that he “can and will get to the bottom of the Nigger question so far as these tribes are concerned”. Details of F. J. G.’s pattern of cooperation with B. S. Sending specimens. Discussion of “message sticks”, and “smoke signals”. Marriage customs. Missionaries (the role of) among the “Blacks”. Criticism of Horn. Denunciation of Lord Salisbury. Met Eylmann.

 

21                01.05.1896. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. makes interesting comments on ill-treatment of “Blacks” and their exclusion from their old camping- grounds.   

 

22          05.06.1896. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Discussing a trip to be made together. F. J. G. recommends use of camels. The Charlotte Waters marriage system. The Luritcha tribe. The influence of Missionaries is degrading and even “debauching”. The remarriage of widows. Sending specimens, particularly lizards. The Quapara. Criticism of Stirling. F. J. G. ‘s disbelief in “the message stick”. Women “doctors” among the tribes. The Wilyara ceremony.

 

(includes MS notes by B. S. )

 

23          14.07.1896. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. is going on a six week trip and will hunt for information and specimens. Has sent more specimens. The Luritcha tribe. Cowle. His personal strengths and weaknesses. Cowle has collected churinga sticks. Winnecke and his future assignments. His dispute with Horn. The problem of sexual promiscuity among the tribes. Women detailed to provide “service” at Corroborees. Eating the totem article. The Arunta. Their Attitude to the Luritcha. The Luritcha language. The secret use of the names of dead warriors. The significance of “message sticks”. The Engwura ceremony. F. J. G. causes prisoner to faint when “over his ethnographic gridiron”.

 

24          August 1896. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. is back from his trip. Details of specimens and information sent. Evidence pointing to promiscuity. Male and female sub-incision operations and their names. The Engwura ceremony. Stirling and his newly-published paper. The Government and “the Hospital row”. F. J. G. has arranged for an Engwura ceremony to be performed whilst B. S. at Alice Springs. Misinformation about the sub-incision of young men. The “gesture language” in certain tribes. The ban on speaking for women in mourning etc.

 

24a         25.09.1896. P. O. telegram from F. J. G. to B. S. reading: Confidential  Am  Urged  Powerful  Friends  Contest  My  Brother’s  District  Assured  Success  Advise  Me  If  Our  Work  Sufficiently  Important  Warrant  Me  Declining  Reply  Immediately (signature)         F. J. Gillen

 

24b        26.09.1896. Telegram to B. S. signed W. Mann, University, reading: Gillen  Have  Declined  Quite  Content

 

24c         26.09.1896. Telegram to B. S. signed W. Mann, University, reading: Gillen  Don’t  Be  Uneasy  Have  Definitely  Declined  Slianthe

 

Note: While the exact content of these telegrams is unclear, it seems that F. J. G. first asked B. S.‘s advice about standing for the Parliamentary seat left empty by his brother’s death. Then F. J. G. decided against this plan and informed B. S. of his decision through Mr. Mann.

 

25          08.10.1896. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. ‘s brother has died. Preparations for the Engwura ceremony. The problem of feeding the multitudes. Arrangements for B. S.‘s visit to stay with F. J. G.

 

26          09.02.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. B. S. is on his way to “boom-stricken microbe-ridden frowsy old Melbourne”. Recollections of B. S. ‘s visit to Alice Springs. F. J. G.’s efforts to make money: horses and shares. His handling of a case of theft of livestock.

 

27          23.03.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has had a visit from Dr. Eylmann of Germany who plans to publish a book on his travels. Erkincha disease. Stone Churinga Nangas. Winnecke has used “trickery” over the Horn pictures. B. S. is afraid that the University authorities think he makes too many expeditions. F. J. G. refutes this and says ”you burn the intellectual candle at both ends”.

 

28          06.05.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has published a paper with plates. An encouraging letter received from H. Balfour of the University Museum, Oxford. Alchuringa men. The roots of a class system? Erkincha disease. A good piece of detective work (tracking) by Cowle. F. J. G. is against using fire-arms in capturing native offenders. F. J. G. has refused the offer of another official appointment. Details of various aboriginal beliefs. Winnecke’s journal and the charges he makes against Horn.

 

29          18.06.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has dispatched a large collection of notes to B. S. He thinks some point back to a time of maternal descent. A long list of topics. “It’s going to be a great book” F. J. G. ‘s praise of B. S. as a collaborator. The damage the white man has done to the aboriginals and their traditions. He has sent specimens. Guarded references to Stirling. Some cave drawings. The “great work” is taking shape.

 

30          30.07.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has sent off 50 or more pages of manuscript. He has just returned from a trip. Details of axes and knives. An Alcheringa ceremony. Anxieties about “the book”. Will MacMillans the publishers accept it? The Winnecke-Horn dispute. Native languages and food.

 

31          10.09.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has dispatched specimens. Comments on some of B. S. ‘s drafts. Alchuringa man and his Churinga. Eating the totem. How F. J. G. settled a quarrel between two aboriginal girls. Details of photographic work. Criticism of Tate. He is “a mean old dog”. F. J. G. ‘s Irish nationalist feelings.    

 

32          22.10.1897. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has dispatched photographs. The Churinga and its markings. Further minor corrections to B. S.‘s manuscript. F. J. G. believes that the aboriginals were once more numerous, but notes in their degeneration as a result of syphilis brought in by the white man. It had existed long before his arrival. “The flesh of man is never eaten under any circumstances”. The relationship of men with their totems. The danger that “the book” may be anticipated by some other publications. There is a drought in the region.

 

33          03.12.1897. From F. J. G. to B. S. Thanking B. S. for his letter and gift of books and oranges. News of an aboriginal ceremony which may be at the root of Western baptismal rites. F. J. G. has had a letter from Sir John Lubbock and asks for advice on how to reply. A tradition pointing to the origin of the class system. There has been only 4 and a half inches of rain this year (1897). F. J. G.‘s speculations in stocks and shares.

 

34          13.01.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. A fracas among aboriginals. A man wounded by a boomerang and the behavior of his women. A new development over the Churinga. Mr. Roth’s book. The drinking of seminal fluid. “The book is going to be a great one”. F. J. G. has replied to Sir John Lubbock’s letter (see No33) saying that Mr. Frazer can give full information about B. S. – F. J. G.’s work. More speculations in mining shares. F. J. G. has lost a lot of money. Low salary pay to the Protector of Aborigines. The Arltunga mine is starting up and crushing machinery has been installed.

 

35          11.03.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Problems of the mail between Alice Springs and Melbourne. There have been rains and floods with damage to railway lines. problems at the Arltunga mine. Roth’s book on language etc. Facial and bodily scars of aboriginals. A Corroboree lasting 5 nights. Sexual ceremonies. Sending specimens. Aboriginal women who succeed in declaring themselves “doctors”. An aboriginal cattle thief has been shot and killed in being arrested. F. J. G. ‘s concern, as Sub-Protector, about this. He has recommended that traders be forbidden to use fire-arms except in controlled circumstances. F. J. G. attacks B. S. for his “hide-bound Toryism”. The meaning of “Churinga”.

 

36          03.04.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. More about mail arrangements. The joint book is nearly finished. F. J. G. is planning to learn “ the language” thoroughly and hopes to become Protector. F. J. G. explains the decline of interest in “the Natives” and hence in the Department. “Our Government should do more for the Niggers”. Their difficulties over food supply. “If ever I get into the House (with a big H.) I will make better treatment of our natives my own particular fad”.

 

37          17.04.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Local excitement because F. J. G. has sentenced “the king’s” youngest son to 6 months in gaol. F. J. G. ‘s efforts to comfort the king. The “Couvade” ceremony. Customs prevailing among women in pregnancy. Negotiations with MacMillans’ over publication of  “the book”. F. J. G. ‘s political views. He admires Lord Salisbury “he has been a restraining influence upon the rapacity of your countrymen whom I certainly do not hate. I do hate the policy England has pursued with regard to Ireland for the last 600 years”. Conservatives and Liberals in the Colonies. Kingston and his sins against morality. B. S.‘s “lofty” “patronizing” air towards local politicians, who are in F. J. G. ‘s view “the men who are building up a nation in Australia”.

 

38          13.05.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Inter-state rivalries in Australia. F. J. G. urges B. S. to look after himself and work less hard. The need for an Aborigines’ Department. News of gold-mining ventures. F. J. G. ‘s explanation of the Totem system - “it originated in a desire to account for origin and for no other purpose”. He disagrees with Roth’s explanation. More political views. F. J. G.‘s ambition for a political career is diminishing. He has more interest in “His Nigger work”. The “Commonwealth Bill” and its plans for federation.

 

39          28.05.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. Discussion of their respective shares in “the work”. F. J. G. gives B. S. full credit. The shooting of cattle-thieves if they try to avoid arrest. F. J. G. has been speculating in shares and lost money.

 

40          June 1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. ‘s Irish nationalist views and his opinion of “Duffy’s” book. Things have been improving thanks to W. E. Gladstone. F. J. G. condemns the law, which prohibits Professors from sitting in Parliament. News of “the book”. Federation has been set back because of “the spineless wobbler, Reid”. The attitude of local newspapers. Discussion of various politicians. F. J. G. ‘s views on a referendum. News of Dr. Eylmann’s journey.

 

41          10.07.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has enjoyed correcting proofs of “the book”. Details of Dr. Eylmann’s work. Killing of a would-be Aboriginal convert to Christianity. Aboriginal beliefs as to the causes of illness. The problem of Irish Home Rule.

 

42          07.08.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has been exceptionally busy with official duties. Sending photographs of a ceremony. “The returning of Churinga”. F. J. G. and B. S. differ about the merits of Gladstone and Disraeli. F. J. G. admires Gladstone and loathes Disraeli. F. J. G. on two Australian politicians: Burton and Reid.

 

43          22.08.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. writes to say that he is leaving Alice Springs with his family next morning.

 

44          Sept. 1898. From F. J. G. (Clare?) to B. S. F. J. G. has given a successful lecture in Adelaide, which was well reported in the newspapers. F. J. G. stressed “the want of encouragement of scientific workers in Australia”.

 

45          30.10.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. hates being back at Alice Springs without his family. He wants to sell his collection of native weapons, etc. B. S. has gone back to England and is trying to get an appointment there. “The Book” is to come out shortly. F. J. G. thinks B. S. may inherit the mantle of “Huxley”.

 

46          13.11.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. reports that it is 106 degrees in the shade at Alice Springs. References to help received from Frazer. F. J. G.‘s opinion of Tylor “has sunk to Zero”. F. J. G. is going to take photographs of an initiation ceremony.

 

47          23.12.1898. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. An outbreak of measles among the local aboriginal tribe. 6 deaths in the last fortnight. Murder and cattle stealing among the tribes. F. J. G. recommends an amnesty and a fresh start. F. J. G. has applied for a new posting. He is reading Fraser’s “Golden Bough”. News of Dr. Eylmann who is returning to Germany. More newspaper praise of F. J. G. ‘s lecture (see No44).

 

48          08.01.1899. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has been appointed to Moonta, which he describes as a “nest of Cousin Jacks and rigid Methodism”. Emoluments are improved. The measles epidemics has continued. F. J. G. has been invited to write a series of articles on the Aboriginals, but has declined pending publication of “The Book”. The Southern Australian Government is providing funds for a comprehensive work on the Australian race. F. J. G. claims some credit for this.

 

49          19.03.1899. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has been on an 800 miles trip and collected many specimen. His successor at Alice Springs is to be a Mr. Bradshaw. F. J. G. has received a copy of “The Book”. He thinks it is splendidly got up, but the illustrations are little disappointing. He has had a letter of commendation from a Minister (The Hon. J. H. Gordon). B. S. has decided to stay in Australia.

 

50          15.04.1899. From F. J. G. (Alice Springs) to B. S. F. J. G. has seen the criticisms of “The Book”. Howitt has praised it enthusiastically. “Federation” of Australia is on the way. F. J. G. is resigning the office of Sub-Protector, but hopes to retain the title. The Aboriginals are sorry to see him go. “I shall feel parting with the blacks more than with the whites”.

 

51          29.04.1899. From F. J. G. to B. S. Telegram reading “leaving for Adelaide tomorrow. Taking Last Look at Engwura Ground Today Fixing Site For Erection Stone Pillar There Slianthe (signature F. J. Gillen)

 

52          19.07.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. F. J. G. has taken up his new post and is very busy with official duties.

 

53          22.08.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. F. J. G. renews his request for help with a lecture he has to give, but B. S. is very busy with “a Herculean task of creating order out of chaos”. Reorganisation of the Museum. F. J. G. has read more reviews of “The Book”. A bill for “The Protection and Care of the Aboriginal and Half-Caste Inhabitants of the Province” has been introduced in the Upper House. F. J. G. is to give evidence to a Select Committee. F. J. G.‘s criticisms of the Bill: “There appears to be a growing desire to do something for the Blacks…” F. J. G. is unhappy in the bureaucratic routine of his new post.

 

54          07.09.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. Postcard reporting on a trip to the Point Pearce Mission Station. “Be prepared for startling statements about eating of the totem…”

 

55          17.09.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. Further details of the trip to the Mission Station. Information obtained from a half-caste man.

 

56          28.09.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. F. J. G. declines an invitation to accept “the Presidentship” and urges B. S. to accept. F. J. G. has been disappointed over better postings.

 

57          11.10.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. F. J. G. reports on his appearance before the Select Committee. The importance of guaranteeing access to waterholes for the Aborigines. F. J. G. may agree to accept the “Presidentship” if B. S. will write his Address for him. He feels that the Government has not recognized his services properly.

 

58          15.11.1899. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. F. J. G. urges B. S. to work less hard. F. J. G. has been made President of the “Ethnological Section”. The points he would like included in his Address. The “path to extinction, which we all agree is inevitable and rapidly approaching” should be made as pleasant as possible for the Aborigines. Discovery of a vast man-made “Amphitheatre”. The Boer War, the reaction of the Irish Nationalist party to it. The injustices done to Ireland. The Land Laws. F. J. G. ‘s lecture at Wallaroo was a success. Political manoeuvres in the State Parliament.

 

59          28.01.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. F. J. G. reports on a trip to Adelaide. A meeting with Stirling.

 

60          30.05.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta)? to B. S. Discussion of a joint trip to the Northern Coast. F. J. G. doubts whether he can go because of financial difficulties. “Wire just to hand announcing capture of Johannesburg”. “What a great little man is Bobs”. F. J. G. ‘s share speculations have gone wrong. Kingston and his political future. Will he be prime Minister of Federal Australia? Lord Salisbury’s attack on the Irish.

 

61          16.06.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Telegram reading: “Delighted to Hear of Both Distinctions Heartiest Congratulations From Us Both Forgive Gillingham Slianthe” (signature) Gillen.

 

62          21.06.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Sending congratulations on B. S.’s “Dual honour”. F. J. G. now thinks he can come on the Northern trip, provided that he can get leave. Things are not going well at Alice Springs, under his successor Bradshaw.

