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Dy giare
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Good enough?

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Dy giare - artyn beggey

Er y duillag shoh, verrym giare-choontaghyn, artyn giare, as cooid elley 'sy Ghaelg. Nee'm goaill toshiaght lesh giare-choontaghyn jeh kuse dy artyn ard-scoillaragh symoil. My vees oo feddyn art symoil as by vie lhiat Gaelg er y chur, ny dy ren mee shen, cur fys dou as nee'm jeeaghyn er. Agh cha noddym gialdyn red erbee.

On this page, I will put summaries, short articles and other brief resources in Manx. I'll start with abstracts of a few interesting academic articles. If you find an interesting article and would like to translate it, or for me to translate it, let me know and I'll take a look. But I make no promises.

Reatyn baase karracteyryn drama-sheeabin er çhellvane Goaldagh: vel feme er raaue y reiltys ayn?

(ennym bunneydagh: Death rates of characters in soap operas on British television: is a government health warning required?)

BMJ 1997; 315:1649-1652 (20 Mee ny Nollick)

Tim Crayford, ard-fellow lheeys, Richard Hooper, staddyssagh, as Sarah Evans, co-aahirreyder.

Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, King's College Hospital, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom

Screeuyn da: Dr Crayford t.crayford@kcl.ac.uk

Ta'n slane art ry-lhaih 'sy Vaarle er eddyr-voggyl y BMJ.

Giare-chummey

Dean: Towse reat baaish mastey karracteyryn drama-sheeabin çhellvane Goaldagh.

Cummal: Scrutaghey baaseyn ayns EastEnders as Coronation Street rere possan cosoylagh rish y cheilley (1) , as cur rish scrutaghey baaseyn ayns Brookside as Emmerdale.

Towseyn eiyrtys mooar: Corrillee vaase bun-towshanit, as y corrillagh coreiragh baase son baaseyn so-chur sheese da bunyn çheumooie (coad E jeh ICD-9) (Rang-oardraghey gorley eddyr-ashoonagh, nuyoo chur magh).

Eiyrtys: Cha aashagh eh cummal bio ayns drama-sheeabin çhellvane. Corrillee vaase bun-towshanit da ny karracteyryn, v'ad mastey ny corrillee smoo ayns keird erbee t'er nyn soilshaghey foast (771 da karracteyryn EastEnders, as lheamid barrant 95% 415-1127 echey). Cha nel shen er y fa ynrican dy vel dagh ooilley bun baase rouyr ayn. Ayns dramaghyn-sheeabin, as shiu cur tastey da eash as keintys y charracteyr, t'eh tree wheesh as cosoylagh dy beagh baase raghtal echey na veagh shiu jerkal, faggys. Karracteyr EastEnders, t'eh daa wheesh as cosoylagh dy beagh eh marroo ayns claare na karracteyr cosoylagh Choronation Street.

Fy-yerrey: Y cheird smoo gaueagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit, cha nee moaleyder bleaystan, drappeyder speek ny h-immanagh Formula One eh, agh paart ayns nane jeh dramaghyn-sheeabin smoo ennoil y Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Shoh y chied vriwnys mooadagh mychione mooadys y chraa hollan lhisagh shiu goaill rish my ta shiu jeeaghyn er dramaghyn-sheeabin.

Çhaghteraghtyn scanshoil:
Artyn bentyn da'n chooish shoh:

Casarett, D., Fishman, J. M., MacMoran, H. J., Pickard, A., and Asch, D. A. Epidemiology and prognosis of coma in daytime television dramas. BMJ 2005 331: 1537-1539.

Clement, S. Television gives a distorted picture of birth as well as death. BMJ 1998 317: 284.

(1) Possan cosoylagh rish y cheilley - "cohort" 'syn art Baarle. Bun yn 'ockle çhaghnagh ayns shoh, shen possan jeh sleih as taghyrt ny tro cadjin oc. Ta aahirreyderyn goaill tastey jeu rish traa son studeyrys lheeys ny oaylleeagh.


Focklyn Eskimish son sniaghtey? studeyrys sampleyr jeh giennaghtyn as loaughey sampleyr antrapoaylleeagh

(ennym bunneydagh: Eskimo words for snow? a case study of the genesis and decay of an anthropological example)

American Anthropologist 1986; 88(2):418-23

Laura Martin

Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44115-2214, United States of America

Choud’s ta fys aym, cha nel yn art bunneydagh ry-lhaih mannagh vel entreilys ayd da’n earishlioar hene.

Sampleyr cadjin ta lhiggey er dy haishbyney kianglaghyn do-vrishey eddyr çhengey, cultoor as smooinaght, t’eh bentyn rish "Focklyn Eskimish son sniaghtey." Rere’n tampleyr shoh, t’ad cur gys lieh çhengaghyn neuscarrit "Eskimagh"(1) ennagh dy vel ram focklyn oc son sniaghtey, ga nagh vel agh un 'ockle ‘sy Vaarle. Rere y skeeal cadjin, she sampleyr oaylleeagh baghtal t’ayn, bentyn rish obbraghey niartal cooishyn mooar y chultoor er troggal glare (m.s., Pyles 1964:16). Shoh y sampleyr smoo cadjin jeh "mooadaghey y tasht-fockle" t’ayn; dy meeaighar as dy amlagh, ta shennaghys slane cammey as neuchruinnys echey. Ta aafilley y skeeal shoh ny h-ard-hampleyr jeh croo beeal-arrish as lessoon sampleyr er gaue scoillairaght eaghtyragh.

Yn enmys s’leaie da Eskimee as sniaghtey, ren eh Franz Boas (1911:25-26), mastey ymmodee sampleyryn jeh scanshyn eddyr-hengagh mychione cochiangley fockle/bun. She sampleyr taghyrtagh as giare eh, soilshaghey kiare focklyn son sniaghtey ayns Eskimish, as cha ren eh eddyraghey "fraue", "fockle" as "fockle neuchrogheydagh". V’eh taishbyney doilleeid cosoylaghey troggalyn glare eddyr çhengaghyn - cha row eh scrutaghey kianglaghyn cultooragh ny smooinaghtagh. Hug Benjamin Whorf beggan tastey jeh ayns Science and Linguistics, yn art 1940 screeut echey mychione ny h-eieyn cheddin as Boas (reesht, gyn goaill stiagh mooadaghey y fockle-hasht). Ren Boas ymmyd jeh’n tampleyr dys taishbyney caslys eddyr Baarle as "Eskimish" hyndaa Whorf eh dys cosoylaghey ad (Carroll 1956:216). Cha row agh paart beg ec y tampleyr ‘syn art, as cha ren Whorf loayrt er ny smoo. Dy scanshoil, cha ren eh enmys data er lheh erbee, ny h-earrooyn, ny bun-gheillyn. Hug eh queig çhyndaaghyn Baarle er ny focklyn (cha nel adsyn currit ec Boas). My v’eh goaill y data veih Boas, cha row shen agh y chied drogh ymmyd jeant jeh’n data bunneydagh.

Haink anaase cadjin veih daa hekslioar ennoil er nyn screeu anmagh ‘sy 1950yn liorish çhengoayllee as goit ec ymmodee magheryn derrey ny 1970yn. Lhaih y chooid smoo jeh antrapoayllee eddyr 1960-70 fer jeu, s’cosoylagh, as shimmey ynseyder chammah. Ta’n chied lioar, The Silent Language (Hall 1959:107- 108, 110), enmys Boas, agh ta ymmodee marrantyn ayn, gra dy vel ny focklyn nyn "enmyn" as keeayllaghey mooarane focklyn gyn cur earrooyn er lheh. Ec y traa cheddin, haink rish Words and Things liorish Roger Brown (1958). T’eh enmys Whorf as ta’n sampleyr slane caghlaait; hug eh tree focklyn, er bun caslys v’ayns art Whorf, choud’s foddee oo gra.