 

63                19.07.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Prospects for the joint Northern trip are good. F. J. G.’s views on Marshall Hall. His lecture on “Magic” went well.

 

64          07.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. ‘s problems over leave and making up his pay, if he goes on the trip. There has been a public petition to the Government to allow him to go.

 

65          10.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Problems of raising funds for the Northern trip. At least £1000 is needed.

 

66                11.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Still no news from the Government about F. J. G. ‘s leave.

 

67                11.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Details of tables of inter-marriage relationships.

 

68                12.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Still no news from the Government.

 

69                 13.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. A private letter has come from Sir C. Todd about F. J. G. ‘s leave. Stirling has not been cooperative about fundraising for the trip.

 

70          15.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J.G. ‘s terms for joining the expedition. He hopes all the funds needed will not be raised from Victoria only. His views on Stirling’s unhelpfulness. Logistic arrangements.

 

71          16.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Still no news from Sir C. Todd. “Cinematograph idea is good if the funds will run it, but I think photographic records of corroborees are even more important”.

 

72                16.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. No official news yet. F. J. G. would like costs shared equally between Victoria and South Australia.

 

73                21.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is going to Adelaide to see Sir C. Todd. He feels “unsettled and anxious”.

 

74                24.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Details of interviews with Kingston and others, which F. J. G. plans to have in Adelaide.

 

75                24.09.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is uneasy about his leave and suspects hostile influences. He thinks Stirling wants to join the expedition, but does not want to have him.

 

76                24.09.1900(?). From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Chance has been told that he is to join the expedition. F. J. G. thinks £1500 is now needed.

 

77                05.10.1900. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Details of the term on which Chance is joining the expedition. There have been many other applications to join.

 

78                10.10.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. Dr. Kennedy has applied to join the expedition.

 

79                11.10.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. Administrative arrangements. The expedition is opening a Bank account.

 

80                15.10.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. More banking and administrative details.

 

81                25.10.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. An approach from “The Register” newspaper for photographs and information material.

 

82          26.10.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. Another possible recruit for the expedition. Who will pay for the additional cost? Buying horses and “a light hooded buggy”.

 

83          01.11.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. A letter from Sir C. Todd. Looking for a suitable vehicle (a buggy) for the expedition. Horses and saddles have been bought. Official information received that F. J. G. will be paid at £400 p.a. during his absence. One country newspaper has ridiculed the expedition, saying that it will not benefit humanity one straw.

 

84          20.11.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. F. J. G. suggests a book for B. S. to write. More preparations for the expedition. “The Book” has begun to show a small profit. Davidson has explored “30,000 miles” of hitherto unknown country.

 

85                04.12.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. The need for rain. The case of Marshall Hall, who has lost a University appointment because of his religious (or irreligious) opinions. F. J. G. is keen on taking a phonograph on the expedition, but is unhappy about cinematograph films in the heat.

 

86          11.12.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. F. J. G. has changed his mind and now wants a cinematograph. Horses and vehicles.

 

87          20.12.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. “Still infernally dry up North”. A list of camp equipment required.

 

88                21.12.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. An “Abbott” buggy is available for £35. Shall F. J. G. buy? News of government postings.

 

89                30.12.1900. From F. J. G. to B. S. F. J. G. has not heard form B. S. for 3 weeks.

 

90                Undated (early in January 1901). From F. J. G. (Adelaide) to B. S. F. J. G. writes from Adelaide where he has had meetings with the Premier and other V. I. P. ‘s. The Government is being helpful over equipment. The weather in the North is bad (drought).

 

91                07.01.1900 (a mistake for 1901). From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is planning a trip to Melbourne to meet B. S. He fears trouble with “the Mission Stations”, who are “an unreasonable lot of brutes”.

 

92                08.01.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. suggests another point of departure for the expedition (i.e. from previously suggested terminus – Darwin).

 

93                21.01.1901. From F. J. G. to B. S. F. J. G. has ordered supplies of fodder and horsefeed. Chance is going ahead to feed up the horses. Still no rain in the North, which will make difficulties. Transportation arrangements.

 

94                22.01.1901. From F. J. G. to B. S. More problems of transportation and fodder, hinging on the possibility of rain.

 

95                25.01.1901. From F. J. G. to B. S. Grave anxiety about the drought.

 

96                14.02.1901. (through R. J. Besley) From F. J. G. to B. S. Mr. Besley forwards the text of a wire from F. J. G. giving details of rainfall in the North.

 

97          18.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G.‘s happiness because rain has fallen. Details of transportation arrangements and equipment. Financial arrangements.

 

98            19.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. reports more Government help over transportation. There has been more rain.

 

99            20.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. There has been more rain in the North.

 

100          21.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. More news of rain.

 

101          22.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. More rain.

 

102             23.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Details of newly bought horses and buggy. Cave has been very helpful. F. J. G. denounces B. S.‘s and English assumptions of superiority over the Irish F. J. G. hopes for another Parnell, “killed by that hybrid monster, the non-conformist conscience of England”.

 

103          25.02.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. More news of rain. F. J. G. is going to Adelaide to attend the Proclamation of the King (Edward VII).

 

104             01.03.1901. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has returned unwell from Adelaide. He has seen Chance off with the horses. More purchases of equipment. Further help from Government.

 

105          19.06.1901. From Mrs. Gillen (Moonta) to B. S. Mrs. G. sends good wishes to B. S. “I hope you have been able to look after and manage Frank, take great care of him…”

 

106          Undated. Statement of expenditure of the “Spencer Gillen Expedition” amounting to £1224  -2 -3.

 

107             (+ newspaper clipping) 07.04.1902 From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is back “in harness”. Death and burial ceremonies. F. J. G. appears to have been made a Fellow of the Anthropological Society, which he would sooner have  “than a KCMG”. Interviews with the Press on return from the Expedition.

 

108              09.04.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has sent B. S. a present of local wine. His criticisms of “The Magic Rose” by E. Crawley. His kindly reception as a “scientist” by the people of Moonta.

 

109        11.04.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Details of a Reception in F. J. G.‘s honour. The excessive cost of “preparing photographic film”. Bad conditions in the centre of the country: drought and famine.

 

110        14.04.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. reports that gramophone “cylinders” have arrived. There is a credit balance of £110 in the Expedition account, which he intends closing.

 

111        21.05.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. urges B. S. not to overwork. Disposal of the collection of specimens made on the Expedition. “The Mine” at Moonta is to be temporarily closed, and some hundreds of men will be thrown out of work. News of mutual acquaintances.

 

112          28.05.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. sends newspaper cuttings about the Expedition. He is to lecture to the Geographical Society.

 

113           02.06.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The Expedition’s  horses are to be sold.

 

114        18.06.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is preparing for his lecture. “Funk is the dominant note in our social and political life just now”. Retrenchment in the Civil Service. Much unemployment in Adelaide and “suffering amongst the poorer classes”. F. J. G. has never been so hard up in his life. He has had a gratifying letter from “Professor Haddon”. An American evangelist and his methods.

 

115        19.06.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The beliefs of Warramunga women. F. J. G. appreciates that B. S. has always kept him in the foreground of their joint work. Threats of cuts in all official salaries, including F. J. G.‘s.

 

116             25.06.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is planning his lecture to the Geographical Society and wants help from B. S.

 

117             27.06.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been reading a portion of B. S.‘s manuscript and provides information. The Artlunga mine looks like being a boom.

 

118             “Wednesday”? June 1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. asks B. S. for his definition of religion. Is Totemism a form of religion?

 

119             “Saturday”? From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been reading and correcting B. S.‘s manuscript. Sends a cutting from the Adelaide “Advertiser” about the discovery of an Aboriginal shelter containing drawings of birds, reptiles, etc.

 

120             30.06.1902. From F. J. G. to B. S. Details of F. J. G.‘s and B. S.‘s forthcoming lectures.

 

121             03.07.1902. From G. J. G. to B. S. Cuts in Professorial salaries are being threatened.

 

122             08.07.1902. From F. J. G. to B. S. F. J. G. has heard that B. S.‘s lecture was a great success.

 

123             14.07.1902. From F. J. G. to B. S. More about the lectures.

 

124        16.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. thanks B. S. for sending him a full account of his (B. S.) successful lecture. He is still making plans for his own lecture.

 

125           17.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is delighted with all the  slides sent for his lecture.

 

126           18.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Plans for F. J. G.’s lecture. It is   to be held in Adelaide Hall, which seats 1500. Stirling has offered help.

 

127             21.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is anxious about his lecture : “unhappily I have not your frog-like placidity of temperament”. Political disputes in the State Government. F. J. G. is delighted at the retirement of “that old pig Salisbury”, and Balfour coming to power.

 

128           22.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. sends newspaper cuttings advertising his lecture.

 

129             27.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. reports that his lecture was a great success before a magnificent audience. He has been given reason to hope for a better posting.

 

130           29.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Domestic details. More news of the lecture and a possible repetition.

 

131           30.07.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has had a talk with the State Prime Minister about future postings. Full details of the lecture.

 

132             14.08.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. B. S. has done a “kitchen midden” dig. A dispute between the “Railway people” and the Government. A row in the local Railway Workshop. F. J. G. ‘s comments on beliefs “and other parts of B. S.‘s new draft”.

 

133             22.08.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. sends B. S. Brockman’s s report on his explorations N. W. of Kimberley. F. J. G. is to lecture at Adelaide University, and asks B. S. to write a new peroration. The “Way-Ives” scandal. Frazer has proposed F. J. G. for “membership” ? of the Royal Anthropological Society. References to Ethnological books, including Lang’s “Custom and Myth” and Lubbock’s “prehistoric times”. “The pendulum has swung round here with a vengeance. The Labour party is practically dead, done to death by their own greed. All Australia is in a parlous condition…”

 

134             27.08.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. copies extracts from his Record of the Expedition for the information of B. S. A curious tradition about the rain totem. The Mara table of relationships. The Warna ceremonies.

 

135             03.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. B. S. has not accepted F. J. G.‘s suggestion for disposal of any cash surplus from the University lecture. It is to go to the relief of Central Australian natives. More details of the rain ceremony. F. J. G. ‘s comments on the Boer War, and its end. More about the Mara table of relationships.

 

136           04.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Sending photos of two of the oldest survivors of an almost extinct tribe.

 

137           08.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Recollection of the expedition a year ago. The Nathagara ceremony.

 

138           09.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is glad to have heard from B. S. by telegram, of the solving of a relationship problem. (The Mara table).

 

139           10.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Further discussion of the relationship table. B. S. has made a “great find”.

 

140           12.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been confused over the relationship table by a further letter from B. S. Winnecke has died.

 

141             12.09.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Telegram from F. J. G. to B. S. reading: “Hopelessly Tied Up Can’t Get Grip Of It At All”.

 

142           19.09.1902. from F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. reports an earthquake shock at Moonta. His lecture at Adelaide went off well. “The slides were shown splendidly by means of electric light”. F. J. G. has lunched with Sir Samuel Way, the Governor of the State. Will F. J. G. and B. S. get recognition from “The Home Authorities”.

 

143             02.10.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. More about the possibility of “recognition”. F. J. G. has received a “humiliating” note about the lecture from the Registrar of the Adelaide University. An electoral victory by Irvine. F. J. G. ‘s views on certain Irish nationalists. A helpful letter from A. Grainger, Agent-General for the State in London.

 

144             12.10.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has recovered from pleurisy. B. S. is depressed about the conditions in Melbourne University. “Melba” and “ Sandow” have been in Adelaide. An interesting English rolling stone named Keane, the son of a Church dignitary.

 

145             19.10.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. News of visitors and mutual friends. The need for Professors not to lose touch with the people. B. S. has successfully arranged the Ethnological exhibits at the Melbourne Museum.

 

146             26.10.1902. From F. J. G. (moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. ‘s recollections of the Expedition a year ago. He sends B. S. material drawn from his notes. The meaning of particular terms. Discussion of Crawley’s “Mystic Rose”. Details of other books. An economy drive by the State Government, bringing cuts and redundancies, and increased taxation. Rising costs of living. University salaries are being cut.

 

147           29.10.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has finished reading Crawley’s “Mystic Rose” with its criticisms of the Gillen-Spencer book. References to the problem of primitive sexual promiscuity.

 

148             03.11.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has happily received a cheque from MacMillans (proceeds of “the book”). B. S. has sent him the Manuscript of another book. F. J. G. makes minor corrections. Press comment on Melbourne University. An attack in “The Age”. The University’s friends do not fight for it. Dr. Gregory ‘s book “British East Africa” and its references to religious troubles in Uganda. The “Transcontinental Land Grant Railway” Bill has passed the Lower House in the State Parliament. F. J. G.‘s new suit of clothes and its effect on Moonta society.

 

149             08.11.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. More about Crawley’s “Mystic Rose”. Dr. Haddon’s address to the Anthropological Section of the British Association at Belfast. F. J. G.‘s conversation with Sir F. Holden. Interesting assessments of Australian (Federal) Politicians and Ministers. Holden supports Melbourne University against the Press.

 

150             17.11.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Gillen family news, including daughter’s illness. A successful operation. B. S. disagrees with Haddon’s interpretation of totemism. F. J. G. ‘s theory.

 

151             04.12.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. reports that the long drought is breaking up. Aboriginal traditions about droughts. Reminiscences of the expedition and mistakes made on it. The possibility of appealing to “Carnegie” for financial support for more joint work. The “Age” newspaper and its attacks on university staff. News on the Transcontinental Railway project, and the routes it should take. Fraud and laxity in the Australian Customs administration. Kingston’s attempts to put things right.

 

152             18.12.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. reports plenty of rain. News of personal contacts. The disposal of Winnecke’s collection to Adelaide.

 

153              22.12.1902. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Christmas wishes from F. J. G. to B. S. Recollections of the expedition.

 

154             06.01.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been working on B. S. ‘s manuscript. Queries about the material to be included. Details of plans for the Transcontinental Railway. F. J. G. doubts the possibilities of opening up mines and “splendid pastoral land”. Discussion of the Irvine Government’s scheme to give Civil Servants special representation. Praise of the Commonwealth Act dealing with the Civil Service.

 

155           11.01.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The unsolved problems of the Mara relationship classifications. F. J. G.‘s anxiety about it.

 

156           12.01.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The problem still unsolved. Totemic restrictions on marriage.

 

157            13.01.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. More thoughts about the problem.

 

158             19.01.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Different accounts of the Chilchingalla corroboree. F. J. G. has found a page from a small notebook, which appears to solve the problem (attached to Letter).

 

159            29.01.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been looking at photographs as illustrations for the new book. Tribal names and their origins.

 

160             01.02.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been going over B. S.‘s MS. The meaning of tribal names. Information about beliefs and traditions. F. J. G. has gathered on a visit to a local Mission station. News of mutual acquaintances. Developments in the Goldfields.

 

161            04.02.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The question of inheritance of implements of an Arunta man. Details of photographs to be used in the book.

 

162            ?.02.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. B. S. has been unwell. F. J. G. refers to Methodist versus Roman Catholic disputes.

 

163            04.03.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. An imminent boom at the Arltunga goldfield. The need for a telegraph line.

 

164             23.03.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Photographs of an Aboriginal Council are described by F. J. G. More news of the Goldfields boom. F. J. G. may make a prospective trip. A large bequest to the Adelaide Museum and Library. News of Customs frauds. Adelaide plutocrats give handsome donations to educational institutions. F. J. G. asks why this is not so in Melbourne. Correspondence in Adelaide papers about brutal treatment of Aboriginals.

 

165           28.03.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. defends himself against B. S.‘s stern criticism of his proposal to go prospecting for gold.

 

166           07.04.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The Winnecke Depot Goldfields claims have been dissipated by an adverse report. F. J. G. puts his hopes on Arltunga. The Robert Reid and Co. Customs evasion case.

 

167           26.04.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is sending examples of Tonkin’s drawings of animals and insects. F. J. G. wants him to take a course at the School of Art. So far he has never done anything except copper mining, but F. J. G. believes he has a future as an artist. “The Peninsula farmers have done splendidly this year, good crops and high prices”.

 

168           06.05.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. B. S. has given a favorable opinion on Tonkin’s work, and F. J. G. intends to try and raise finance to support him while studying. B. S. has prepared a glossary of Aboriginal words, which F. J. G. is to go through. Troubles (including a possible strike) on the Victoria railways.

 

169           09.05.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Development over Tonkin. Roth and his views on the Aboriginal problem. The Railway strike has begun. “Moonta is a stronghold of labor”.

 

170             31.05.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. The Railway strike has ended. F. J. G. ‘s praise of Irvine, the Irish Prime Minister of Victoria. Comments on the reactions of other State governments to the strike. The State Governorship, why should not be given to a local man? Will Commonwealth of Australia civil servants have to retire at 65? F. J. G. ‘s views on the State school system.

 

171             10.06.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Tonkin has been awarded a free place at Art School but how is he to keep himself? B. S. has bought Tonkin’s picture “The Maniac”.

 

172             18.06.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. B. S. has sent F. J. G. a very interesting letter from Frazer. The reincarnation theory among tribes with maternal descent. A tribe from which information could be obtained in the vicinity of Anna Creek. Plans for a possible 3 months joint Expedition. “ F. J. G. would give much to roll old Lang in the Anthropological mud”. F. J. G. ‘s views on Australian Politicians, Kingston and Deakin. His views on the Public Service and the recent strike. He is against making a strike a criminal matter. “ A more stringent and retrograde measure could not have emanated from a Russian Council of State”. F. J. G.‘s delight at Lord Salisbury‘s retirement and his Nationalist feelings. Parnell, Joseph Chamberlain, and the problem of Irish home rule. “Poor working man. According to a recent authority, 11 millions of the English people are in a chronic state of semi-starvation”. More about the planned expedition to Northern Australia.

 

173             25.06.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. Discussion of the meaning of certain native words. More planning of the expedition. F. J. G. ’s views on the “Wyndham Bill”. The arrogance of the English Governing Classes on the Irish Problem! The policy all along has been “Repress, Repress, Repress”. His vies on the Boers.

 

174            09.07.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has received a first installment of proofs. Planning arrangements for the expedition.

 

175           14.07.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. sends a newspaper cutting claiming that Adelaide University is the best School of Science in Australia. Free railway passes have been granted for the expedition.

 

176           22.07.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been reading proofs and makes a suggestion.

 

177           29.08.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has read through the past installment of B. S.’s opus magnum. He thinks it is written “ in a lighter vein”.

 

178          01.09.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. provides certain native names. “The Ramsay Smith” enquiry begins tomorrow and may “develop into a huge scandal”.

 

179           07.09.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. An Adelaide bookseller has offered to buy the right to reproduce F. J. G. / B. S.’s photographs of Aboriginal ceremonies for postcard reproduction. B. S. has been appointed President of the Professorial Board at Melbourne. Details of personalities concerned in the Ramsay Smith Enquiry.

 

180             28.09.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has been ill. Another letter to B. S. from Frazer. F. J. G. hopes Frazer will not prune his book of purple patches. More about the Tonkin problem. Ramsay Smith has been re-instated. The appointment of a new Commonwealth Chief Justice.

 

181             16.10.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. has received photos taken on the expedition. No progress on making Art training for Tonkin possible. F. J. G. ‘s illness.

 

182            Dated 1903 “Monday night”. From F. J. G. (Adelaide) to B. S. F. J. G. has gone to Adelaide to see the Commonwealth Inspector about staff reductions. There may reductions in pay. He thinks he has solved the Tonkin problem. He is to have an operation.

 

183             28.10.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is feeling better since his trip to Adelaide, but has had a disappointment about the possibility of a transfer to a post in an Adelaide suburb. “Everyone, politicians and civilians in Adelaide are sick of the Commonwealth”. News of mutual acquaintances.

 

184           05.11.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. F. J. G. is about to go to Adelaide for his operation.

 

185           10.11.1903. From F. J. G. (Moonta) to B. S. As above – He has had a wire from B. S.

 

               F. J. G.’s letters to B. S. cease here. The box also contains (either in original or a copy) a letter from B. S. to F. J. G.

 

A           28.07.1904. From B. S. (Melbourne) to F. J. G. B. S. has been trying to help F. J. G. over certain cuts he has suffered in allowances. He comforts F. J. G. by saying that his claims to the better post will be recognized when one becomes available. B. S. has been having a very busy term “ 3 or 4 days a week I have been at it from 9-6.30, teaching without a break and one evening a week a lecture from 8-10 p.m.”. Also a Senate meeting one day from 4.30-11.15 p.m. Obstructionism within the Senate. The clash between State and Commonwealth over “Honours” granted by the Home Authorities. B. S.‘s views on the reasons why F. J. G.’s work has not been recognized. B. S. is against Democratic Government “such as we have out here in Australia”.

 

              Letter continued on 03.08.1904. He has got his new scheme on Entrance Examinations through the University Senate.

 

B            06.08.1904. From B. S. (Melbourne) to F. J. G. An interview with “our swollen-headed, muddy-minded, Minister of Education”. B. S. has seen reviews of the opus magnum in the “Argus” and the “Age”. He modestly disclaims too much mention of his name and not of F. J. G. ‘s.

 

Note:  The folder contains a slip of paper, apparently in B. S. ‘s writing, saying “Gillen’s diaries, Barr-Smith Library in Adelaide University”.

 

C            (Miscellaneous) A wrapper of a letter.

 

 

Box 3

 

Oxford in the 1880s: Letters from Baldwin Spencer to his friend Howard Goulty over a period of 20 years between 1880 – 1900. They had studied together at Owens College, Manchester.

 

1                   17.10.1880. From B. S. (Oxford) to H. G. Both B. S. and H. G. are facing exams. B. S. is despondent about Oxford exam that he is taking, particularly about the Physics and Physiology papers. An interview with the examiner. “This is such a grand place…”

 

2                   28.08.1881. From B. S. (Matlock) to H. G. Plans for a visit to H. G. “I want all the time for my work at home that I can possible get before going up …”

 

3                   08.09.1881. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. Thanks for a week stay with H. G.

 

4                   05.10.1881. From B. S. (Exeter College, Oxford) to H. G. B. S. is in Oxford for an entrance exam. Comments on exam papers: grammar, Latin, Prose, mathematics. The “viva” is still to come. (The end of the letter is missing).

 

5            17.10.1881. From B. S. (Exeter College, Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has been successful, and is living at Exeter. “Everything is very strange”.

 

6            03.11.1881. From B. S. (Oxford Union Society) to H. G. Life at Oxford. The weather. An afternoon’s boating. An undergraduate breakfast party. “The conversation turned on such subjects as the girls of Oxford tobacconists shops”. The fate of “aesthetics” up at Oxford. B. S. ‘s reading programme. He is taking things a little easily, 4 hours work a day and a little harder in the last part (of the year). “6 hours per diem is very good at Exeter. 7 hours denotes a “smug”, anything beyond that is considered the mark of a madman”.

 

5                   11.11.1881. From B. S. (Oxford Union Society) to H. G. B. S. ‘s daily programme of work, ending at night with “some Swinburne”. B. S. had thought of reading history but came to the conclusion to devote himself to science alone.

 

8            18.11.1881. From B. S. (Oxford Union Society) to H. G. Accepting an invitation to stay with H. G. “All my real work must be done in the vac.” His attention is turning increasingly to science. The lack of relevant books. Comments on “Ernest Maltravers” and “Rienzi” which he has been reading. Musical activity at Exeter.

 

9                   07.12.1881. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. is facing end of term exams and viva voce. Looking forward to his visit to H. G.

 

10                25.12.1881. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. Sending Christmas wishes.

 

11                03.01.1882. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. Sending a “birthday book” to the Goulty family.

 

12                08.02.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. is back at Oxford. Morning chapel and cold baths. A reference to the Stapledon Debating Society at Oxford.

 

13                02.03.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Exeter has gone up four places in the “Torpids”. B. S. has been to a lecture on “Fugues” – the Professor of Music. He is to move a resolution in favour of “Local Option” at the college debating society.

 

14                 08.03.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. News of family and friends. B. S. would favour the discarding of exams, if that were practicable. The Oxford (or Cambridge) exams are less unsatisfactory than the Preceptors.

 

15                 16.03.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has seen the sub-Rector and got off “Collections”. He is returning to College to read through the vacation.

 

16                21.03.1882. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. B. S. has met H. G.’s sisters at Alderley Station. His time is “very short and fully occupied”. He is to give a lecture at his home and invites H. G. to come and spend the night. He has been playing football.

 

17                28.04.1882. From B. S. (Oxford Union Society) to H. G. A hurried note form B. S. He has sent flowers to H. G. ‘s sister Emily. “Harry Bowman” is safely through prelim. Med. B. S. has dined at Keble with “Fairbrother” and old Owens College man. He has been playing tennis.

 

18          09.05.1882. From B. S. (Oxford Union Society) to H. G. Everyone at Oxford has been full of Irish news (the murder of Lord Frederick Cavendish), whose sister is the wife of the Warden of Keble. “Intense interest” has been aroused. “It will tell fearfully against the Government…” The great majority of the men are terribly bitter against Gladstone, and as to Chamberlain, he would have a very warm time of it were he to come here”. “For myself I admire Gladstone if possible more than ever”. Further remarks about domestic politics, including some mild anti-Conservative sentiments. “Lord Salisbury when he comes into power will suit these men exactly”. Congratulations to H. G. on passing well in Pol. Econ. Description of a “stand-up” or a “Perpendicular” evening dress entertainment given by the wife of the Rector of Exeter. “Such agony and such a delightful way of spending one’s evening”.

 

19          19.05.1882. From B. S. (Oxford Union Society) to H. G. Exeter has gone Head of the River. Description of the undergraduate celebrations. B. S. is anxious about forthcoming Mods. “It has been awfully amusing to see the Conservatives endeavouring to make party capital out of the O’Shea Parnell business”. More about Irish problems. The likelihood of a split in the Irish Camp. B. S. has really been too busy this term to take much interest in Politics.

 

19                02.06.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Apologies from B. S. for not writing enough. Description of a Viva Voce in divinity. Description of more howlers. The sooner Vivas are done away with the better. B. S. ‘s plans for the Vacation. “I shall be reading for my London Exam all day”.

 

20                07.06.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Inviting H. G. to come and stay at B. S. ‘s home. B. S. is reading hard for “London”. His “viva” is to be on the following Friday.

 

              Note: A piece has been cut out with scissors from pp. 3-4 of this letter. The extract appears to refer to a possible visit from H. G. ‘s sisters.

 

21                09.06.1882.  From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has got through Mods, “after a delightfully short and sweet viva”. He is going to visit H. G. at Alderley Edge.

 

22                26.06.1882. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. Arrangements for mutual visits and for meeting friends.

 

24          04.08.1882. From B. S. (Written from various places during a journey) to H. G. B. S. is on holiday (?) in East Anglia. Apologies for failure to write. B. S. has been “sketching”. He has not enjoyed reading “Verdant Green”, but did enjoy “Mary Barton”. Comments on Shorthouse’s “John Inglesant”, which was a present from H. G. and others.

 

25                06.09.1882. From B. S. (Gresford) to H. G. Arrangements for a stay with H. G.

 

26                14.09.1882. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. Birthday wishes to H. G. B. S. feels “very dissatisfied indeed with present progress…”, and concerned that he may have to wait 5 or 6 or even 7 years longer before he does something.

 

27          19.10.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has settled down at Oxford and has begun real hard work, very different to that of last year. He plans to keep 1 or 1.5 hours a day for exercise and Sundays for “general reading”. More comments on “John Inglesant”. B. S. “can never understand second marriages; that is if the first marriage be such as it ought to be”. “There is nothing in the book which would help anyone in the matter of dealing with lower classes…”

 

28          28.10.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has been working very hard, with afternoons spent at “the Museum”. How he plans to organize his work. Account of heavy floods in Oxford. “From Magdalen Bridge nothing is to be seen save water”. Account of a sermon from Jowett. “He quite gave up belief in the Divinity of Christ”, etc. etc.

 

29          12.11.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Apologies for remissness in correspondence. Account of a walk from Oxford to Dorchester, passing through Nuneham Courtenay. Another “stand-up” party at the “Rector’s” (Exeter) “they is wretched institutions”.

 

30          18.11.1882. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. is going down to Oxford early as, “Hartog has at last got his professorship”; and Owens College, Manchester, have asked B. S. to fill his place until Christmas. He must read hard so as to be able to cope with the Manchester job. B. S. has been to hear Moody and Sankey, “the latter is simply vulgar though he has a good voice: Moody is at all events in earnest”.

 

31          24.12.1882. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. Apologies for not sending a Christmas card. B. S. is not sending any, which he does not paint himself.

 

32          30.12.1882. From B. S. (Oxford) to H. G. Sending H. G. Best wishes for the New Year and for success in his examination. B. S. returned to find himself alone in Exeter, so has gone into lodgings.

 

33          12.01.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Asking H. G. for advice. “Despite the indisputable fact of this being facile princeps amongst the universities of the world, there is nevertheless no means of pursuing the study of Physiology within its “walls”. B. S. had wanted to take this subject for the London B. Sc. But now cannot do so, and plans to take “Logic and Philosophy or whatever they call it” instead. “It is not good telling me I can’t do it in the time for I’m going to”. H. G. is asked for hints as to what to read and how to do it.

 

34          17.02.1883. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. A candidate for a scholarship at B. N. C. B. S. has a high opinion of “good classical men who are the best read all round”. B. S. ‘s views on George Eliot’s novels. He likes “Middlemarch” best, and “The Mill on the Floss” next best. “I fear Ruskin is not going to Lecture this term; rumour has it that he imagines himself to be Jumbo, whose removal from England has cost him much grief, we believe”. NOTE: meaning unclear.

 

35          24.02.1882. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. The end of term is approaching. B. S. is “thankful as 8 weeks of hard work (that is hard for Oxford) is quite enough at a stretch in such a climate as this”. A discussion in Manchester with “Wilkins” about the grammar school and its methods (Presumably Manchester Grammar School). B. S. is mildly critical of “the system” and its “cram”. The sufferings of science men who get no time for exercise.