Doilleeid mooar lesh yn obbyr shoh, she cummey y hengey hene. Ta corys jalloo-oaylleeaght feer taahit (2) ec "Eskimish", troggal focklyn trooid ymmyd ymmodee meeryn yerree. Ny meeryn yerree as ymmyd jeant jeu keayrt er lheh, t’ad croghey er quoi ta loayrt as ny ta goll er. Myr shen, cha cosoylagh eh dy beagh y "fockle" kiart cheddin ry-chlastyn keayrtyn elley. Dy beagh eer veggan fys er y çhengey ec peiagh, veagh fys y ve echey dy row shen bentyn rish y chooish dy trome. Red ta bentyn rish eer ny smoo, shen nagh vel red erbee quaagh er lheh mychione ymmyrkey ny scaalhean "focklyn sniaghtee" ayns ny çhengaghyn shoh. Er coontey troggal grammeydys Eskimagh, ta earroo focklyn ass towse dy jarroo ec ny fraueyn ta bentyn rish "sniaghtey", kiart myr t’eh ec dagh ooilley fraue. Myr shen, arganeys erbee dy vel scansh tastid ayns eddyr çhengaghyn er bun tasht-fockle, lhisagh eh çheet er "fraueyn" neuchrogeydagh, cha nel "focklyn", agh cha nel y chooid smoo jeh screeudeyryn cur geill da eddin shoh y chooish (3). Myr sampleyr, ta Brown abbyr dy nod oo cosoylaghey Baarle as "Eskimish" dy jeeragh, as croo resoonaght chramp gyn sampleyr "Eskimish" erbee (1958:255), ny h- enmyssyn erbee noadyr.

Ny smessey foast, aaloayree Carol Eastman y skeeal ‘sy lioar 1975 Aspects of Language and Culture. Ren ee "soilshaghey" y Barel Sapir-Whorf liorish y tampleyr "sniaghtey" ny lomarcan (cassey eieyn as screeuyn Whorf lesh yn obbyr). Ren ee ginjillaghey crampys ny kianglaghyn eddyr troggal glare, ymmyrkey cultooragh as smooinaght deiney dys "focklyn Eskimish er son sniaghtey". Liorish tekslioaryn myr shoh, haink yn eie dy ve ny beeal-arrish. T’eh jeeaghyn dy row sleih arryltagh ny h-eieyn shoh y chredjal gyn feysht. Foddee dy row cleayney oc er y fa dy row cultoor Eskimagh feer joarree. Shimmey skeeal t'ayn mychione Eskimee, ayns aigney mie ny h-aigney olk. Ayns scoillairaght, t’eh ny s’aasey aaloayrt sampleyryn symoil myr shen na cur da ynseyderyn ny fys çhaghnagh as jargaght resoonagh dy hoiggal crampyssyn cultoor as glare. As er y fa dy vel tekslioaryn aaloayrt fys aalaue as skeeallagh, cha nel eh aashagh da sleih fakin my ta bun mie ayn ny dyn.

Ta Martin cur raaue da scoillaryn noi cur barrant er giare-choontaghyn ayns ynnyd jeh fys bunneydagh. T’ee greinnaghey sleih dy chooinaghtyn scansh ymmyd frioosagh jeh fys y yannoo, soilshaghey magh feanish dy baghtal, as cur leagh noa er binn as barelyn dy kinjagh.

(1) Ta beggan resoonaght ayn mychione rang-oardraghey çhengaghyn Chione Twoaie y Teihill. Ta’n kynney çhengey Eskimagh-Aleut goaill stiagh ymmodee rheynnyn abbyrt scanshoil. Ren Martin ymmyd jeh "Eskimo" er coontey dy nee shen y fockle ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeh ‘sy skeeal, gyn cur tastey da scanshyn glare eddyr ny loayreyderyn.

(2) Ta "taahit" ny 'ockle çhengoaylleeagh, as t'eh çheet er çhengaghyn as corrillagh ard myn-heean (‘morpheme' ‘syn ‘ockle oc.

(3) Cha nel bun mie ayn dy ghoaill rish ny smoo na daa ‘raue ta çheet er sniaghtey hene (ayns ynnyd jeh rio, ny sheebaghyn, ny reddyn elley). Ayns Greenlynnish t’ad qanik "sniaghtey ‘sy gheay, claddan sniaghtey" as aput "sniaghtey (er y thalloo)" (Schultz-Lorentzen 1927; cl. data Boas). Ta focklyn cosoylagh rish ec çhengaghyn elley. Myr shen ta yn scarrey cheddin as Baarle ny Gaelg ec "Eskimish" faggys: sniaghtey as claddan.

Enmyssyn

Boas, Franz, 1911. Introduction to The Handbook of North American Indians. Smithsonian Institution Bulletin 40, Part 1. (Aachlou magh liorish University of Nebraska Press, 1966.)

Brown, Roger W., 1958. Words and Things. New York: Free Press.

Carroll, John B., re., 1956. Language, Thought and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Eastman, Carol M., 1975. Aspects of Language and Culture. San Francisco: Chandler.

Hall, Edward T., 1959. The Silent Language. Garden City, NY: Doubleday/Anchor Books.

Pyles, Thomas, 1964. The Origins and Development of the English Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Schultz-Lorentzen, C. W., 1927. Dictionary of the West Greenlandic Eskimo Language. Meddeleser om GrSnland, 69. Copenhagen: Reitzels.

Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 1940. Science and Linguistics. Technology Review (MIT) 42:229-231, 247-248. (Aachlou magh ayns Language in Action, S. I. Hayakawa, re., dg. 302-321, 1941; Readings in Social Psychology, T. Newcomb & E. Hartley, re., dg. 207-218, 1947; Collected Papers on Metalinguistics, Foreign Service Institute, 1952; as Language, Thought and Reality, John B. Carroll, re., dg. 207-219, 1956.)

Artyn bentyn da'n chooish shoh:

Pullum, G. K. The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax . Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 1989 7(2):275-281. Aachlou magh ayns The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax and Other Irreverent Essays on the Study of Language, G. K. Pullum, 1991. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Vicente, K. J. & Brewer W. F. Reconstructive Remembering of the Scientific Literature. Cognition 1993 46(2):101-128.

Dickersin, K. & Hewitt, P. Look Before You Quote. BMJ, 1986 293 6553:1000-1002.


Leaght Doctor Fox: sampleyr jeh cleayn ynsee

(ennym bunneydagh: The Doctor Fox lectures: an example of educational seduction)

Journal of Medical Education 1973; 48:630-635

Donald H. Naftulin, John E. Ware (Jr.), as Frank A. Donnelly

Ta'n art bunneydagh ry-lhaih ayns shoh.

Giare-chummey

Barelyn ynseyderyn er sleih-ynsee, t’ad croghey er troyn persoonid as soilshaghey son y chooid smoo, cha nel er feeu ynsee ny leaghtyn, rere kuse dy screeuyn t’ayn. Er y vun shoh, ren ny screeudeyryn gaarlaghey cloieder dy ynsaghey, dy tayrnagh as gyn bree ynsee erbee, er bun-chooish nagh nhione da red erbee.

Rere sheiltynys ny screeudeyryn, dy beagh oo cur daue sambyl leaght cowreydagh dy liooar, oddagh oo cleaynaghey eer sleih-ynsee oayllagh dys y smooinaght dy vel ad er ngynsaghey reddyn, ga dy row bree yn leaght neuventynagh, meechoardailagh, as gyn keeall.

Ghow y sheiltynys cooney tra hug 55 sleih freggyrt mie (ec keim cowreydagh) da keishtaghan mychione ny barelyn v’oc mychione y leaght.