 

36          03.03.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has been representing his friend MacKinder (? Sir Halford MacKinder) at the poll for the Presidency of the Oxford Union. B. S. himself has been elected Treasurer/Secretary of the University Science Club. An argument between B. S. and H. G. about “design” in nature. (The second sheet of this letter is missing.)

 

37          05.03.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. MacKinder has “got in with ease”. More about the “design” argument. B. S. takes the evolutionist position and rejects H. G. ‘s argument for the existence of a God, “it seems to me that we are simply landed in the Agnostics’ position… I don’t think our religious “beliefs” will stand very much analysis”.

 

38          21.04.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. (First sheet or sheets of this letter are missing)

              …B. S. has been reading Sidgwick’s “Ethics” and “Bain”; this combined with Geology, Comparative Anatomy and “an Oxford Exam this term” is giving him enough to do. The Science Club is giving a Conversazione this term. B. S. expects to visit Oxford by H. G.

 

39          29.04.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. (First sheet is missing) B. S. has been reading the text of the lecture, which Ruskin gave last term, “… the English in parts is really beautiful”. Ruskin is to give three more this term. B. S. finds Sidgwick “very enjoyable but indefinite; he says nothing settled, but talks in a general kind of way”.

 

40          05.05.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. (First sheet or sheets of this letter are missing)…The Prince of Wales has been visiting Oxford. “Everything passed off swimmingly even down to the shying of lump sugar on to the cads below my window”. Salisbury, Northcote, Northbrook, Cranbrook, etc. have been on view. Ruskin is beginning his lectures on Modern English Art again, the first on “Burne-Jones and Watts”.

 

41          13.05.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Eight weeks at Oxford. Exeter are still head of the River. Glorious weather to make up for recent abominable weather. B. S.’s plans for the long vacation, hard work until the London exam comes on. “MacKinder and I have just been having a long chat about what we intend to do in life”. M. wants a more or less public life. B. S. the more or less quite life of a scientific man.

 

42          27.05.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has been very busy, including taking “a slight Exam”, the first of his final ones. He did badly through not having worked for it. His dread of coming Viva Voce. Howlers committed by an examinee in Theology. Arrangements for the Science Club Conversazione. Hopes for a meeting and a chat concerning things in general “and one in particular”.

 

43          21.07.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Cryptic references to problems facing H. G. B. S. is looking forward to beginning “life in earnest” (NOTE: does this refer to marriage, cf. No 42?) B. S. has lunched at “the Rector’s” (rector of Exeter). “I should hardly call them intellectuals”. He has dined with several Dons, including Bywater, who “is supposed to be about the cleverest Don in Oxford” and is looked up to by German scholars. A vivisectionist argument with a Don’s wife. In Convocation a bill to give Burden-Sanderson money for his new labs. Was nearly thrown out by anti-vivisectionists.

 

44          10.11.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. and MacKinder have both been ploughed. “Our time has been too much taken up with other things” and other reasons. “However, it is over and I am now beginning to read for an exam here in Chemistry”. A lecture by Ruskin and B. S. ‘s comments on his egotistical style. Criticism of “those buildings erected by the University for the torture of her sons” i.e. the Examination schools. B. S. has been taking part in discussions, which interfere with his sleep.

 

45          17.11.1883. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. ‘s difficulty in finding time to write letters. His plans to keep Sundays free throughout his life. His concern with social work and the condition of the poor, “We may be drifting on to a great revolution”. B. S. wants more time to read and think about these things. Beautiful weather in Oxford. B. S. wants to sit down and draw, but has gone to cram up on chemical formulae, “which of all occupations is about the one I most abhor”. Details of B. S.’ s ploughing in the London exam. He failed in “Moral Science”.

 

46          25.11.1883. B. S. is feeling rather “muddled” and tired of this term. The problems occupying Oxford attention at present: (a) Vivisection – There is strong opposition to the carrying on of vivisection in the university. This is to be debated in the Union; MacKinder will defend vivisection. (b) The Social question – “What is to be done with and for the lower classes”. There is much talking and lecturing about this in Oxford. A great movement is coming before long, and “we shall be able to do our share in the work”.

              A description of the “University Settlement” idea. It is really a modified form of Socialism…” “We shall yet see Oxford at the head of a new and this time social movement”.

 

47          04.02.1884. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. and MacKinder have just been to a lecture by Tylor on “The Arts of Civilisation”. The value of the practical part of his lecture. B. S. has been doing a little “original investigation”. The danger of becoming too much involved in detail.

              More about the vivisection dispute. Country persons are being whipped up by the anti-vivisectionists. B. S. has been to lectures by Hyndman and Morris on “Constructive socialism” - descriptions of their plans and objectives. B. S. ‘s views, “Injustice has been done in the past and doubtless will have to be done in the future to landowners before things are at all satisfactory”. B. S. would like to see co-operation take the place of competition.

 

48          12.02.1884. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. The death of a mutual friend’s father, and the problem of daughters left with insufficient means. A visit from H. G. is expected. The vivisectionists debate was won by the vivisectionists by a large majority, “quite contrary to expectation” B. S. ‘s views on the problem.

 

49          18.02.1884. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. H. G. ‘s coming visit and the problems of travel by rail. B. S. has been to a second lecture by Tylor. He does not agree with all Tylor’s views on the sequence of stone, bronze and iron in primitive culture. This may be due in part to “being prejudiced beforehand”.

 

50          14.05.1884. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. “Schools” are approaching. B. S. ‘s expectations for a First or Second; “in an Oxford exam where beyond a certain point of necessary knowledge, it is not mere facts which pay”. (The second page of sheet 1 is missing) Mention of Eights week. Exeter is head with fair prospects of remaining so. The pleasures of Summer term. The Australian cricket team and an expected defeat for Oxford.

 

51          22.05.1884. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. Excitements of the Australian cricket match. “Of course all the men went and got drunk and perfectly out of form and made a poor show against the weak gentleman’s team which they ought easily to have smashed”. (The second page of sheet 1 is missing) A reference to a riot by an Oxford mob, which amused itself by smashing all windows, which could be wrecked with stones, “On the whole it was disgusting…” “You ought to be in such a riot to understand what we mean by “a ragging” “. A concert in the Fellows garden. B. S. is getting anxious about “Schools”.

 

52                13.06.1884. From B. S. (Exeter College Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has got a First. A “most enjoyable viva” as Moseley and Gamgee simply congratulated me “on the excellence of my work” B. S. is returning next term as Moseley has offered him a little work, and he hopes to get pupils to coach.

 

53          02.12.1884. From B. S. (Earls Colne, Essex) to H. G. Apologies for remissness in correspondence. B. S. has had “almost more work in Oxford that I could get through”. The Science Conversazione has taken place in the Science Museum. The strictness of the British Customs Officials. Professor Moseley has offered B. S. the post of his Assistant. B. S. has accepted, and will have to “superintend the men’s work in the laboratory and give courses of lectures as well”.

 

54          19.01.1885. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. B. S. ‘s negotiations with Exeter College about the continuance of his scholarship. He has been working at Manchester with “Marshall” Unfavourable comparison of the “spirit of work” at Oxford with that at Owens College. “Perhaps the best thing is a mixture of both places”.

 

55          29.01.1885. From B. S. (Whalley Range) to H. G. B. S. is remaining in Manchester, probably until half-term at Oxford, as he does not feel fully fit. More about his work with Marshall; problems of the latter’s skepticism. B. S.  father’s plan for H. G. ‘s future as a solicitor. A proposed meeting.

 

56                22.02.1885. From B. S. (Oxford) to H. G. B. S. has moved to lodgings at Museum Terrace, “somewhat out of the general run of lodgings, that is a good distance from college”, but he needs to be near the Museum. “It is also close to Keble, which I was forgetting to count as a college”. B. S. has got two pupils, one of whom is a “she”. He would prefer not to have her since she cannot be coached without the annoyance of having a chaperon in the room. He will probably get about 5 pupils every year, which will mean an addition of £50 to his income.

 

57          08.03.1885. From B. S. (Oxford) to H. G. A visit to Oxford from “Stuart Reid”. “Away from the pulpit he is certainly a nice man whatever he may be in it”. B. S. has a good deal of Museum work to do in the vacations, arranging the zoological collection etc., and he will be busy preparing for his lectures. Some details of the “Varsity Sports”. A forthcoming debate in Convocation at which the Vivisection issue will arise.

 

58                18.03.1885. From B. S. (?) to H. G. Inviting H. G. to tea.

 

59                27.03.1885. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. News of family and friends.

 

60                07.04.1885. from B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. B. S. has been seeing a lot of Bourne, an old Etonian. “Coming in contact with public school men makes one see more clearly than ever the very distinct advantage of a public school life and training”. The Cohens (Julius and 3 sisters) have been in Oxford and B. S. ‘s work programme was interrupted.

 

61          26.04.1885. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. B. S. ‘s views on the problems of Herat, “to give in to Russia means certain war in a very few years…” “our future peace and welfare depends upon our not giving in at the present time”. Views on the state of British politics. B. S. ‘s lecturing has begun. Ruskin has resigned his Professorship in consequence of the recent pro-vivisection vote in Convocation, “…his second term of the Professorship here has not been at all a success. He has outlived his power”. Lowell, the American Minister, is mentioned as a probable applicant for the Professorship of English. The Summer term at Oxford. B. S. ‘s few relaxations from work.

 

62                09.05.1885. From B. S. (Anatomical Department, Museum Oxford) to H. G. News of H. G. ‘s future prospects and family. A cryptic reference to “someone’s illness” “The Ship Canal so far seems rather a success -  may it go on” (NOTE: presumably the Manchester Ship Canal). Failure of a scheme to relieve “poor science men” of one classical exam, “which acts as a heavy drag on our work”. “These wretched people here” have defeated it by one vote.

 

63                16.05.1885. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. News of Friends and Eights Week. Exeter College has not done so well, but “my connection with the place is practically severed now”.

 

64                04.06.1885. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. B. S. envies H. G. his trip to the Welsh Mountains. Oxford climate, the effects of hot weather. B. S. is beginning “some special original or quasi-original work which Ray Lancaster suggested to me, and the great man promised to publish it for me”. “Hoyle” has been working hard and ought to get a good place soon. Surrey – v – Oxford University at cricket.

 

65          21.06.1885. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. B. S. has been helping Professors Moseley and Tylor in London with superintending the removal of “a very valuable Anthropological collection given to the “Varsity from South Kensington. The task of labeling items – a heavy’s day’s work for all three”. B. S. ‘s views on Tylor and Moseley. Tylor himself “is of course the best anthropologist in England and a very nice man indeed”. Moseley “really knows considerably more concerning anthropology than even Tylor”. Moseley is “a very remarkable man”, but “too narrow in some ways” Marshall has got His F. R. S. Hartog has got a fellowship of £400 p. a. in Ireland. News and views of British politics. The Government has gone out. There is …”little doubt that Parnell will rule the next Parliament”. B. S. ‘s long walk in Surrey.

 

66                 02.07.1885. From B. S. (Anatomical Department) to H. G. H. G. is starting life as a lawyer. B. S. ‘s plans for the summer vacation. News of old friends from Owens College. “We have today finished bringing here the Pitt-Rivers”.

 

67          21.07.1885. From B. S. (Oxford) to H. G. More about B. S. ‘s vacation plans. A trip to Scotland and the Orkneys. Another to Germany and Switzerland.

 

68          06.08.1885. From B. S. (Cromford near Derby) to H. G. Details of B. S. ‘s Scottish trip. The Forth Bridge is under construction, will it be a safe structure? News of friends.

 

69          09.08.1885. From B. S. (Cromford near Derby) to H. G. B. S. has been reading Geology with a view to the Burdett-Coutts Scholarship at Oxford. B. S. has taken charge of all the elementary work in his department, lecturing and practical. B. S. wants H. G. to make a will for him and gives details of his intentions. B. S. and a publishing venture, “a series of drawings with letterpress descriptive of them” on “Embryology of the chick”. Financial details. The idea was suggested to B. S. by Lankester and Moseley.

 

70                26.09.1885. From B. S. (Anatomical Department) to H. G. B. S. has been exceptionally busy and will be busier still when the term begins. (NOTE: some passages apparently referring to  a “she” have been inked out of this letter). A mistake “the Grammar School” is making. H. G. ‘s advice is wanted regarding an invitation to read a paper on Evolution at Chorlton Road.

 

71          18.10.1885. From B. S. (Museum Terrace, Oxford) to H. G. News of old Owens College men. Oxford  - Cambridge rivalries. References to internal political issues, speeches by “the Noble Duke” and “Chamberlain” (presumably Joseph). Evolution, and the non-viability of ides of “a special creation”. The contribution of Darwinism. The possible identity of “what you call “the will of God” and we – “the laws of Nature” “.

 

72                31.10.1885. From B. S. (Museum Terrace, Oxford) to H. G. B. S. sympathises with H. G. about the grave illness of his mother.

 

73                13.11.1885. From B. S. (Museum Terrace, Oxford) to H. G. B. S. ‘s condolences on the death of H. G.‘s mother.

 

74                15.11.1885. From B. S. (Museum Terrace, Oxford) to H. G. B. S. is unable to attend the funeral, but sends more condolences.

 

75                23.11.1885. From B. S. (Museum Terrace, Oxford) to H. G. The business of life at Oxford. B. S. has attended lectures by “Drummond”, “A man of considerable power with a splendid voice…” A suspicion that his enthusiasm is a little forced. A sermon by the Archbishop of York on “Stead” (presumably on his revelations of social conditions). “My sympathies are pro-Steadian”.

 

76          29.11.1885. From B. S. to H. G. Disappointment over election results in Manchester – depression among the Liberals. A scene of the wildest excitement at the “Union” as the results came in. Another Tory Government will not be unwelcome to B. S., “they will put India in a proper state and get something like order in our foreign affairs”.

Lincoln College is to offer a fellowship in Biology; B. S. considers his chances. Ray Lankester will be examining. (NOTE: a piece has apparently been cut out of the second sheet of this letter). B. S. is to go to the Royal Society dinner as Moseley’s guest. Huxley will make his retiring speech as President.

 

77                10.12.1885. From B. S. to H. G. More election news. B. S. ‘s views on the composition and leadership of the Liberal party. His preparations for the Lincoln fellowship exam. News of friends.

 

78          28.01.1886. From B. S. to H. G. The fellowship exam. B. S. ‘s views on his chances.

Views on the political situation, “I for one regret the turning out of Salisbury”. “I fancy that before long we shall begin to want a little less pure party spirit in politics”. B. S. describes himself as more or less a moderate Liberal.

 

79                31.01.1886. From B. S. (Union Society) to H. G. B. S. has heard privately that he has got the fellowship.

 

80                07(?).02.1886. From B. S. (Anatomical Department) to H. G. Official news of elections to the fellowship. 50 letters to be acknowledged and 6 dinners in succession. “…they appear to be a very happy family at Lincoln and very unconventional”. An account of “common room” life, “…very little drinking and much more reading is done”.

 

81                27.02.1886. From B. S. (Anatomical Department) to H. G. Sickness among B. S. ‘s friends. B. S. has been for a long walk with Moseley and discussed the possibility of going abroad.

 

82                05.03.1886. From B. S. (Anatomical Department) to H. G. News of sickness among friends. (NOTE: second page or sheet of this letter is missing)

 

83                18.03. 1886. From B. S. (Anatomical Department) to H. G. B. S. has been cramming and sitting for “the Burdett-Coutts”. He thinks he has done badly. “This evening I am enjoying deeply the feeling of having put behind me my last exam”. He has crammed for exams for 13 years and now wants to settle down to some real work. His future programme. B. S. makes a comment on Mr. Gladstone and “Home Rule”.

 

84                20.03.1886. From B. S. to H. G. B. S. has “missed the Burdett-Coutts”.

 

85                14.05.1886. From B. S. to H. G. B. S. describes his temporary rooms in Lincoln. Conversation at High Table.

 

86          25.05.1886. From B. S. (Lincoln College) to H. G. A dinner at Christ Church, “best Burgundy and “47 Port”. B. S. ‘s views on wine snobbery. An anecdote of Pusey and the High Church. A dinner at New College and talk with Sylvester, the great mathematician – A comment on Mark Pattison. A dinner at the Rector of Lincoln’s, where B. S. met Max Muller. B. S. is at work on “the Lizard’s eye”.

 

87          12.06.1886. From B. S. (Lincoln College) to H. G. (NOTE: First sheet or sheets of this letter missing). News of Dill, Bodington (Head of Leeds College), Stroud and Smithells. B. S. has read a paper at the Royal Society. “It is a strange place – no one seems to take much interest in anything…”. B. S. was disappointed at the Royal Academy Show. A picture by Burne-Jones “is far and away the most noticeable”.

 

88          27.07.1886. From B. S. (Lincoln College) to H. G. Troubles in B. S. ‘s s rooms in College. A heavy rainstorm: mice. B. S. ‘s planned programme for a visit to Europe.

 

89          18.10.1886. From B. S. (Lincoln College) to H. G. B. S. is back in Oxford and extremely busy. “We are putting up a new building as a temporary laboratory”. Continuous rain in Oxford. “We are just about to try and get our statutes changed here in Oxford, if which attempt be successful, it will be possible for fellows to marry…”. Likely opposition from King, the Bishop of Lincoln.

 

90          24.10.1886. From B. S. (Lincoln College) to H. G. B. S. has produced an article on the extra eye of Lizards, which “is attracting some little attention among biologists”. Interesting guests at the Lincoln High Table, “With such men as these I always feel almost depressingly ignorant”.

 

91          16.11.1886. from B. S. (Lincoln College) to H. G. B. S. has applied for an appointment (? The Chair at Melbourne), but he thinks his chances are practically nil. It will probably go to a man who is now in New Zealand.

 

92          06.12.1886. From B. S. to H. G. “Nothing is definitely settled about Melbourne yet”. B. S. knows he is among 5 names sent forward by the English Electors. B. S. ‘s interview with Sir Graham Bony (?), the Agent-General for Victoria, “he looked as much as to say “who the ___ are you, sir” “.

 

The correspondence now ends except for a final letter written from Melbourne and dated 10 July 1900 ( i.e. a gap of 3.5 years).

 

93          10.07.1900. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. G. B. S. is glad to have been made F. R. S. He has reached the age of 40 but hopes “to be able to get through a good deal of work yet”. News of old Owens College friends. Australia as a field for work, especially in Zoology and Anthropology. Plans for an expedition to the North with Gillen. Comments on Melbourne as a city. (Continued on 16 July 1900). Comments on the situation in Australia. “We shall undoubtedly have a protective policy, and there are big questions to be worked out in regard to the opening of the more tropical parts.” “…the Australian working man dislikes black and yellow men, and if he be not willing to do anything himself takes good care that no one else shall do it”.

 

94          B. S. to H. G. Miscellaneous

NOTE: Spencer’s correspondence with Howard Goulty is outlined on pages 17-23 of “Spencer’s Last Journey”, edited by R. R. Marett and T. L. Penniman (Oxford, 1931).

 

Letters from Andrew Lang

 

NOTES:

i)            Lang did not give the year, in addition to the day and moth, when writing his letters. On some letters the year 1899 has been added by another hand (?Penniman), and the assumption is made that all the letters recorded below are dated in that year.

ii)           Lang’s handwriting was notoriously bad. There may be misreadings below.

 

1            16.01.1899. From A.L. (St. Andrews) to B.S. A reference to an earlier letter to which B.S., who is on his visit to England, had replied. Lang’s views on Scottish “Churinga” and other antiquities. Lang is to review B.S.’s book (Native tribes of Central Australia).

Differences with Frazer and his views. Crystal - Gazing. Would Gillen conduct an experiment in Australia?

 

2            08.04.1899. From A.L. (S. Kensington) to B.S. Thanks for a letter dated 22 Feb. from B.S. Enclosing two rough sketches of stones in the Edinburgh Museum.

Thanks in advance for Churinga B.S. is sending. Lang’s views on the Arunta and their totemism. His doubts about exogamy. More ideas about crystal-gazing.

(two pens and ink sketches are attached)

 

3            07.05.1899. From A. L. (S. Kensington) to B.S. Lang’s criticism of Frazer’s theories. He is “open to conviction, but unconvinced”. Differences on vies about the “great spirit” of the Arunta.

 

4            09.05.1899. From A. L. (S. Kensington) to B. S. More criticisms of Frazer’s theory of the primitiveness of the Arunta. B. S.’s book is quoted in support.

 

5            12.06.1899. From A. L. (S. Kensington) to B. S. More criticisms of Frazer and B.S., as set out in Lang’s article in the “Fortnightly”, June number. “My objections may be rubbish, but they are such as occur to the natural man”. A Japanese object Lang has found in a friend’s rooms at Oxford. Can B.S. help with explanation?

 

6            24.07.1899. From A. L. (Glencoe) to B. S. Thanks for a letter from B.S. Lang accepts a correction from B.S. in his book and will inform those interested.

Queries about totemic groups, and the many different levels of marriage institutions.

 

7            03.08.1899. From A. L. (Penicuick) to B. S. Thanks for Churinga and bull-roarer received. More discussion about totemism and exogamy. “I can not see that Frazer’s theory of the Origin of totemism is probable”.

Queries about the theory of “virgin birth”.

 

8            07.09.1899. From A. L. (Whauphill) to B. S. Sending the (Edinburgh) Museum’s thanks for B. S.’s presentations.

 

A. L.’s letters to B. S. stop here, for 3 months, but the envelope also contains 3 letters from Lang to Mr. G. A. MacMillan of MacMillan and Co., which must have been passed to B. S. (see No12).

 

9            05.11.1899. From A. L. (South Kensington) to G. A. M. Thanks G. A. M. for proof sheets of B. S.’s book, up to p.544.

His theory about the parallel between Australian Churinga and objects just found in Scotland. Could a note and sketch be added at the end of the book?

 

10          16.11.1899. From A. L. (St. Andrews) to G. A. M. More details of the Scottish discoveries. Are they fakes? No, although the “Official antiquaries” will say so.

 

11          02.12.1899. From A. L. (St. Andrews) to G. A. M. More about the discoveries. B.S. ought to come and see them for himself.

 

12          16.12.1899. From A. L. (St. Andrews) to B. S. Telling B. S. that MacMillans have let him see the proofs of the book.

Again urging the correspondence between Churinga and the Scottish discoveries. Asks for information about Twanyirrika (?), the spirit whose voice is represented by the bull-roarer.

 

13          From A. L. to B. S. Miscellaneous.

 

 

Box 4

 

Correspondence between W. Baldwin Spencer and Henry Balfour

 

1            10.05.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has just written to “Dr. Tylor” about his own and Gillen’s work, following the HORN expedition. Description of the material assembled. Tylor has been asked to help; if he cannot, would H. B. do so? “Oxford is, to me, a most depressing place to live in, despite its great attractions. A query about the “concentric circle of ornamentation” of Central Australian natives.

 

2            20.09.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. Thanks to H. B. for his letter and offer of help. (NOTE: this letter is missing). Difficulties of finding a publisher. The book would be of interest to anthropologists only. B. S. ‘s views on the comparative stature of leading anthropologists. Criticism of “McLennan”. The difficulties of facing a woman anthropologist – men will not reveal secrets to her. The poverty of Australian collections in “art” material. A reference to “Roth” and his work in the far North.

 

3            02.12.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. (Contin. on two dates in Jan. 1898) Roth and his book on his work in Queensland. Praise and criticism. B. S. is working on his joint book with Gillen. Macmillans have offered to publish. B. S. ‘s collection of Central Australian objects. Haddon has returned to New Guinea. An admirable address by Howitt, and his unique range of knowledge. Fison and his way of dealing with “rare old philological cranks”. Crushing criticism of Grant Allen’s book “Evolution of the idea of God”. Comments on the Pitt Rivers Museum and its collection of Australian things.

 

4            18.08.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has not heard from H. B. for ages, and asks for news of Oxford, and particularly of Tylor. Is he ill? He has not replied to letters form Howitt and B. S. Progress of “the book”. Praise of Frazer and the help he has given in revising proofs. Gillen’s major contribution. Criticism of Roth’s ideas about totems. B. S. has had a cable to say that Lankester’s former Chair at Oxford is vacant. He thought of applying but decided against it. Howitt is at work on a magnum opus.

 

5            28.09.1898. From H. B. (University Museum Oxford) to B. S. H. B. ‘s reply to No 4 above. News of Oxford and the question of Lankester’s successor. The requirements for the post, and various candidates. Regret that B. S. has not applied. Views on Roth’s book. H. B. ‘s delight with the specimens obtained from the HORN expedition. Has B. S. got information about Louis De Rougemont? Tylor is getting old and may forget things. The Museum’s need for photographs. The dangers of forming theories. “ I prefer to collect and collate”. “Tylor really is wonderful in a way”. Anson of All Souls is to be the next Vice-Chancellor, but B. S. doubts if science means much to him. The British Association meeting at Bristol, and some “No 1 size cranks”.

 

6            30.05.1902. From H. B. (Oxford) to B. S. Congratulations on B. S. ‘s safe return from his trans-Australian journey, and its noteworthy achievements. Information H. B. would like to have. “ The Pitt Rivers Museum progresses favourably in spite of its meager funds, but one badly wants information at first hand…”. Tylor is resigning the Keepership of the Museum, and that office will probably be abolished. The University’s severe need of funds.

 

7            28.08.1902. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. Reply to No 6 above. B. S. ‘s account of his journey. The wide spread of “the reincarnation theory”. Roth has changed his former views on totemism, but is unwilling to state this. His great opportunities for ethnological work, and comparatively minor results. The range of objects B. S. has succeeded in collecting. Economic troubles in Australia caused by drought. The University of Melbourne accountant has embezzled £ 30.000. B. S. may be looking for another post. He is getting “full-up” of the “democratic government” of Australia. He wants news of Oxford.

 

8            06.01.1903 (contin. 03.02.1903). From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has sent two boxes of specimens to H. B., including a genuine NURTUNJA. The difficulties of work in the Northern Territory. Critical remarks about Roth’s work. B. S. has been busy on the final stages of his book. Nostalgic memories of the Oxford “Science Club” of 1885 and 1886.

 

9            07.07.1913. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. modestly thanks H. B. for “the honour” proposed to be done to him. (A pencilled marginal note by H. B. explains that this refers to the incorporation of B. S. ‘s name in the design of a stained glass window to be presented to Exeter College in commemoration of Exeter scientists). The major influences on B. S.  - Moseley, Tylor and, Pater Frazer.

The progress of B. S.’s work in Australia. His collection of stone implements. The possibility of a visit to the UK.

 

10          07.01.1914. From B. S. (Morlays Hotel London) to H. B. Inviting H. B. to come to the Royal Society for lunch and a discussion.

 

11          03.02.1914. From B. S. (The Athenaeum London) to Mrs. B. Thanking the Balfours for a two days’ stay at their house in Headington. B. S. has been to Manchester, where they gave him a degree and a most gorgeous gown.

 

12          22.04.1914. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. Arrangements for H. B. ‘s trip to Australia – he is to stay with B. S. (H. B. was going to attend the British Association meeting in Melbourne).

 

13          30.08.1914. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has been packing prints etc. for return to H. B., after he had left Australia. Problems of the British Association meeting. “The war news is not altogether reassuring”. Recollections of B. S.‘s stay in H. B.’s house at Headington.

 

14          02.01.1915. From H. B. (Oxford) to B. S. B. S. has been doing “Admiralty” work in France as well as his Museum work. “One doesn’t yet see daylight in the War… but in the long run we are bound to win”. H. B. is anxious about his material sent off from Australia. It may be lost. A collection of Australian implements has been put together for presentation to the Pitt Rivers Museum.

 

15          13.12.1915. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has still had no news from H. B., whose box has still not been sent off. Australia is suffering from a very severe drought. Australia is rather “down” at present. A big drive for enlistment in the Forces. (Letter continued on 16.12.1915). A letter from H. B. has now arrived. B. S. has made additions to the collections to be sent to H. B.

 

16          26.02.1915. from B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has been able to get “Kenyon” to visit his Museum. Kenyon has been in charge of the distribution of wheat in drought-stricken areas.

Arrangements are in hand to send collections to the Pitt-Rivers and other U.K. museums. B. S.‘s comments on the “German barbarians”, and their conduct in the War. No visit from Kenyon yet. B. S. has nightmares about the Zeppelins dropping bombs on Oxford. He hopes to be “home” again within a year or two.

(contin. On 16.03.1915)

 

17          07.06.1915. From H. B. (Oxford) to B. S. Correspondence has gone astray. H. B. is keenly awaiting the collections, which B. S. and KENYON are sending. A type of stone axe H. B. particularly wants “Stone implements fascinate me”.

News of the war. “Oxford has a bare third of its full complement of undergrads, and these are largely physically unfit, Americans, or other non-combatants”. News of Oxford casualties.

H. B.’s interest in Fishing Kites.

 

18          10.06.1915. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. has at last contacted Kenyon. His collection, and B. S.’s own collection are now being sent to the Pitt-Rivers. News of the GALLIPOLI casualties. The gloomy outlook. Australians and their attitude to “joining up”. The Australian Federal Government and its “labour policy”. Strikes and their effects.

 

19          28.01.1920. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. B. S. refers to the long gap in correspondence, and asks if the box of collections sent on 04.01.1917 ever arrived. He has resigned from the University and hopes to devote himself to Museum work and ethnology. He is moving house out of Melbourne to the country. He doubts if he will see England again: “travelling will be reserved for profiteers and the so-called “labouring classes”“. Other Australian institutions have received large benefactions, but Melbourne has got nothing.