Ta’n studeyrys shoh ny hampleyr da sleih-ynsee nagh lhisagh ad coontey feeu yn obbyr oc er bun saasaght ny ynseyderyn oc ny lomarcan. Chammah's shen, t' eh cur bun er yn eie dy nod oo ynsaghey cloiederyn dy yannoo "feer" leaghtyn myr saase ynsee noa.

Er lesh ny screeudeyryn, er y vun shoh, nagh vel saasaght ynseyderyn cowraghey monney agh y smooinaght dy vel ad er n'ynsaghey red ennagh.

Artyn bentyn da'n chooish shoh:

Meier, R.S. and Feldhausen, J.F.. Another Look at Dr. Fox: Effect of Stated Purpose for Evaluation, Lecturer Expressiveness, and Density of Lecture Content on Student Ratings. Journal of Educational Psychology 1971 71(3): 339-345.

Markham, P. Gender and the Perceived Expertness of the Speaker as Factors in ESL Listening Recall. TESOL Quarterly 1988 22(3): 397- 406.

Abrami P.C., Leventhal L. and Perry R.P. Educational Seduction. Review of Educational Research, 1982 52(3): 446-464


Y vaarney cheintys as eddyr-obbraghey 'sy çhamyr scoill: rieughid ny so-loayrtys?

(ennym bunneydagh: The gender gap and classroom interactions: reality or rhetoric?)

British Journal of Sociology of Education 1999; 20(3):325-341

Younger M, Warrington M as Williams J

Choud’s ta fys aym, cha nel yn art bunneydagh ry-lhaih mannagh vel entreilys ayd da’n earishlioar hene.

Giare-chummey

Ta'n art shoh scrutaghey as cosoylaghey y vaarney cheintys ec GCSE ayns hoght ard-scoillyn Sostnagh. T'ad loayrt er y rieughid as caaynt t'ayn mychione eddyr-obbraghey 'sy çhamyr scoill, cur tastey er lheh da barelyn fir-ynsee, barelyn ynseyderyn 'sy nah vlein, as cooilleeinaghyn jeh eddyr-obbraghey ynseyder/fir-ynsee 'sy çhamyr scoill.

Ayns art ny s’leaie, (British Journal of Sociology of Education, 17(3)), va ny screeudeyryn feyshtey my row ny sloo cooney niartaghey currit ec sleih-ynsee da guillyn na da inneenyn, as cre va mooadys y vaarney. Nish t'ad jeeaghyn er y chooish reesht ayns traaghyn as çhymbyllaghtyn scoill neuchasley. Ta studeyrys rere'n taase lhean shen cur sannish da vel y chooid smoo jeh sleih-ynsee credjal dy vel ad cur y geill cheddin da inneenyn as guillyn, er lheh mychione cooney ynsee. Agh co-akinyn lesh ynseyderyn, as cooilleeiney 'sy çhamyr-scoill, t'ad cur bun er yn eie nagh vel shen jeant dy mennick ayns y chooid smoo jeh scoillyn. Ta kioneys ec guillyn ec kuse dy hraaghyn 'sy çhamyr-scoill, choud’s ta inneenyn goaill ny smoo commee ayns eddyr- obbraghey marish sleih-ynsee, as eshyn cur cooney da ynsaghey. Son cur laue rish goan-chooilleeney ghuillyn, bee orrin y clane y chur fo cliaghtaghyn eddyr -obbraghey myr shen. Lhisagh shin cur cooney da guillyn roshtyn saaseyn ynsee myr adsyn t’ec inneenyn as ad gynsaghey dy fondagh.

Rere ny cooilleeinaghyn jeant ain, ta sleih-ynsee stiurey guillyn ayns aght elley ny t'ad stiurey inneenyn. Eddyr-obbraghey ynseyder/sleih-ynsee cadjin, oghsanyn, ynseyderyn feyshtey sleih-ynsee dy jeeragh, ny freggyrt feyshtyn ny sleih-ynsee - ta kioneys y clane ec guillyn. Er lesh kuse dy sleih-ynsee, cha vel scansh eddyr yn aght t'ad stiurey inneenyn as guillyn, agh cha nel y feanish cur cooney daue. Ta ny smoo bun ec eie chadjin ynseyderyn dy vel ny smoo geill obballagh goll er cur da guillyn na da inneenyn. My vel fa cairagh ayn ny dyn, cha nel shen baghtal; ta beggan feanish ayn ta gra dy vel slein-ynsee ny sloo surransagh da drogh-ymmyrkey guillyn na da drogh-ymmyrkey inneenyn (Lodge & Pickering, 1996). Agh er y fa dy vel sleih-ynsee fakin kuse dy ghuillyn dy ve nyn vorrane smoo ‘sy çhamyr-scoill, ta ny smoo streeu eddyr y ghaa. T’eh so-hoiggal dy vel sleih-ynsee cur ny smoo tastey da guillyn myr shen, myr eab dy freayll tastey ny guillyn as stiurey y clane vrastyl. Ny yei shen, ta’n ymmyrkey shoh bentyn rish reaghey, cha nel rish ynsaghey. Cha nel monney feanish dy vel sleih-ynsee cur ny smoo tastey da guillyn na da inneenyn mychione ynsaghey. Loayrt dy firrinagh, ta inneenyn jannoo ymmyd share jeh caaghyn dy chur feyshtyn da sleih- ynsee as soilshaghey cooishyn ynsee; ta kioneys ec inneenyn bentyn rish cooney ny sleih-ynsee, cha nel ec guillyn.

Artyn bentyn da'n chooish shoh:

Aukrust, V.G. Boys' and girls' conversational participation across four grade levels in Norwegian classrooms: taking the floor or being given the floor?. Gender and Education 2008 20(3): 237-252.

Markham, P. Sacrificial girls: a case study of the impact of streaming and setting on gender reform. British Educational Research Journal 2007 33(4): 459-478.

Lodge, C. as Pickering, J.Boys under-achievement: challenging some assumptions about boys. Pabyr currit da'n British Educational Research Association Conference, Lancaster, Mean Fouyir 1996.

Younger, M. as Warrington, M.Differential achievement of girls and boys at GCSE: some observations from the perspective of one school.British Journal of Sociology of Education 1996 17(3):299-314


Aachuirrey-lhee ahjioogh jeant jeh stoo deiney

(ennym bunneydagh: Clinical transplantation of a tissue-engineered airway)

The Lancet 13 Mee ny Nollick 2008 372(8655): 2023-2030

Macchiarini, P a b c, Jungebluth, Pa, Go, Ta, Asnaghi, A d, Rees, L E h, Cogan, T A g, Dodson, A h, Martorell, J f, Bellini, S e, Parnigotto, P P e, Dickinson, S C g, Hollander, A P g, Mantero, S d, Conconi, M T e, as Birchall, M A h

a Department of General Thoracic Surgery, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
b Fundaci Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain
c CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
d Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy
e Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
f Immunology, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
g Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
h Clinical Sciences at South Bristol, Faculty of Clinical Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

Choud’s ta fys aym, cha nel yn art bunneydagh ry-lhaih mannagh vel entreilys ayd da’n earishlioar hene. Ta giare-chummey Baarle ry-akin ec thelancet.com as art myechione ry-akin er duillag The Independent.

Giare-chummey

Coayl ahjioogh, she cragh eh. Ta sleih er n’eabbey ahjiooghyn noa y chur ayns ynnyd y fer caillt, agh va doilleeidyn tromey ayn. Son ahjioogh noa jeant jeh stoo kirp deiney, ta feme ayn er clowan chooie, as troyn obbrinagh kiartey eck, gyn antigenaght ("antigenicity" dy ghra myr shen, cha nel yn ahjioogh noa caulgaghey y corys coadey). V’eh foue clowan ahjiooghagh phiobanagh y yannoo liorish bea-yeshaghteyrys ("bio-engineering". Ren ad ymmyd jeh reillyn jeshaghteyrys stoo kirpey ("tissue engineering". V’eh orroo chammah yn saase shoh y scrutaghey son ymmyd er surransagh as keim jerrinagh çhingys ahjiooghagh urree.

Saase

Dys scapail jiooldey y chorys coadey, ren ad ymmyd jeh e killaghyn hene son yn olt aa-hoiaghey y yannoo. Va ahjioogh gheiney toyrtyssagh ny clowan daue. Ren ad scughey killaghyn as antigenyn MHC ass yn ahjioogh gheiney toyrtyssagh liorish ensymeyn as noi-vaaghyn. Hie ee er clanney dy jesh liorish killaghyn y surransagh hene: killaghyn epitheliagh ("epithelial cells", as chondrocytyen er nyn ngeddyn ass bun-chillaghyn mesenchymagh ("mesenchymal stem-cells" y turransagh hene. She ben 30-bleeaney d’eash ish, as cha nod ee tayrn ennal, er y fa dy row e scowan fillit liorish gorley shymley. Lurg shen, hug ad yn olt aa-hoiaghey shoh ayns ynnyd bronchys toshtal y ven hene.

Eiyrtys

Çhelleeragh, dobbree y ahjioogh noa. Ren eh foays da’n quallid-vea eck, as lurg 4 meeghyn, va cummey cadjin as troyn obbrinagh cadjin eck. Cha row noi- chorpeenyn erbee ec y turransagh, as cha dooar ee druggaghyn coadey-smaghtagh ("immunosuppressive drugs" erbee.

Resoonaght

Rere’n eiyrts shoh, t’eh jeeaghyn dy nodmayd jannoo ahjioogh chillagh jeh stoo deiney; dy vel troyn obbrinagh cadjin eck, myr shen, foddee eh gobbraghey dy cadjin; as nagh vel gaue jiooldey y chorys coadey eck. Rere’n chooish shoh, foddee, veagh killaghyn hene-aachuirrey ("autologous" dy ghra myr shen, goit jeh as currit erash da’n turransagh hene), marish bea-stoo cooie, nyn lheeys mie da surransee as çhingys trome orroo.

Feeaghyn

Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria, Spain; Charles Courtenay-Cowlin Fund, University of Bristol; UK Arthritis Research Campaign; as y James Tudor Foundation.

2011: Art eiyrtyssagh

Ta obbyr eiyrtyssagh goll er jannoo foast er ny far-oltyn shoh. Er 9oo Mean Souree 2011, ren Macchiarini aachuirrey far-ahjioogh stiagh ayns dooinney. Ta scansh eddyr y ghaa chooish, er y fa nagh ren ad ymmyd jeh stoo kirp gheiney elley ‘sy chooish shoh. Hoshiaght, ren ad clowan nano-chovestagh polymeragh rere kiaddey Alexander Seifalian. Ta tuill veggey ass towse ayn, as myr shen foddee killagyn cummal as aase er. Ta’n clowan jeant jeh fainnaghyn beayn creoi ayns ynnyd ny fainnaghyn lunganeagh dooghyssagh, as stoo s’boggey eddyr oc dys lhiggey da’n ahjioogh lhoobey. V’eh jeant dy jeeragh rere cummey ahjioogh dooghyssagh y hurransagh, as kanghyr ahjiooghagh echeysyn. Cha row ahjioogh toyrtyssagh erbee ry-gheddyn as cha row saase lheeys elley faagit oc.

Ghow ad sampleyr dy vun-chillaghyn mesenchymagh ass y smuir craue echey daa laa roish yn obbyr. Ren Harvard Bioscience ymmyd jeh bea-‘rasseeagh dyn aase: ren ad y far-ahjioogh y wheeylaghey ‘sy vea-‘rasseeagh as deayrtey fliughid beaghee as ny bun-chillagyn harrish. Ren stroos giarrey queeyllee noi y ‘liughid cur er ny bun-chillagyn jannoo killagyn eaghtyragh ahjiooghagh jeu hene. Myr shen va eaghtyr mooie killagyn eaghtyragh ahjiooghagh urree. Roish my ren ad yn ‘ar-ahjioogh y chur stiagh ‘sy turransagh, ghow ad sampleyr dy chillagyn epitheliagh ass e ‘troin as cur ad er eaghtyr sthie ny h-ahjioogh. Bee ad aase as skeaylley magh dys coodey y lane eaghtyr sthie lesh killagyn epitheliagh, myr ahjioogh ghooghyssagh.

Er y fa dy vel yn ‘ar-ahjioogh jeant jeh stoo polymeragh as killagyn y hurransagh hene, cha nel gaue jiooldey y chorys coadey ayn, as cha nel feme echey er druggaghyn coadey-smaghtagh erbee.

Ta fys ry-gheddyn ‘sy Vaarle ny ‘sy Toolynish ec Karolinska Institutet.


Far-chohaaghey sollys ayns kesh er bun Ranaspumin-2

(ennym bunneydagh: Artificial Photosynthesis in Ranaspumin-2 Based Foam)

Nano Letters 5 Mee ny Boaldyn 2010; eddyr-lhieen dy leah (cha nel fys ayn foast er yn ym-lioar as duillagyn)

DOI: 10.1021/nl100550k

David Wendell Jacob Todd as Carlo Montemagno

Biomedical Engineering Department, Engineering Research Center, 2901 Woodside Drive, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221

Choud’s ta fys aym, cha nel yn art bunneydagh ry-lhaih mannagh vel entreilys ayd da’n earishlioar hene. Ta cur-magh naight Baarle ry-akin ec duillag yn Olloscoill.

Giare-chummey

Ta lossreeyn co-haaghey sollys er son ny femeyn bree oc; t'ad goaill stiagh soilshey ny greiney as daa-ocseed charboan, as jannoo ocsygien as shugyryn assdaue. Dy noddagh shin jannoo ymmyd jeh dys jannoo bree "glass" da deiney, veagh shen ny chooney mooar dooin. Ta oayllee ec Ollooscoill Chincinnati er ngeddyn saase shen y yannoo, foddee. Ren ad ymmyd jeh far-stoo kirpey jeant ass ensymeyn lossreeyn, bacteyryn, rannagyn as fungyssyn, as eshyn ny hoie er kesh.

Reih ad kesh er dy fa dy vel eh co-ghlooghey ny h-ym-obbreeghyn dy mie, agh t'eh lhiggey da aer as soilshey çheet stiagh dy aashagh myrgeddin. Va'n kiaddey rere idd cheshey rannag lieh-ghrianchryssagh, y rannag Túngura (Engystomops pustulosus). Ta'n rannag shoh jannoo kesh feer 'oddey beayn dys jannoo edd da ny rannagyn aegey eck choud's t'ad gaase.

Ymmyd as vondeishyn

Dooyrt Wendell: "Ta vondeish ec y chorys ain er coryssyn lossreeyn as algaghyn. T'eh orroo ram bree y cheau er obbraghyn elley, dys tannaghtyn bio as geddyn sliught. Fodmayd jannoo shugyr ass ooilley bree ny greiney ta goit ain. Chammah's shen, cha nel feme ain er thalloo mie da'n chesh, myr shen, cha bee eh brishey stiagh er troarey."

Ta vondeish elley bentyn rish co-ghlooghey daa-ocseed charboan. Dooyrt Wendell: "Ayns coryssyn lossreeyn dooghyssagh, ta rouyr daa-ocseed charboan dooney co-haaghey sollys, agh ta'n corys ain er bun bacteyragh. Myr shen, foddee eh goll er ayns çhymbyllaghtyn as ram daa-ocseed charboan ayndaue, myr sampleyr, smoghan stashoon lectraghys geayil."