 

20          04.08.1920. From H. B. to B. S. Letters have evidently gone astray. H. B. had acknowledged receipt of the collections. Kenyon’s series of Australian stone implements are particularly valuable. Another request for a particular type of stone axe. He had nearly stolen one in Australia, but “Consciences are incompatible with curatorial functions”.

H. B. gives a sad account of his time at Oxford where “one never gets any credit for one’s labours unless one perpetually thumps a big drum and makes oneself generally unpleasant by blaring away on a trumpet”.

News of H. B.’s health. He had damaged his heart when on war work. Meetings with Miss Stirling and Malinowski.

“Oxford has returned to normal…and has now again the semblance of a University”.

 

21               24.09.1920. From B. S. to H. B. The reply to No19 above. Details of B. S.’s resignation and the reasons for it. Details of his new country bungalow. News of his two daughters and their marriages. Nostalgic recollections of the old “Pitt-Rivers collection, which gave him his first interest in anthropology. Memories of Moseley and Tylor. “Tylor … Simply fascinated me.”

 

22          30.08.? From H. B. (Oxford) to B. S. H. B. has made a trip to India. Hence correspondence has been neglected. His regrets at B. S.’s retirement, but pleasure that he has begun “ a general account of Australian aborigines”. Some suggestions for points to be included. “Things have been coming in to the Museum & I want another building badly”. Details of his trip to Nagaland with Hutton and Mills. The Nagas are “excellent savages, some of them quite intelligent.” Head hunting. Methods of fire-making.

H. B. has written to George Pitt-Rivers to say how glad he would be to have his collection. G. P.–R. is “inclined to think that no one else can do decent work, but he may grow out of that”.

 

23          28.03.1924. From B. S. (Melbourne) to H. B. Postcard in which B. S. says that he will write soon, and is sorry not to have been asked to sign H. B.’s nomination form for the Royal Society. The back of the postcard is a photograph of B. S.’s former house at ARMADALE, MELBOURNE.

 

24          06.12.1927. From B. S. (London) to H. B. B. S. has sent H. B. a copy of “THE ARUNTA”. His future plans for producing books. He will be returning to AUSTRALIA in February. H. B. has been on a trip up the Amazon.

Note: This folder contains also : From B. S. to H. B. A cutting from a letter which does not survive referring to a lunch with Edge-Partington and their joint appreciation of H. B. and his work.

 

25          18.01.1929. From B. S. (London) to H. B. B. S. has got his “Wanderings” through the press. His low opinion of British Association meetings, which seem to be “necessary evils”. His plans for his trip to TIERRA DEL FUEGO towards the end of February.

 

26          24.04.1929 continued on 27.04.1929. From B. S. (Magallanes, Chile) to H. B. B. S.’s account of his voyage out. Some discoveries on a rubbish tip in DESCADO. Drawings of arrow-heads form part of the text. Also of throwing stones. The local menus. A planned expedition in a small schooner to a little settlement.

 

27          16.07.1929. H. B. (en route to South Africa) to B. S. H. B. ‘s reply to No23, on which he has noted in his own hand. “This reply to Spencer’s last letter failed to reach him before he died on July 14 1929, & was returned to me”. Discussion of B. S.‘s finds near MAGALLANES. Plans for a meeting in Oxford after they both return from their trips.

 

28          From H. B. (Oxford) to B. S. An undated letter in which H. B. wishes B. S. and GILLEN well in their forthcoming expedition to Northern Australia. (Black-edged writing paper may give a clue to dating). Suggestions as to points they should investigate. News of the University. ACLAND, MAX MULLER and CONROY have all died. New appointments and new buildings. “The Museum is becoming the most heterogeneous medley of architectural horrors that can be imagined”. “The Pitt-Rivers jogs along gaily and I have had a fine year for accessions.” “TYLOR and THOMSON would send greetings if they were here”.

 

Correspondence with Paddy Cahill

 

1            27.04.1913. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Replying to a letter dated 23.03.1913 from B. S. P. C. has heard of B. S.’s “most successful” lecture in Melbourne. Sending specimens including bird skins, spears and other weapons. Specimens of black kangaroo were not in good enough conditions to send.

 

2            13.08.1913. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. has had two letters from B. S. There has been an influenza epidemic in the Oenpelli region. P. C. has had to provide them with food and medicine. Honey and Friars Balsam as a cough cure and its success with the natives. P. C. ‘s building achievements, and plans for his own house, and for the natives. Difficulties of communication. “ The boat is a month overdue”. Visits from a Survey Party and “The Royal Commission” to the Region. P. C. hopes for another visit from B. S.

 

3            09.10.1913. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for 3 letters and for having sent two books on birds. Answers two questions put in writing by B. S. (B. S.’s manuscript attached). Sending black kangaroo specimens. News of mutual acquaintances. “ A Survey Party is running a survey line along the river bank, right down to Aller-Wangii-Wan, with a view to putting settlers on the reserve at the lower end”. Miss Masson has visited Oenpelli and was the first white woman Mrs Cahill had seen for nearly a year. A sumptuous meal given to the natives. Vegetables in the Cahill’s garden.

 

4            19.10.1913. From P. Cahill (Darwin) to B. S. Thanking B. S. for two letters and three pounds sent to buy things for the natives. Advises B. S. on the spelling to be used for certain native words. P. C. has gone to Darwin to get his wet season’s supplies and further instructions. Problems of mail and other communications. Troubles with the Survey people. P. C. intends building houses for the natives. “If they give me a free hand, I am not afraid of the future of the natives in my district”. An “Abo” school is opening in the native village. P. C. has sent specimens. Details of a ceremony connected with the death of a man’s mother (Annotated in B. S. hand).

 

5            30.10.1913. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Sending answers to questions form B. S. An encounter with two friendly natives from Bathurst Island, who asked after B. S. Another encounter in a hospital. P. C. is indignant with “Beckett” who has visited Oenpelli and tried to get “underhand information” from the natives. He is hoping to be the next Chief Protector. The need for an overall Head of work on behalf of all Australian natives. P. C. is building more houses for the natives and hopes to get everything ready for “Schooling”. Tells B. S. that he is “ the only one I know who thoroughly understands the natives and the right way to treat them”.

 

6            Number 6 in B. S.’s own handwritten list of this correspondence  (see footnote) is missing.

 

7            20.03.1914. From P. C. to B. S.  P. C. has not been able to get or send mail to Darwin since October (1913). He has not been able to get recordings of Corroborees for B. S., but has some specimens. He has distributed the gifts bought with B. S.’s money. More building achievements. Natives and their weakness – laziness. News of personalities. A new plantation/estate is being opened up. “It will help to keep the natives away from Burrundii and the Chinese there”. Details of the life of the local natives. P. C. ‘s work for their health. His plans for a school and for native development generally. Rainfall for “this wet season” was 50 inches, 22 inches less than the previous season.

 

Note: P.5 of this letter (no.7) speaks of sending details of a death on separate page of this letter. This is not attached. However, there are attached :

           7A -  Details in 4 pages of the Yam ceremony (Kul-Lor-Ree or Kul-Lore-Ri)

           7B -  A paper in 3 pages headed Muraian and Kul-Lor-Ee boys. At the end of this paper, P. C. speaks of his suspicion that a letter of his has been opened.

 

8            23.03.1914. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Sending some notes about the Muraian. The fate that overtakes those who break the Komali laws.

 

9            12.06.1914. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Sending information about Muraian totems, and copies of rock drawings. A rare species of kangaroo. P. C. has had a successful interview with “His Excellency” and is to be allotted money and cattle for Oenpelli. B. S. has written a letter describing his trip to London, and P. C. compares life there with that in Oenpelli. P. C. is planning a trip to Melbourne. He will welcome some lady visitors B. S. is sending. P. C. agrees with B. S. ‘s opinion of “D. Lindsay”, who is rightly described as a “backyard explorer”. News of P. C. ‘s fruit and vegetable gardens. The natives make Oenpelli a kind of general hospital. 27 patients in one day. The natives at “Carlin Beach” are busy and happy.

 

10               07.08.1914. From P. Cahill (Darwin) to B. S. The Cahill family has made a trip to Darwin. Difficulties of the journey. Mrs. Cahill and her daughter had not left Oenpelli for 4 and a half years, during which they saw only one white woman. P. C. is planning a 2 months buffalo shooting trip. Deaths among the natives. “The war has upset everything out this way, and people are wondering how we will come out of it. Personally I would like to be carrying a rifle…”

 

11          11.03.1915. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. has received B. S. ‘s letter dated 3 October 1914 and a copy of his new book. “I am sure that it will be accepted as a standard work as far as the Kakadoo tribes are concerned, in a very few years they poor people will be a thing of the past”. B. S. ‘s gift of £3 will be spent as he wishes (on the natives). Disappearance of an old native – a case which will interest B. S. Mistakes made on the state while P. C. was away. Visits from natives “each year takes a few of the oldest natives, and the worst of it is, so few children”. P. C. needs more power in order to protect the natives. Parliament has at last given full powers to His Excellency Dr. Gilruth. P. C. would like to flog the Editor of the Northern Territory Times, and “all the would-be-administrators”. Exceptionally low rainfall this year.

 

12          30.04.1915. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. has sent some (photograph) recordings and specimens of birds. A rough trip to Burrundi. P. C. has had success with dairy cows, which he brought to Oenpelli. A reference to “the moving pictures”. The natives’ reaction to B. S. ‘s present of money. Their first experience of milking cows. “Darwin is the same old growling place. Workers get 14/ per day and do about 3/6 worth of work”. People make money quickly and all want to become “Administrators”. P. C. thinks very little of the Northern Territory bureaucracy. With a few exceptions, they “should be right up near the German firing line. They would not be missed”.

 

13                 26.03.1916. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. has had a visit from the Administrator and Judge, who brought his mail, the first he has had since November. Difficulties met with in getting to Oenpelli. B. S. has shown kindness to Mrs. Cahill who has been to Adelaide. P. C. is going to Burrundi to meet her. Many of the oldest natives have died. “ In a few more years, there will be no chance of writing any reliable story of the Kakadoo tribes. There will be no old men left”. Details of B. S. ‘s gifts of money to the natives. They have plenty and B. S. ought not to send more. P. C. has done a lot of building, including a good house. “(Judge Bevan said that it would cost £600 to get the same house put up in Darwin with white labour)”. P. C. will try to collect information and will make notes for B. S. The importance of goose eggs in local diet.

(Continued from Darwin on 28 April 1916) A rough trip to Burrundi which took 58 hours in the saddle. Mrs. Cahill is still in Sydney. Deaths among whites in Darwin.

 

14          24.05.1916. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. has returned to Oenpelli and   found 250 natives waiting in need of medicine and tobacco. Sickness among the natives. P. C.’s special cough cure, which is very effective. Sending parcels of specimens. “By Jove, I do not know what things are coming to in the Northern Territory….Wages  will kill all private enterprise. Just fancy, six shillings per hour for “wharf lumpers”. It is a pity conscription is not in force in Australia”. Vesty (sic) Brothers have completely changed the face of the country at Bullocky Point. “We have four or five motor cars plying for hire in Darwin, and the people think they are getting up to date”. P. C. had to pay a Doctor’s fee of 5/- for 7 minutes. Details of the price of whisky, and the methods adopted in the “grog shops”. Cahill family news.

 

15          21.07.1916. From P. Cahill (Burrundi) to B. S. Congratulations to B. S. on his knighthood. P. C. is planning on return to Oenpelli to build a “cool room”, having obtained a freezing plant. He hopes to ship butter to Darwin. Details of plots against the Administrator of the Northern Territory. Medical work for the natives. A boy with a stick piercing his thigh.

 

16                18.11.1916. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Sending a list of the Muriain totems, and a photo and details of the Wild Dog or Dingo store tradition. (Note: these are dated in B. S.’s writing “May 1916” but were attached to this letter – No16). P. C. is busy with the freezing plant and other building work. Details of the diet provided for the natives. A visit from a missionary. His plans for educating the native girls. “ I believe in doing all that I can for the natives, but their future frightens me”. The ignorance of whites about native beliefs.

 

16a         The attachments referred to under 16 above.

 

17          10.10.1917. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. Details of the poisoning case in which Romula, a native, was chief actor. Reasons for the attempt to poison P. C. and his family: the ban on beating women and fighting, native resentment at their treatment by whites, even when well intended.

 

18          10.10.1917. (is this the correct date – see date of No17) From P. Cahill to B. S. P. C. thanks B. S. (for having written a letter to “the Bulletin” in his (P. C. ‘s) defense. Mr. Beckett and his accusation that P. C. had tried to poison him. Comments on B. S.’s recent trip to England, and on the dangers of sea travel in wartime. General interest in war news. B. S. ‘s daughter has married Lieutenant Rowan. Changes at Oenpelli. Ample supplies of fruit. P. C. has been developing the dairy business. Statistics of the number of natives who have been given medical treatment. Great variety of cases. P. C. has had a severe optical illness. He is sending some bark paintings, but will accept no payment.

 

19          30.06.1918. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. B. S. ‘s last letter has taken 5 months to arrive. Native reaction to war news. “….one wonders if the war will ever end. America will be a great help…” News of Joe Cooper who has been shooting buffalo for Vestey Brothers. Trouble at local Mission station. The uselessness of sending natives to Fanny Bay (a gaol?) “….they meet with bad whites in the gaol, and are worse when they come out than when they went in”. A visit to Romula (ref. the poisoning case, No17). News of other natives: a death and cure. Details of P. C. ‘s medical work. A light-skinned native with red hair. More statistics of medical work: 4.949 doses for influenza in 6 months. P. C. is going on 8 months leave in November.

 

20          19.09.1918. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. is sending specimens and gives details. Developments at Oenpelli. There is nearly a ton of butter in the cool room. “This, I should think, should prove that the N. T. can support dairy cattle”. Note: B. S. has noted on this letter “burrowing fish. Butter at Oenpelli”.

 

21          29.08.1919. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. gives an account of his leave. “Sydney struck us as a very dirty place after our visit to Melbourne”. P. C. was boycotted at Darwin for his defense of the late Administrator, Dr. Gilruth. Refusal to handle his luggage. A large case opened and contents stolen. Oenpelli had deteriorated in P. C. ‘s absence. The native Qullp has had his portmanteau stolen. “Just fancy, stealing a portmanteau from a native”. Mr. W. G. Stretton has been staying at Oenpelli.

 

22          27.07.1920. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. has had troubles at Oenpelli. “The Royal Commission that was held at Darwin was a farce”. Some evidence of perjury from start to finish. The Judge (Ewing) seemed to side with the lawbreakers. Difficulties over P. C. ‘s evidence. Attacks in court on Dr. Gilruth. Whom P. C. defended. “The lies that these skunks spun about him, was fearful”. Efforts to remove P. C. from Oenpelli because he stood by Dr. Gilruth during the riot in December 1918. P. C. ‘s sympathy for the natives – an influenza epidemic among them. P. C. ‘s “mixture”. Sending specimens.

 

23          29.05.1921. From P. Cahill (Batchelor Farm) to B. S. P. C. has been busy moving cattle (800 head). Criticism of Beckett and his project with sheep on Vandaleen (?) Island at the mouth of the McArthur river. Minister Pointen of Home and Territories is to pay a visit. The “I.W.W. crowd” (? International Workers of  the World) have decided not to wait on the Minister. P. C. has refused to join any deportations of complaint. Strong criticism of S. Smith, the Acting Administrator. His harshness to a native who died. Two boats have come to Oenpelli last year on Jan. 3, the second on Nov. 30. “The ABO department is doing very little for the natives” Another blunder by S. Smith. Stagnation in the Northern Territory. A find of gold in the mountains, but unlikely to be large. The train service from Darwin used to be twice weekly, but it is now once a fortnight. News of Joe Cooper.

 

24          24.11.1921. From P. Cahill (Oenpelli) to B. S. P. C. and his wife are alone at Oenpelli. Their English stockman has left them. Details of specimens. “I am afraid that the natives are in for a rough time, under the present Administration”. False economies imposed on P. C. by the Administrator. P. C. is defending certain natives who are not to be paid, and he will appeal to the Minister if necessary. P. C. may have to resign. A planned trip in the bush. A sumptuous meal given to some natives. “The natives between Oenpelli and the Railway are dying and before long very few will be left”. W. G. Stretton has died. Details of the grave and tombstone. “No doubt there is a great deal to like in the natives, when one understand them”.

 

25          From P. Cahill to B. S. Miscellaneous. Attached to these letters is a list in Spencer’s writing. This list does not correspond with the items actually remaining.

The letters should be read together with two from R. J. Cooper (Joe Cooper) and a letter and a telegram from “Solomon”, which are in the same envelope.

 

Correspondence with R. J. Cooper and “Solomon”

 

1                   27.11.1913. From R. J. C. (Darwin) to B. S. Sending materials which had been asked for by B. S. “…..things in general are a bit mixed here at present what with the change of Government and other things, but no doubt will improve soon”.

 

2                   10.12.1915. From R. J. C. (Darwin) to B. S. Sending a case of materials. Troubles about relations between mainland “boys” and Melville Island women, in which R. J. C. has become involved.

 

“Solomon” (head of the Larrakia tribe) to W. Baldwin Spencer

 

1                   16.11.1912. Letter dictated to “Godfrey” at Kahlin Compound, Darwin. Thanks B. S. for having sent him a singlet. Asks for a black coat and black trousers. S. has rescued a white man from near drowning, but was given nothing return. “This place better now first time before Mr. Godfrey come blackfellows drunk every night”. “I like see you come back quick”.

 

2                   S. (Darwin) to B. S. Telegram reading “Spose You get Thick Fella Blanket Now You Bring Alonga Me”.

 

 

Box  5   

 

Correspondence between W. Baldwin Spencer and James George Frazer

 

J. G. Frazer had written to Mr. Fison in Australia asking for information about the joint work of Gillen and Spencer. The correspondence begins with Spencer’s direct reply to Frazer.

 

1            12.07.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. describes how their joint work had begun. Gillen’s great interest in the Central Australian natives. Their expedition to the Arunta tribe in summer 1896. Their method of working. Answers to particular queries raised by J. G. F. The totem and its traditions. Probable origin in cannibalism. The Churinga. The three periods of Alcheringa. The delusion of imagining oneself an animal. B. S.’s warm praise of Gillen. The need for much more research. Gillen lacks money. B. S. lacks time. They are looking for a publisher.

 

2            19.09.1897.  From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No1 above. Thanks to B. S. for letter and photographs. The importance of the totemic system as described by B. S. J. G. F. has been in touch with MacMillans who are willing to publish B. S.’s book.

 

3            27.09.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. writes to give further information on totem questions, which Gillen has sent him. Can a man change his totem? Eating the totem. The UDUVIR – INGITA grub totem. The IRRIAKURA bulb totem. Association with totems other than one’s own. A mourning ceremony in the Arunta tribe. Criticism of Mr. Lang’s theories.

 

4            14.11.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. has received No2 above and thanks J. G. F. for his help over finding a publisher. Errors in a pamphlet by “a certain Mr. Squires”, describing a festival at which human flesh is eaten. “The book” is nearly ready to send. The INTICHIUMA ceremonies.

 

5            06.12.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. sends J. G. F. a copy of a letter he has written to MacMillans. J. G. F. is asked to decide whether any counter-proposal by MacMillans regarding illustrations is acceptable. W. E. Roth’s book “Notes on the North-West Central Australian Aborigines”. Further details of the INTICHIUMA ceremony in the Kangaroo totem.

 

5a           06.12.1897. From B. S. (Melbourne) to Mr. George A. MacMillan (copy). Offering “the book” for publication. The need for illustrations. J. G. F. has been authorised to decide on any counter-proposals.

 

6            13.01.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No4 above – J. G. F. is glad to have helped over publication and offers further help, e.g. over proof-reading. He asks for further information about blood-pouring ceremonies. Also about the treatment of homicides, the availability of sanctuaries and eating together as constituting friendship…

(NOTE: Clear references to the ideas underlying “The Golden Bough”).

 

7            08.03.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Answers No6 above. Gratitude to the offer to read the proofs. Problems that will arise. Gives answers to the requests for information made in No6.

 

8            05.04.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Further details of publication of the book. The MS has been sent to MacMillans. Encloses the draft of a footnote to be added to the text.

 

9            05.05.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No7 above. J. G. F. prefers not to undertake the reading of proofs. Other publication details.

 

10          08.06.1898 From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Further publication details. Gratitude for J. G. F.’s help.

 

11          30.06.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Publication details. Some proofs have already been sent back.

 

12          13.07.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No10 above. Praise of “the book”.

 

13          26.08.1898. From J. G. F. (Scotland) to B. S. More details. The need to keep the descriptive side of anthropology entirely separate from the comparative and theoretical side.

 

14          30.08.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Reply to No12 above. More details.

 

15          15.09.1898. From J. G. F. (Scotland) to B. S. J. G. F.’s hypothetical theory of totemism. If B. S. and others in Australia approve it, he may include it in the new edition of The Golden Bough. J. G. F.’s firm rejection of a proposal by Tylor to omit from the text of “the book” certain passages.

 

16          21.09.1898. From J. G. F. (Scotland) to B. S. A postcard to say that on re-consideration Tylor has withdrawn his proposal for abridgment.

 

17          06.10.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Reply to No13 above. More publication details. B. S. is returning to the U.K. for 3 or 4 weeks and hopes to visit J.G.F.

 

18          19.10.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Reply to No15 above. Gratitude for the action taken to resist abridgment. B. S. has heard nothing from Tylor.

 

19          20.10.1898. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Further reply in detail to No15. B. S’s views on the theories posed by J. G. F. Discussion (p.6) of Tylor’s theory that the souls of ancestors animate the totem animals or plants.

 

20          21.11.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No18 above. Welcomes B. S. to the U.K. and invites him to come and stay in Cambridge for a week-end.

 

21          28.11.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No19 above. Invitation for a week-end renewed. J. G. F. wants B. S. to meet Dr. Henry Jackson and Professor Ridgway. Suggests that B. S.’s views on totemism and its origin should be published during his stay, perhaps as a paper read to the Anthropological Institute. The importance of B. S. ‘s views not yet seen by Tylor and Lang. J. G. F.‘s theory of totemism, its relation to exogamy. The order of evolution of human thought and practice is magic – religion – science.

 

22          08.12.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. J. G. F. is awaiting B. S.’s visit. The Anthropological Institute has arranged a meeting to hear B. S. Tylor has expressed the wish to do all he can “to show honour to Spencer”. Lang has confessed himself in a fog.

 

23          12.12.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. J. G. F. has enjoyed the week-end visit. Lang is still in a fog.

 

24          16.12.1898. J. G. F. pays tribute to B. Esq.’s pioneering work in the field of totemism. He is content that his notes on the subject should be printed at the end of B. S.’s paper in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute.

 

25          17.12.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to Mr. MacMillan (MacMillan & Co) Enclosing some sheets of B. S.’s book sent to J. G. F. with queries in error. “We had an interesting meeting at the Anthropological Institute on Wednesday. Spencer spoke very well and his lantern slides were excellent”.

 

26          28.12.1898. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. J. G. F. states the case for and against his writing an article about B. S.’s book in one of the magazines. An absurd theory of Jevons. If agreed, he asks permission to use some of B. Esq.’s points.

 

27          05.01.1899 (erroneously dated 05.01.1898). From B. S. (at sea) to J. G. F. B. S. is having a rough trip through the Mediterranean. He has written to Mr. (? Andrew) Lang giving the most important points concerned with the totem hypothesis. B. S. has had a letter from Tylor “in which he does not approve of the new hypothesis at all”.

 

28          05.01.1899 (erroneously dated 05.01.1898). From B. S. (at sea) to ? Mr.Lang The letter (presumably a copy) referred to in 27 above. “Whirlers” and “bull roarers”. The association of Churinga with individuals. The main points of the totemism hypothesis.

 

29          15.01.1899. From B. S. (at sea) to J. G. F. B. S. has separately sent some notes on totemism for possible publication in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. He now offers some supplementary observations. The views of Grey and Howitt. B. S. makes a modest assessment of his own stock of knowledge.

 

30          06.02.1899. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Reply to No29 above. J. G. F. is sending on B. S. ‘s notes to the Anthropological Institute. He has written an article on the origin of totemism for “The Fortnightly”. Sub-totems. The problem of soul-transference. Exogamy. J. G. F. is glad to hear that B. S. is not standing for the Oxford Chair. His work in Australia is of supreme importance. Problems of finding a publisher for Miss Howitt’s MS. J. G. F. believes Tylor “may be a little sulky about totemism”. He has received a copy of B. Esq.’s book from MacMillans.

 

31          10.07.1899. from B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. apologises for his long silence. His pressure of work. He has succeeded the late Director of the Public Natural History Museum and has had to draw up plans for a new Museum. He also has the Secretarial work in connection with the meeting of the Australian Association. B. S. praises J. G. F.‘s  two articles in “The Fortnightly”. He maintains his view on “reconciliation” of the totem, as against J. G. F. His views on the origin of totemism are becoming firmer. It has no primary connection with exogamy. A superficial article by Lang in “The Fortnightly”.

 

32          04.06.1900. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. J. G. F. apologises for long delay in replying to No30. He has been working on the preparation of memorials to the governments of Victoria and South Australia, asking them to release B. S. and Gillen for a year’s further work among the tribes. Do B. S. and Gillen want to go? This would be “probably the finest piece of anthropological work that could be done in the world just now”.

 

33          27.07.1900. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Sending copies of the memorials referred to in No32. J. G. F.’s book (? New edition of The Golden Bough) is being printed.

 

34          04.09.1900. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. The memorials have arrived. The University Council has given B. S. a year’s leave. B. S. and Gillen are most grateful. Problems of finance for the expedition. Plans for its route.

 

A telegram and letter dated 04.10.1900 from B. S. to J. G. F. are missing from the correspondence. (Note: the reference may be to 4th September, 1900, i.e. No. 34 above).

 

35          12.11.1900. From J. G. F. (Switzerland) to B. S. J. G. F. is glad to hear that arrangements for the expedition are progressing well, and sends good wishes. Some suggestions for points to be studied. He is enjoying his holiday in Switzerland and Italy, but finds archeological remains comparatively uninteresting besides the study of human beliefs and customs.

 

36          04.02.1901. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. Reply to No35 above. B. S. thanks J. G. F. for a copy of the 2nd edition of The Golden Bough. Enthusiastic praise. Points to be investigated on the expedition. The personal as opposed to the group totem. Problems of drought, and financial difficulties.

 

37          07.04.1901. From B. S. (Charlotte Waters) to J. G. F. The expedition left Adelaide on the 15th of March and is on its way. “Phonographic” and “cinematographic” records have been taken.

 

38          17.06.1901. From B. S. (Barrow Creek) to J. G. F. B. S. and Gillen are working among the Kaitish tribe. Important information about the eating of the totem.

 

39          01.07.1901. From B. S. (Barrow Creek) to J. G. F. More information about the eating of the totem.

 

40          15.07.1901. From B. S. (Barrow Creek) to J. G. F. A further progress report. Work is going slowly, but well.

 

41          06.08.1901. From B. S. (Tennants Creek) to J. G. F. Work among the Warramunga tribe, who are conducting Intichiuma ceremonies. Different totemic practices as between them and the Kaitish.

 

42          06.09.1901. From B. S. (Tennants Creek) to J. G. F. Full details of totemism and ceremonies among the Warramunga. B. S. asks J. G. F. if he can do anything to get Gillen made a Hon. Fellow of the Anthropological Institute.

 

43          12.11.1901. From B. S. (Borroloola) to J. G. F. The expedition is now a few miles from the Gulf (of Carpentaria). Similarity of tribal organisation and customs all the way from South to North. The idea of re-incarnation. The eating of dead men. No trace of belief in a deity.

 

44          07.06.1902. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. has returned from the expedition and apologises for the long delay in writing. His load of work. Lecturing and supervision of the Natural History Museum. Criticism of Crawley’s Mystic Rose. Mr. Roscoe’s interesting work. B. S. ‘s belief that the most primitive beliefs in Australia are to be found amongst the Central natives, the Kaitish Tribe. Details of Intichiuma ceremonies. Praise of Howitt, who has retired from the public service and is writing his ethnological work. He ought to be given a medal of the Anthropological Institute.

 

45          14.07.1902. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Replies to No44 above. Agrees with B. Esq.’s criticism of Crawley’s Mystic Rose. Criticism of Westermarck; “Let us try to look to the facts straight in the face, and damn public opinion”. Asks to be allowed to do the proof-reading of B. Esq.’s book when it appears. He is placing the suggestion of an Anthropological Institute medal for Howitt before the President.

 

46          23.07.1902. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. replies to a letter from J. G. F. complaining that he has not heard from B. S. (a letter or letters appear to be missing from this correspondence). More about B. S. ‘s load of work. His opinion of a paper by Mr. Cooke and one by Mr. Roscoe. Criticism of a theory of Mr. Roth. B. S. believes that J. G. F. ‘s theory of magic preceding religion is the true one. The problem of belief among the natives in A Supreme Being. B. S., unlike Lang, can trace no such belief. Criticism of Crawley’s Mystic Rose, and its theory of danger involved in sexual intercourse.

 

47          19.08.1902. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. replies to No45, which has now arrived. More criticism of Crawley and Westermarck. More about the existence of “religion” among Australian natives. The fallibility of the “All-Father” theory. “Sooner or later people will see that you are in the main right”. Howitt may be in danger of using unreliable evidence for his book. The errors of Powell’s views on totemism and exogamy. The danger of confusion in American ethnologists terminology. A successful lecture in the Melbourne Town Hall.

 

48          17.03.1903. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. has still been hard at work on preparing the book. Howitt has nearly finished his book, but Fison seems to have given up ethnological work.