Ta ymmodee vondeishyn da croo kesh gollrish lus.

"Foddee oo jannoo ram stoo ass ny shugyryn, myr sampleyr, ethanol as bea-chonney elley," as Wendell. "As t'eh goaill daa-ocseed charboan ass yn aer, gyn anveaghey thalloo banejagh."

Dooyrt Dean Montemagno: "ta'n çhaghnoaylleeaght shoh taishbyney saase spaarailagh dy yannoo ymmyd jeh fyshoaylleeaght vioagyn, liorish croo sheeloghe noa dy stooghyn obbragh ta covestey obbraghyn bea 'syn troggal oc. Ta'n çhalee shoh taishbyney saase noa dy haglym bree ny greiney dys jannoo ooill ny bee, as shen ny s'fondagh na saaseyn bea-vree ny greiney elley. Er reayrtys s'lheaie, t'eh cur er bun saase dy ghoaill stiagh obbraghyn corysyn bioey ayns corysyn kiaddit as jeant ain."

Myr nah cheim, t'eh foue eab y yannoo dy yannoo y çhaghnoaylleeaght yn-jannoo da ymmydyn elley, myr sampleyr, taartyn carboan ec stashoonyn lectraghys geayil.

Saaseyn

Ta sleih er chur roish dy nodmayd jannoo conney jeh bea-chorpys myr feaysley bree yn-aanoaghey da leodaghey conney fossylagh.1 Cha nel agh mysh 5% jeh çheet dy ve bree yn-ymmydey, er coontey caghliee vioyrid as obbraghyn femoil y chillag. 2 Fodmayd jannoo ethanol ass shugyryn lossreeyn, as ass cuirtlagh villish, switchgrass as corn stover.3-5 Agh veagh eh orrin thalloo as ushtey y chur daue ass y chooid jeorit ain.

Cha nel monney bree ry-gheddyn ass bea-ethanol,3 as myr shen t'ad credjal dy bee 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) ny stoo ynnydagh mie: ta'n ghlooaght vree, poynt broiagh as neulheieys ayns ushtey echey ooilley ny smoo na adsyn t'ec ethanol. Chammah's shen, t'eh yn-jannoo ass carbey-hydraadyn bunneydagh, myr sampleyr glucose ny fructose, as adsyn ry-gheddyn ass bea-chorpys.5

Ta pabyr elley6 soilshaghey dy nodmayd jannoo bea-chohaaghey (biosynthesis) er kesh. Ren ad ATP (adenosine triphosphate) er kesh ass Tween-20 (ny sthoo ghlennee er son bea-chemmig) as bolganyn polymeragh, as ny h-ensymeyn BR synthase as ATP synthase ayndaue. Dod ad jannoo ATP liorish y taase shen.

'Sy phrowaltys shoh, ren ad ymmyd jeh proteen obbree-eaghtyr (surfactant) Ranaspumin-2. Shen jeant ec rannagyn Túngara dys troggal idd. T'eh lhiggey dooin kesh y yannoo ec co-ghlooghey beg, gyn boirey er far-chrackanyn killag; cha dod obbreeyn-eaghtyr laue-jeant shen y chooilleeney.

Ren ad bolganyn as BR/F0F1ATP synthase ayndaue. Bee adsyn co-haaghey ATP. Eisht, hug ad adsyn stiagh 'sy chesh, choud's ensymeyn femeoil y chorys Calvin-Benson-Bassham. Shen yn aawoalley ta jannoo shugyryn lesh ATP, ushtey as daa-ocseed charboan.

Liorish y taase shoh, ghow ad fondid çhyndaa kemmigagh smoo jeh 96%. T'ad credjal dy nod ad jannoo 34.5 thunney dy DMF 'sy hectare 'sy vlein; shen 10x ny smoo na troar bea-chorpys tradishoonagh. T'ad gra dy nod y kesh ve ny hoie er mullee thie, thalloo neueirinagh as nyn lheid. T'ad credjal dy beagh eh sauail ushtey; ta feanish ayn dy beagh troar ethanol ass bea-chorpys ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneyssit jannoo ymmyd jeh 800-4200 leetyr dy ushtey da dagh leetyr dy ethanol, as shen trooid eddyr-ghaalaghey (evapotranspiration) son y chooid smoo.7

  1. Ward, D. A.; Keys, A. J. Photosynth. Res. (1989), 22, 167-171
  2. Zhu, X.-G.; Long, S. P.; Ort, D. R. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (2008), 19, 153-159
  3. Lynd, L. R.; Cushman, J. H.; Nichols, R. J.; Wyman, C. E. Science (1991), 251 (4999) 1318-1323
  4. Gordon, J. M.; Polle, J. E. W. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2007), 76, 969-975
  5. Román-Leshkov, Y.; Barrett, C. J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Dumesic, J. A. Nat. Lett. (2007), 447, 982-986
  6. Choi, H.-J.; Montemagno, C. Nanotechnology (2006), 17, 2198-2202
  7. Dominguez-Faus, R.; Powers, S. E.; Burken, J. G.; Alvarez, P. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2009), 43 (9) 3005-3010

Pontreilley marrey boayrd mooarheeragh yn Antarctagh liorish raunteeyn

(ennym bunneydagh: Seals map bathymetry of the Antarctic continental shelf)

Geophysical Research Letters 2010; 37, screeuyn 21601; eddyr-lhieen

DOI: 10.1029/2010GL044921

Laurie Padman, Daniel P. Costa, S. Thompson Bolmer, Michael E. Goebel, Luis A. Huckstadt, Adrian Jenkins, Birgitte I. McDonald as Deborah R. Shoosmith

Choud’s ta fys aym, cha nel yn art bunneydagh ry-lhaih mannagh vel entreilys ayd da’n earishlioar hene. Ta cur-magh naight Baarle ry-akin ec New Scientist.

Giare-chummey

Ta bea-oayllee ec Ollooscoill Chalifornia Santa Cruz jannoo ymmyd jeh raunteeyn myr greieyn towshanagh dys jalloo caslyssyn-çheerey jeh grunt ny marrey mygeayrt yn Antarctagh.

Ta sleityn as glionnyn fo-ushtey bentyn rish strooghyn marrey, as ta shen bentyn rish rio er eaghtyr yn ushtey. Son y chooid smoo, t'ad jannoo caslyssyn jeh liorish mactullaghey; ta diunid ny keayin ry-howse rere y tammylt er son sheean goll veih'n lhong dys y grunt as erash. Agh cha nod oo jannoo shen mygeayrt yn Arctagh, son y chooid smoo, er coontey'n rio çhiu ta lhiettal lhongyn.

Ghleiy ad pontreilleyderyn lectraneagh er king raunteeyn elefant as goaill tastey jeu gleashaghey 'sy cheayn Bellingshausen eddyr 2005-9. Va fys ec ny h-oayllee hannah dy vel raunteeyn thummey dys grunt ny marrey mysh jeih thummaghyn as feed 'sy cheead, er bun studeyrys s'leaie ayns ardjyn share er towse. Eisht scrutee ad thummey s'diuney ny raunteeyn 'syn ard gyn towse, dys jannoo cummey jeh ym-linney yn ard. Hooar ad magh dy vel ammyryn 'syn ard ny s'diuney ny row ad jerkal, mysh 600m er diunid. Ta lheid ny h-ammyryn gymmyrkey ushtey çhiow, as myr shen, foddee dy vel laue oc ayns lheie tappee y boayrd rioee ayns 2008.

Dooyrt Daniel Costa, fer jeh'n skimmee: "Ta rauenteeyn slanjeant da'n chooish. T'ad goll dys buill nagh jagh peiagh erbee rieau; as cha nel feme oc er kishtey pooar."