 

49          15.04.1903. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. has sent back to MacMillans the manuscript and illustrations of the book. He is not entirely satisfied with it. MacMillans have been asked to send J. G. F. the proof. Description of the chapters. J. G. F. ‘s advice is asked about chapter III, which deals with the social organisation, and is relevant to the theories of Crawley and Westermarck. “Chapter 16 will not at all please Lang”, dealing with the notion of “religion” among the natives. There have been troubles in the University. The accountant has embezzled £55,000, and the professors have been attacked in the Press. Guarded criticism of Australia and its “most inordinate number of public servants”. Howitt’s book and the risks he has run in relying on second-hand accounts. B.S. asks for suggestions for a title for his book.

 

50          07.06.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F.  B. S. replies to a letter missing from the correspondence. Criticism of Lang and his theories, “We need not take him as seriously as he does himself”. Criticism of Haddon’s theory of the origin of totemism. Is the Arunta tribe to be regarded as “a sport”? B.S. believes not. Remarks on Roth and his work. Weaknesses of Howitt’s book, which partly relies on correspondents for information. Problems of terminology, which will arise if Tylor takes Amerindian totemism as the standard. B.S. invites J.G.F.’s criticism of his MS. more criticism of Crawley’s theories. Criticism of the search for a federal capital for Australia. Plans for further expeditions. “ I like the sunshine here, but it is a woefully monotonous and philistinic land”.

 

51          13.06.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. B.S. has been reading Lang’s “Social Organisation” and gives a warning against “a man named R. H. Matthews”, who has produced a grossly inaccurate paper. The weakness of Lang’s theories. The need for B.S. to undertake more expeditions in order to disprove the idea that the “Arunta are a sport”. The financial problems involved.

 

52          21.06.1903. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Suggestions for alterations to B. Esq.’s MS as a result of reading the proofs. Criticism of Lang’s theories.

 

53          06.07.1903. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. has received the first corrected proof pages. Asks for more corrections. Admires J. G. F.‘s style and depreciates his own. B. S. plans a visit to the Uraburna tribe, where descent is counted in the female line, in order to disprove Lang’s theory. J. G. F. has suggested a title for B. S‘s book (in a missing letter) and this is agreed.

 

54          14.07.1903. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. acknowledges a third batch of corrected proofs. His gratitude to B. S. Some further corrections.

 

55          (sheet 2 dated 27.07.1903). from B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. More details of proof correction. A footnote added dealing with an error by Durkheim. More discussion of the limited knowledge on which Howitt’s work is founded. Discussion of J. G. F. ‘s corrections.

 

56          21.08.1903. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Postcard recommending “The Northern Tribes of Central Australia” as the title of the book.

 

57          27.08.1903. From B. S. (Melbourne) to J. G. F. B. S. reports on his expedition with Gillen to the Urapurna tribe. Methods of work. Enquiries into a) Intichiuma and b) reincarnation. The tribe’s idea of the origin of the different totemic groups. B. S. is afraid of poaching on Howitt’s ground. Criticism of (Protestant) Missionaries in so far as they claim to understand the natives; “No missionary, unless he is a Roman Catholic – at least this is true in Australia – ever really understands the natives”.

 

Continuation dated 31.08.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G. F. B. S. has received the last slips and hopes to return them all shortly. Regrets the suggestion to include a list of totems. The book will have to come out in 2 volumes, and he fears MacMillans will fight shy of future Australian work.

 

58          08.09.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. More about corrections to the proofs. The danger of writing a kind of pidgin English. A possible origin of Agriculture in the spitting out of grass seed from the mouth. Criticism of Lang and Durkheim’s views. “There is no such thing as an all-round primitive tribe”. A letter received form Tylor (included in this letter is a small red ink slip making a correction to the paged proof).

 

59          22.09.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Replies to a letter from J.G.F. dated 17.08.1903 (?), which is missing. B.S. has written the preface and adopted some of J.G.F.’s suggestions. More details of the proof correction. A fundamental error by Lang in considering certain tribes (counting descent in the female line) as more primitive “all around”. Strong criticism of the “ incorrigible R.H. Matthews”.

 

60          02.12.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Some slip proofs have been mislaid. B.S. hopes J.G.F. has corrected and sent them direct to the printer. A reference to an objection from Tylor, which seems to B.S. to be trivial.

 

61          09.12.1903. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. More about the missing proof pages. Criticism of an article by Durkheim referred to in a footnote on one of the missing pages. Strong criticism of the work (in anthropology) of “semi-educated German Lutheran missionaries”. A paper by Strehlow only occupies 1½ pp. foolscap “but has more utter misleading nonsense packed into a small space than I recollect having come across before”. Lang has sent this paper to B.S. for perusal and comment before translation and appearance in “Folklore”. The fallacious idea of native belief in “a High God”.

 

62          15.12.1903.  From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Again about the missing proof pages.

 

Continuation dated 16.12.1903 From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. The page proofs of the preface have arrived.

 

63          23.02.1904. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F.  B.S. has just returned from a visit to New Zealand on medical advice. Details of an address on “Totemism in Australia”, which he prepared for the Anthropological Section of the Australian Association for the advancement of Science, which was meeting in N.Z. The importance of the “dramatic or ceremonial aspect” of totemism as distinct from the magical aspect. J.G.F. has sent B.S. two lots of MS to look through. B.S. can not agree with Crawley’s views on the Origin of Exogamy.

 

64          18.03.1904. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F.  B.S. apologises for delay in commenting on J.G.F.’s two MS referred to in 63 above. He has become President of the Professorial Board, involving much routine work. He agrees with the paper concerned with religion, save for one or two points. B.S. feels less in agreement with J.G.F.’s paper on the meaning of certain ceremonies largely because it is supported by little evidence. A number of critical arguments are advanced. (NOTE: J.G.F. has side-lined in red ink B.S.’s summary of his critical arguments).

 

65          19.04.1904. From J. G. F. (Cambridge) to B. S. Replies to No63 above. Sympathy with B.S. for his excessive load of work, “How I wish you could be set free for anthropology entirely!” Praise of B.S.’s book. Criticism of Lang, who “seems to me to be sinking lower and lower and clutching at any straws that may break his fall”. J.G.F. is having trouble with the new edition of The Golden Bough. He thanks B.S. for his criticisms of his two papers (see 64 above).

 

66          15.08.1904. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Discussion of the belief in an “All-Father” among the natives, and Howitt’s views on this. Criticism of Lang and his review of B.S.’s book.

 

67          13.12.1904. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. B.S. describes the unfortunate circumstances of Fison and his family, and asks if it would be possible to get a Civil list pension for him. He gives a list of influential persons who would probably help, including Joseph Chamberlain and Professor Goldwin Smith. Would J.G.F. take it up?

 

68          05.02.1908. From J.G.F. (Cambridge) to B.S. Asking for a copy of a paper by B.S. on Exogamy and of any other of his occasional papers. J.G.F. is shortly moving to Liverpool, after which he means to raise funds to finance a Spencer-Gillen expedition to Western Australia (and to broach a plan for promoting anthropological research). B.S.’s comments and estimates of cost are wanted. J.G.F. is bringing out a new and much enlarged edition of Totemism, using much of B.S.’s material. Fison has died and J.G.F. has petitioned the Prime Minister on behalf of his widow and children.

 

69          14.03.1908. From J.G.F (Scotland) to B.S. Howitt has died and J.G.F. asks for facts about his early life and work for use in an obituary notice he is writing. J.G.F.’s petition on behalf of Mrs. Fison has failed, and he asks B.S. to try the Government of Victoria. More queries about the possibility of a Spencer-Gillen expedition to Western Australia. Would £2000 suffice? Would B.S. agree that the eventual book should appear as a publication of the University of Liverpool, which would also get the collections and records made? Could Spencer and Gillen go?

 

70          19.04.1908. From J.G.F. (Liverpool) to B.S. J.G.F. writes of his grief at the death of Fison and Howitt, “You and I, I hope, will try to stick more closely together for the loss…”. Praise of B.S.’s work. J.G.F. is proposing publication of a collected edition of Fison’s and Howitt’s anthropological papers, half the profits to go to the families of the deceased. He has been able to correct publicly and privately an unwitting injustice done to Howitt. B.S. is asked for his views on the project. J.G.F. regrets that B.S. and Gillen can not yet undertake the expedition to Western Australia, but has set his heart on this. Details of J.G.F.’s new book on Totemism. Condemnation of R. H. Matthews. “It is too soon yet to say whether I shall like Liverpool or not”.

 

71          15.09.1911. from B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Apologies for long failure to write. The loss of Fison and Howitt. Gillen has also become ill and helpless. B.S. has made an expedition to the Northern Territory, under the auspices of the Commonwealth Government. His main findings. The connection of Intichiuma ceremonies with a precarious food supply. A curious totemic system among certain tribes along the Roper river. Beliefs about the sound of the bull-roarer. No trace of anything like belief in A Supreme Being. “The Commonwealth Government is about to undertake measures for the settlement of the Northern Territory, which means that the Aborigines will very rapidly become “civilised”. Plans for another trip to study a tribe in Melville Island. An interesting analogy between an aboriginal belief and classical mythology, raised by Professor Tucker of Cambridge.

 

72          27.07.1913. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. B.S. has been on a year’s expedition. He got good results on Melville Island, including traces of Intichiuma ceremonies. Interesting ceremonies of the Kakadu tribe. B.S. may be visiting England at the end of the year.

 

73          03.10.1913. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Confirmation that he will be coming to England, bringing his “Kinematographic and Phonograph Records”. Critical comment on the work of Brown and Bates.

 

74          15.11.1913. From B.S. (Melbourne) to J.G.F. Arrangements for B.S.’s trip to England. He hopes to finish his book on the results of the Northern territory trip in 1912. He is not entirely satisified with the results, but “they are, I think, good so far as they go, and probably represent my last contribution to field anthropological work”.

 

75          15.12.1916. From J.G.F. (London) to B.S. (London) Proposals for a meeting. J.G.F. suggests that B.S. should write another anthropological work, “a sort of general view of the social organisation and totemism of the Australian natives”.

(NOTE: Lady Frazer has added in her own hand details of arrangement for a meeting)

 

76          16.12.1916. From B.S. (London) to J.G.F. (London) Acknowledging no75 above. B.S. has been able to do little anthropological work beyond “being, I hope, of some little help to a man named Malinowski”, whose work he commends. Criticism of River’s book on “Melanesia”.

 

77          18.09.1921. From J.G.F. (London) to B.S. J.G.F. has received B.S.’s Presidential address to the Australian Association. He asks for information about aboriginal modes of making fire, as he may take up the early history of fire as a subject for investigation. He is collecting material and Henry Balfour has been of help. J.G.F. is to give three courses of lectures at Trinity College, Cambridge. He asks for news of B.S.

 

78          05.10.1927. From J.G.F. (London) to B.S. An enthusiastic letter of thanks for B.S.’s dedication of his book to him. Praise of B.S.’s great achievements. “My dear Spencer, I thank you from the bottom of my heart for the honour you have done me”.

 

79          24.12.1928. From J.G.F. (Paris) to B.S. Thanks B.S. for his Christmas card and for sending the two volumes of Wanderings in Wild Australia. Praise of Spencer and Gillen’s work. J.G.F. hopes for a meeting and asks for information about B.S.’s plans. J.G.F. is working on an edition of Ovid.

 

80          28.05.1932.  A letter from Lady Frazer to Mr. Penniman in which she thanks him “for the B. Spencer – Frazer correspondence”, which presumably was loaned to her…

 

81          04.11.1930. J. G. F. to T. K. Penniman  Re: article on Spencer. His friendship with B. S.

82          Big envelope with Spencer–Frazer correspondence envelopes in it.  

 

 

Box 6

 

1            Black notebook containing B.S.’s pencil journal of his Trip to Charlotte Waters, February 1 – 23, 1895. Also contains some rough pencil sketches of specimens, and examples of foliage pressed between pages.

 

2a           Black notebook containing “Field Notes: Trip to Macdonnell Ranges. November 1896 – January 1897”.

Entries in this book fall in November 1896. It also contains a handwritten list of shade temperatures in A.S. (presumably Alice Springs) from 5 November – 23 December 1896.

 

2b          Continuation of the above. Black notebook with rough journal from 8 – 25 January 1897. Note added in ink: -

“With Cowle from Alice Springs via Undiara to Crown Point”

 

3            Four black notebooks marked “S” and “G” (Spencer and Gillen) containing B.S.’s rough journal of his expedition with Gillen to the Northern Territory.

The four books relate respectively to:

a)                 March 19 – April 17, 1901

b)                April 18 – July 10

c)                 July 12 – November 21

d)                November 21 – March 16, 1902

 

4.           Black notebook containing rough journal beginning on July 4, 1911 of B.S.’s trip in the Northern Territory, starting from Darwin. Also contains word lists. Relates to 5A below.

 

5            Brown folder containing:

a) B.S.’s MS diary, from June 1 – July 9, 1911 of his expedition made at the request of the Commonwealth Government to study conditions in the Northern Territory.

b) Similar MS diary, from December 30, 1911 – April 7, 1912, starting with departure from Sydney by sea and ending with the words “Here endeth the first book”

(NOTE: on this expedition B.S. saw much of Joe Cooper and Paddy Cahill, two buffalo hunters, letters from whom can be found in the correspondence boxes of the B.S. papers)

c) Handwritten copy of despatch from Captain J. J. Gordon Bremer R. N. to Earl Bathurst, dated 10 November, 1824, reporting on his survey and establishment of a settlement on the North coast of Australia.

 

Box 7

 

6            Small black notebook containing “diary of Motor Trip with Gilruth: Pine Creek to Newcastle Water etc. etc.”, dated September/October 1912. Also contains notes on trips made to the Flora R. (November), and Bathurst Island (November/December). Also word lists and sketches.

 

7            Black notebook containing journal from June 1 – 20, 1926 of B.S.’s trip to Alice Springs. Also contains word lists and what seems to be subject indexes of  -

i. “Notes on 1901 – 2”

ii. “Main Diary”

iii. “C.W. 1895” (see No. 1 above)

 

8            Black exercise book containing B.S.’s journal of his expedition to Tierra del Fuego, from leaving London on February 17, 1929 to the entry for June 28, 1929. Reprinted in “Spencer’s Last Journey” edited by Marett and Penniman (Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1931).

 

9            Black notebook in which the contents of part of No. 8 appear to have been roughly entered before transfer to the larger notebook. From Saturday 29th June, 1929 onwards this notebook appears to be the sole source of the diary entries printed in “Spencer’s Last Journey”, of which see footnotes on p.99.

 

10            Blue exercise book (French origin) containing “Notes of” and “Extracts from” Baldwin Spencer’s “Last Journals” in Sir James Frazer’s hand. Also contains a plan of Tierra del Fuego, and a drawing of the dissection of a Steamer Duck, both by B.S. Relates to Spencer’s Last Journey ed. Marett and Penniman (1931).

 

Listing revised and corrected by J. Rankin/ C. Morton, 2010.

 



Enquiries:  ms-photo.colls@prm.ox.ac.uk