"She saase neugheyr as lajer eh," dooyrt Paul Holland, ny chiaddeyder marrey y British Antarctic Survey gyn laue 'sy studeyrys.


Ronsaghey proteenagh liorish obbyr hionnalagh as gamman co-earrooder

Victory for crowdsourced biomolecule design

Nature News 22-01-2012; http://www.nature.com/news/victory-for-crowdsourced-biomolecule-design-1.9872

DOI: 10.1038/nature.2012.9872

Jessica Marshall

Ta ymmodee artyn ayn bentyn rish y chooish shoh, agh shoh y fer ynrican gyn costys. Ta daa imraa elley ec bun yn art shoh.

Giare-chummey

Ta cloiederyn co-earrooder er ngeddyn y kione share er oaylleeyn (as cur cooney mooar daue) bentyn rish strughtoor ensyme tuarastyllagh.

Ta Center for Game Science as bea-oayllee David Baker er nyannoo gamman (Foldit) ta lhiggey dhyt filley as troggal proteenyn. Ta strughtoor bree sloo cosney skensh smoo. Liorish geddyn obbyr share ny cloiederyn as jannoo prowaltys oaylleeagh urree, t'ad er ngeddyn cummaghyn noa as anaasoil.

'Sy toshiaght, cha row ny h-arryltee agh coyrt bree obbree naggyr ny co-earrooderyn oc da'n çhalee. Ta obbyr skeaylt ("distributed processing") myr shen cadjin dy liooar – myr sampleyr, SETI@home. Chaghlaa ad dys lhiggey da ny h-arryltee feaysley er strughtooryn proteenagh, as nish dys croo proteenyn noa.

Er y gherrid, ta cloiederyn Foldit er groo ensyme ta gobbraghey 18 wheesh ny smoo na'n fer bunneydagh. T'eh catalysal ym-obbraghyn Diels-Alder, obbyr ta co-haaghey ymmodee covreneenyn. Ta ny ym-obbraghyn shoh feer ymmydoil, agh cha nel fys ain er monney ensymeyn. Ayns 2010, ren Baker as e cho-obbree kiaddey ensyme Diels-Alderase noa, agh dooyrt Baker "cha nee ensyme feer vie v'ayn". V'eh moal as missilagh, as cha dod ad eh y hareaghey. Hug magh ad y feysht er Foldit, as shirrey er ny cloiederyn feaysley er feyshtyn er lheh: myr sampleyr, aachroo lhoob geayr aminagh do beagh eh bentyn rish stoo ym-obbree ny smoo fondagh; as eisht feddyn cummey anchorragh as y lhoob noa echey. Ghow ny h-oaylleeyn ny kiaddaghyn share as jannoo prowaltyssyn rere ad dys feddyn y cummey share.

Ta Foldit lhiggey da cloiederyn jannoo caghlaaghyn mooar da strughtoor ny proteenyn, foddey erskyn ny yinnagh claare co-earrooder ny prowaltys cadjin. Myr sampleyr, ta aafilley fo stiurey ("directed evolution") ceaghey possan mooar dy ensymeyn, as ad y vynscrutaghey dys feddyn caghlaaderyn ymmydoil. Son y chooid smoo, she caghlaa un gheayr aminagh t'ayn. 'Sy chooish Diels-Alderase, ren cloiederyn cur stiagh 13 geayryn aminagh noa, ny chaghlaa mooar. Dys jannoo prowaltys oardreilagh er caghlaaghyn cho mooar as shen, veagh eh er oayllee prowal proteenyn ass towse. S'doillee da co-earrooderyn prowal caghlaaghyn mooar, as dooillee er lheh my ta'n claare er ngeddyn freggyrtyn ayns "couan" beggan bree; cha mie lhieu treigeil lhied y 'reggyrt lieh-vie as goll trooid freggyrtyn bree smoo dys shirrey freggyrt bree sloo foast.

Ta'n gamman lhiggey da aghtallys as sheiltynys deiney prowal eieyn liorish keeayll ghooghyssagh. Ta ram schlei feayslee shilley ec deiney, as ta jargaght ain strateishyn feayslee y chroo as caghlaa tra ta shin gobbraghey. Ta co-hirrey ny vrod da cloiederyn, as ta co-obbraghey lhiggey daue feaysley er feyshtyn nagh dod ad gyn nyn lomarcan.

Ec y traa t'ayn, t'eh fo ny h-oayllee shirrey er cloiederyn Foldit feddyn covreneenyn dys lhiettal veeryssyn floo as cooyl-veeryssyn ("retroviruses").

Imraaghyn elley

"Increased Diels-Alderase activity through backbone remodeling guided by Foldit players", Nature Biotechnology 22-01-2012. Christopher B Eiben, Justin B Siegel, Jacob B Bale, Seth Cooper, Firas Khatib, Betty W Shen, Foldit Players, Barry L Stoddard, Zoran Popovic as David Baker. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2109

"Predicting protein structures with a multiplayer online game", Nature 466: 756-760, 05-08-2010. Seth Cooper, Firas Khatib, Adrien Treuille, Janos Barbero, Jeehyung Lee, Michael Beenen, Andrew Leaver-Fay, David Baker, Zoran Popovic as Foldit Players. DOI: 10.1038/nature09304


Craue keeilley clouit

3D printer provides woman with a brand new jaw

New Scientist 06-02-2012; http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/onepercent/2012/02/3d-printer-provides-woman-with.html

Paul Marks

Barriaght lheeys noa! Ta mee er screeu hannah er aajiooghyn jeant ass bun-chillaghyn deiney. Nish, ta laueyn-lhee Belgagh er groo craue keeilley noa liorish clou magh!

Giare-chummey

Va’n ben 83 bleeaney d’eash, as va osteomyelitis stroie y craue keeilley eck. Ren ad scanney JAM (Jallooaghey Aavuilley Magnaidagh, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging”) jeh’n chraue keeilley, do by chosoylagh eh coip jeeragh jeh y jannoo. Ren possan Jules Poukens (Biomed, rheynn ronsee bea-lheeys Ollooscoill Hasselt ‘syn Velg) stiurey y laue-lheeys as co-obbraghey marish colught clouderys Layerwise. Ta Layerwise cruinnaghey er clou 3H çhitaanium dys jannoo crooinyn feeacklagh as cuirryn craue.

Ren ad ymmyd jeh clouder 3H laser shinteyragh (“laser sintering”) dys croo y far-chraue noa. Ta’n clouder co-lheie breneenyn çhitaanium, brat er vrat, dys aachroo y kiaddey t’ad cur da. Eisht, ren ad coadey y craue keeilley fo vrat crayee bea-choardailagh (“biocompatible”) nagh boiragh er e stoo kirpey. Ta tuill as lhagganyn ‘sy chraue greinnaghey muskylyn dy chiangley rish, as thiollaneyn lhiggey da neearagyn keeilley goll ny hrooid, as ta binn ayn er son cuirryn feeacklagh my ta feme ec y ven orroo keayrt ennagh ry-heet.

Cheau ad kiare ooryn rish y laue-lheeys ayns Mean Souree 2011. Rish y nah laa, dod y surransagh loayrt as sluggey ‘syn aght dooghyssagh reesht. Ghow ad yindys dy row eh cho speeideilagh. Ta cuirryn clouit er nyn nyannoo roish shen, agh v’ad ny sloo. Aachroo ad lieh-chraue keeilley s’yrdjey ayns Finnlynn ayns 2008, liorish clowan çhitaanium clouit baiht ayns bun-chillaghyn daase stoo kirpey noa ayns brooinney y turransagh (shen bentyn rish obbyr yn aajioogh noa). Ayns 2009, ren ronseyderyn coontey jeh craueyn ordaag clouit. Shoh kesmad noa ‘sy vagher as er lesh ny commee she toshiaght t’ayn. Dooyrt reiltagh Layerwise, Peter Mercelis: “By chosoylagh eh jannoo foddey ny smoo ymmyd jeh cruinnyn jeant er son surransagh er lheh, na jeh aachuirraghyn craue deiney.”

Foddee cloudeyryn 3H jannoo bratyn micromeadaryn er çheeid as ass stoo erbee, bunnys. Ta New Scientist gra dy vel ronseyderyn shirrey aght dy chlou noadaghyn crackan da surransee lostey, as eer aght dy hroggal lane oltyn liorish cur sheese killagyn ‘sy chummey cooie. Greesee ass towse!

Jeeagh er feeshag er y chooish liorish Layerwise.

Imraaghyn

“Spare jawbone grown in gut” Sami Torma, ABC Science, Reuters.
Cha noddym feddyn art oaylleeagh bentyn rish y chooish raad erbee. Quaagh.

“Toward Regenerating a Human Thumb In Situ”, Tissue Engineering Part A September 2009, 15 (9): 2605-2615. Weinand et. al. DOI: 10.1089/ten.tea.2008.0467.


Robot robaigagh rere thollag ‘aiyr Etruscagh

Ta oayllee ec Seyrlann Robot-oaylleeaght Bristol er nyannoo robot robaigagh rere thollag ‘aiyr Etruscagh ta feddyn raad as cragh liorish bentyn ynrican.

Ta’n robot shoh, ‘Shrewbot’ (‘robot thollag ‘aiyr’) ayrn jeh co-halee BIOTACT, ny shalee ronsee kiare bleeantyn. Ta’n çhalee geddyn argid jeh 7oo Chlaare Ronsee yn Unnaneys Oarpagh, as t’eh goaill stiagh nuy possanyn ronsee ayns shiaght ashoonyn. Ta Shrewbot ny cho-hroar SRB (‘Bristol Robotics Laboratory’, liorish UWE Bristol as Ollooscoill Bristol) as Seyrlann Bentynagh Jantagh Sheffield (‘Active Touch Laboratory’, liorish Ollooscoill Sheffield as Ollooscoill Sheffield Hallam) . Ta’n çhalee fo stiurey yn Olloo Tony Pipe (UWEB) as yn Olloo Tony Prescott (OS).

Ta’n thollag ‘aiyr Etruscagh ny baagh yindyssagh. She sheeintagh sloo t’er fys ain t’ayn, 4cm er lhiurid as ny sloo na 2g er trimmid. T’ee gee shey-chassee cho mooar as ish, as greimmey orroo ‘sy dorraghys liorish bree ny robaigyn eck. Foddee ee bentyn rish, cur enney er as greimmey er cragh ayns 60 millihullagh, rere Prescott. T’ee er ngreinney oayllee dy hirrey aght dy aachroo y schlei shen do noddagh robotyn stiurey gyn fakin.

Ta’n thollag skeabey ny robaigyn eck noon as noal dy tappee, as ta ny craaghyn cur fys jee er ynnyd, cummey as loaghtid nheeghyn myrgeayrt-y-mooee. Dooyrt Prescott: “Traa ta ny robaigyn bentyn rish nhee, t’ad craa, as ta killagyn mioyrey ‘syn ‘ollicle fuilt ec bun ny robaig towse ryddim ny craaghyn as cur çhaghteraght lectragh da’n inçhyn. Liorish shen, ta’n sheeintagh jannoo briwnys çhelleeragh mychione y çhymbyllaght ta lhiggey jee shooyl mygeayrt as greimmey cragh. Ta vondeish elley ec robaigyn cosoylit rish saaseyn bentynagh elley. S’aashagh eh ad y aanoaghey, er y fa dy vel ny killagyn ennee ec bun ny robaig, cha nel ec y vaare. Cha nel ad gollrish mair deiney, myr sampleyr, as ad yn-jeeylley dy aashagh as do-aanoagh.” (Shrew whiskers inspire ground-breaking robot design, 20 Jerrey Geuree 2012, Ollooscoill Bristol)

T’ad er groo robotyn robaigyn roish shoh, agh cha row ad corrym rish. Cha dod ad geddyn robaigyn dy liooar bentyn rish nhee ec yn un traa, as dynsee ny h-oayllee dy vel reaghys ny robaigyn scanshoil chammah dys mooadaghey y fys t’ad geddyn assdaue. Ta’n Shrewbot foddey dy smoo na’n thollag hene, mysh mooadys kishan pabyr, agh ta ny robaigyn eck reaghit rere robaigyn ny thollag dy cruinn. T’ad birragh as cruillagh, as ta gleaysheyder e hene ec dagh robaig do noddagh ee arraghey dy neuchrogheydagh. Tra t’ad bentyn rish nhee erbee, ta ryddim ny craaghyn lhiggey da’n robot feddyn magh ynnyd y nhee, as troa ghleashee y nhee cosoylish rish y robot hene. Liorish covestey fys veih ymmodee robaigyn, t’ad feddyn magh cummey y nhee myrgeddin. (New Scientist, 21 Averil 2012, dg. 26: Touchy-feely robot takes on the darkness.)

Dys prowal y Shrewbot, t’ad er groo robot elley, ‘Cricketbot’ (‘robot griaran’) ta shaghney reddyn ta çheet faggys da. T’ad er çhee goaill toshiaght dy yannoo eabyn eddyr y daa robot. Chammah’s shen, t’ad er ngoaill toshiaght dy ronsaghey raunteeyn as sheeintee ushtee elley, er y fa dy vel ny robaigyn oc eer ny s’mioyrey. “Foddee ad ennaghtyn luirg ushtey-ghleashagh ny h-eeastyn ‘syn ushtey,” dooyr Prescott (New Scientist, ibid.).

Liorish ronsaghey rere greieyn aafillit najoor, t’ad gobbraghey er saaseyn as prowaltys ayn dy vel bree oc. Foddee ad jannoo ymmyd jeh’n robot shoh ayns çhymbyllaghtyn gaueagh as dorraghey, ny raad ta stayd yn ynnyd neulhiggey da robotyn cadjin fakin veg. T’ad coloayrt rish Brigaidyn Aile er yn obbyr, as credjal dy beagh robot bentynagh feer ymmydoil ayns aileyn mooarey raad ta jaagh çhiu jannoo doillee eh da moogheyderyn feddyn nyn raad hene, gyn çheet er feddyn sleih ny reddyn elley. Foddee ny robotyn stiurey moogheyderyn deiney ny ronsaghey troggalyn gyn deiney erbee (A robot inspired by the Etruscan shrew called Shrewbot, feeshan YouTube heose).


Far-skeeah rauney

Mleeaney, ta daa phossan ronsee oaylleeagh er nyannoo far-skeeah rauney. Quoi ec va fys?

Nature Biotechnology 30, 792–797 (2012). A tissue-engineered jellyfish with biomimetic propulsion. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2269. Janna C Nawroth, Hyungsuk Lee, Adam W Feinberg, Crystal M Ripplinger, Megan L McCain, Anna Grosberg, John O Dabiri as Kevin Kit Parker

Smart Materials and Structures, 21(4). Hydrogen-fuel-powered bell segments of biomimetic jellyfish. DOI: 10.1088/0964-1726/21/4/045013. Yonas Tadesse, Alex Villanueva1, Carter Haines, David Novitski, Ray Baughman as Shashank Priya1

Ta’n chied far-skeeah rauney, “Robojelly” (‘Roboslumm’) ny skeeah rauney robotagh ta gee (wahll, giu) ushtey. V’eh jeant ec ronseyderyn Undinys Yl-cheirdagh as Ollooscoill Steat Virginia (Virginia Tech). Ta Robojelly jeant as stoo greesee: “shape-memory alloys” (‘co-veain cooinee cummey’) nickyl-çhitaanium ta cur gys cooinaghtyn cummey er lheh, as aaghoaill orroo y cummey cheddin rere brod. Ren ad hoght ayrnyn ‘far-vuskyl’ so-ghleashagh assdaue, fo choodagh nanofeddan carboanagh yl-voallagh as poodyr platinum. T’adsyn soit ayns corp clagagh so-lhoobey ass ‘silicone’ (cha nel y meanoid silicoin ny shillagon, agh polymer rubbyragh, silicoan) gollrish corp skeeah rauney.

Tra t’eh snaue, t’eh lhiggey da ocsygien as hiddragien ‘syn ushtey bentyn rish y phlatinum, as t’eshyn jannoo obbyr catalyst as cur er bun ym-obbraghey çhiass-yientynagh ocsygien-hiddragien. Ta’n çhiassid shen roie trooid ny far-vuskyllyn as cur er y cho-veain craplaghey, gollrish muskyllyn skeeah rauney. Rish craplaghey, t’ad jannoo y corp clagagh ny sloo, as myr shen t’eh traastey magh ushtey fo; rere treeoo leigh ghleashaght Newton, ta’n forse shen croo aavuilley hoal noi corrym rish as seiy Robojelly roish. Ny yei, gyn çhiassid, ta ny hoght ayrnyn cooinee lhaggaghey as goll erash da’n chummey bunneydagh v’oc, as ta shen lhiggey da’n chorp hene jannoo y red cheddin.

Bee y kiaddey shoh ny share na croghey er kishtaghyn pooar, ga nagh vel eh fondit foast. T’eh ny s’eddrymee na kishtaghyn pooar er son y towse pooar cheddin. Ta’n platinum ny chatalyst nagh jed er lheie, as ta’n ‘aittin’ hene hiddragien as ocsygien, ta ry-gheddyn ‘syn ushtey hene, as t’ad jannoo ushtey glen myr jeeyll. Myr shen, foddee eh snaue gyn feme er aittin er lheh as gyn drogh-eiyrtys çhymbyllaghtagh. T’ad credjal dy dod oo jannoo ymmyd jeh Robojelly ayns obbraghyn ronsee as sauailagh fo ushtey, chammah’s tannaghtyn ayns boayl ennagh rish foddey dys cronnaghey bioagyn, sollaghar ny obbraghyn caggee.

Agh son y traa t’ayn, cha dod ny hoght far-vuskyllyn gleashaghey dy seyr, as myr shen cha nel jargaght stiuree echey. Shen y nah cheim daue. (New Scientist: Robot jellyfish sucks up power from the water)

Shen robotaght dhyt. Ta laue boayn elley sheanse quaagh ‘sy chooish elley. Ta Ollooscoill Harvard er nyannoo far-skeeah rauney ass silicoan (reesht) as killagyn cree roddan. Dy jarroo, shalee noa bentyn rish stoo kirpey! Ta mee lhiantynagh, foddee.

Ta’n obbyr shoh currit da dean scanshoil: ronsaghey stooghyn lheeys noa liorish toiggal scansh strughtooryn er lheh ‘sy chree. Ta ny strughtooryn caghlaa kyndagh rish gorley cree, agh cha nel monney fys ain er scansh ny strughtooryn t’ayn, ny bree ny caghlaaghyn er obbraghyn stoo lheeys.

Va Kevin Kit Parker, co-screeudeyr, er nyannoo obbyr elley er bea-yeshaghteyrys. Ghow ad toshiaght er yn çhalee shoh er yn oyr dy row eh tarmestit er cooishyn cree. Ghow Kit Parker tastey jeh cosoylaght eddyr stoo kirpey cree v’eh er vakin pumpal, as aght gleashee skeeah rauney honnick eh ayns ushteydane ec Thie Eeast Sostyn Noa ayns Boston.

“It occurred to me in 2007 that we might have failed to understand the fundamental laws of muscular pumps. I started looking at marine organisms that pump to survive. Then I saw a jellyfish at the New England Aquarium and I immediately noted both similarities and differences between how the jellyfish and the human heart pump.” – Kevin Kit Parker (Harvard: Artificial jellyfish swims in a heartbeat)

Hooar ad, dy jarroo, dy vel jalloo-oaylleeaght skeeah rauney feer chasley rish cree deiney.

Liorish ronsaghey jee-veeraghey as aachroo currym gleashagh skeeah rauney, va doghys oc dy ‘eddyn magh fys noa er obbraghyn lheid ny h-oltyn. Chammah’s shen, v’ad er son shareaghey saaseaght (‘methodology’) jeshaghteyrys stoo kirpey, liorish cur trimmid er bun-ronsaghey. Er lhieu dy vel rouyr sleih croghey er keeayll ghooghyssagh as tuarym.

“A big goal of our study was to advance tissue engineering. In many ways, it is still a very qualitative art, with people trying to copy a tissue or organ just based on what they think is important or what they see as the major components—without necessarily understanding if those components are relevant to the desired function or without analyzing first how different materials could be used.” -- Janna Nawroth, ny studeyr ollooagh bea-oaylleeaght ec Caltech as ard-screeudeyr yn obbyr (Harvard: Artificial jellyfish swims in a heartbeat)

Cheau ad kiare bleeantyn er yn obbyr. Ren ad cummey rere skeeah rauney aeg 6mm er lhiurid. Hug ad killagyn muskyl cree roddan er, as ad y reaghey do veagh jeerid ny frauaigyn cree corrym rish jeerid frauaigyn y skeeah rauney. Dreill ad y cummey ayns lheieys glucoseagh as magnaishumagh dys freayll ny killagyn bio. Eisht hug ad brat keyl dy pholymer silicoanagh er. Tra v’eh er starkaghey, foddee ad roostey y lane ‘medusoid’ voish y chummey, muskyllyn as ooilley.

Ny keayrtyn, va ny muskyllyn pumpal dy meereiltagh ec y traa shen. Liorish cur stroo lectragh 1Hz ‘sy lheieys, hug ad er y vedusoid snaue mygeayrt rere aght feer skeeah rauney rish wheesh as oor gyn feme er pooar elley. Kiart gollrish y Robojelly (as gollrish y skeeah rauney hene), ta craplaghey ny muskyllyn seiy y medusoid trooid yn ushtey. Hooar ad dy row reaghey ny killagyn cree as mennikaght y stroo lectragh bentyn rish troyn ny gleashaght.

Ta’n çhalee shoh ny prowaltys sheiltynys (‘proof of concept’) er son obbyr ash-yeshaghteyrys (‘reverse engineering’) bentyn rish oltyn elley as bioagyn bunneydagh. T’eh foue eh y hareaghey, liorish cooney lesh çhyndaa as stiurey, lhiggey da shirrey soilshey, as eer feddyn bee, foddee.

Ta oayllee elley er ngra dy dod oo jannoo ymmyd anaasoil jeh medusoids myr t’ad. Er lesh Che Connon (Ollooscoill Reading), foddee ad jannoo obbyr sheelee rere aght feer skeeah rauney. “S’aashagh dou sheiltyn ymmyd skyoll mooar dy vedusoidjyn dys glenney deayrtey ooill, myr ta skeeah rauney sheeley bee ass yn ushtey.” (Heart muscle helps cyborg jellyfish come alive )

Chammah’s shen, foddee oo jannoo ymmyd jeh’n çhaghnoaylleeaght cheddin er son curryn stiagh lheeys yioghe beaghey ass fliughid kirpey. Foddee ad goaill orroo hene ynnyd jeshaghtyn meainey ta croghey er kishtaghyn pooar.

(c) 2007-12 John Shimmin. Dagh kiart tashtit; cha nel mee credjal dy vel erbee aym, agh er aggle ny haggle.

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