INTRODUCTION TO THE LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIES
Academic Year 2011-2012
Class Time: Wednesdays, 10.30-12.45
Office hours: please email me to arrange a meeting
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org
You can find a hardcopy of the reading list here
If you need some background on economics, you can find some readings here
Essays & tutorials
Students taking the Economics paper can expect to write at least two essays. The essays will have around 2,500 words and the questions and reading list should be agreed in advance. One of the essays will be discussed in class and the other in a group tutorial that will normally take place on Wednesday afternoons. You can find some suggested questions based on previous exams here and the expected discussions for class here.
This course is assessed by a 3-hour exam in Trinity Term. Copies of previous exams are available on-line from the Oxford Libraries Information Platform (OXLIP). The dates of examination are set and publicised by the Examination Schools. It is the students’ responsibility to confirm the exam dates set by the Exam Schools. Revision classes will be offered in Trinity Term weeks 1 and 2.
Course structure and lecturers
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) The Economic History of Latin America since Independence, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, second edition.
Edwards, S. (2010) Left Behind. Latin America and the False Promise of Populism, Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Thorp, R. (1998) Progress, Poverty and Exclusion: an Economic History of Latin America in the 20th century, Washington, DC: IDB.
Franko, P. (2007) The Puzzle of Latin American Economic Development, New York, NY: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers [older editions from 1999 and 2003 in the library]
Rapley, J. (2007) Understanding Development Theory and Practice in the Third World, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 3rd edition [older edition from 1996 is also available]
Other useful books
Bulmer-Thomas, V, J. Coatsworth and Roberto Cortes (eds) (2006) Cambridge Economic History of Latin America, volumes 1 and 2, Cambridge: Cambride University Press.
Chang, H-J. (ed) (2003) Rethinking Development Economics, London: Anthem Press.
Green, D. (2003) Silent Revolution. The Rise and Crisis of Market Economics in Latin America, Second Edition, London: Latin American Bureau.
Huber, E. (ed) (2002) Models of Capitalism. Lessons for Latin America, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Moss, D. (2007) A Concise Guide to Macroeconomics, Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.
Ray, D. (1998) Development Economics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Todaro, M. (2003) Economic Development, Eighth Edition, Essex: Addison Wesley Longman Limited (search for other editions in the library if needed)
Soubbotina, T. and K. Sheram (2000) Beyond Economic Growth. Meeting the challenges of global development, Washington, DC: World Bank.
Also you should browse the following journals for interesting articles: World Development, Journal of Development Studies, Journal of Latin American Studies and ECLAC Review (or its Spanish version “Revista de la CEPAL”). Most of the journals used in this class are available at for download from Electronic Journals in the Oxford Libraries Information Platform (OXLIP).
Useful web pages to consult
See the link section in my webpage
Week 1. Introduction: historical trends and the export-led model (download slides intro) (google statistical program) (download slides export-led)
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003), chapter 1.
Evans, P. (1979) Dependent Development. The Alliance of Multinational, State and Local Capital in Brazil, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, chapter 2.
Thorp, R. (1998), chapter 1-3
Other suggestions general introduction
Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege, A. (1992) Latin America’s Economy: Diversity, Trends and Conflict, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, chapter 1.
Coatsworth, J. (2005) “Structures, Endowments, and Institutions in the Economic History of Latin America”, Latin American Research Review, 40 (3): 126-144.
Engerman, S. and K. Sokoloff (1997) “Factor Endowments, Institutions and Differential Paths of Growth Among New World Economies: A View from Economic Historians of the United States” in Haber, S. (ed.) How Latin America Fell Behind: Essays on the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico, 1800-1914, Stanford: Stanford University Press. You can find a previous working paper version here.
Franko, P. (2007), The Puzzle of Latin American Economic Development, Rowman and Littlefield, chapter 1.
Kay, C. (1999) Latin American Theories of Development and Underdevelopment, London, UK: Routledge, chapter 2 and 5.
Maddison, A. (2001) The World Economy. A Millennial Perspective, Paris, France: Development Center Studies of the OECD, chapter 3
Oxford Latin American Economic History Database
Other suggestions—the primary export led model
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003) chapters 2-5.
Bethell, L. (ed) (1986), The Cambridge History of Latin America, Cambridge University Press IV ch 1
Cárdenas, E., J.A. Ocampo and R. Thorp (2000), The Export Age: The Latin American Economies in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Palgrave.
Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege (1992), chapter 2.
Cardoso, F. H. and E. Faletto (1971), Dependencia y desarrollo en América Latina, Siglo XXI.
Coatsworth, J. (1993) “Notes on the Comparative Economic History of Latin America and the United States” in Bernecker, W. and H. Werner Tobler (ed) Development and Underdevelopment in America: contrasts of economic growth in North and Latin America in historical perspective, Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter, Inc.
Coatsworth, J. (2006) “Political Economy and Political Organization” in Bulmer-Thomas, V., J. Coatsworth and R. Cortes (eds), vol 1.
Cortés Conde, R. and S. Hunt (1985), The Latin American Economies: Growth and the Export Sector 1880-1930, Holmes and Meier.
Cortes, R. (1992) “Export-led growth in Latin America, 1880-1930”, Journal of Latin American Studies, 24, quincentenary supplement
Franko, P. (2007), chapter 2.
Prados de la Escosura, L. (2009) “Lost Decades? Economic Performance in Post-Independence Latin America”, Journal of Latin American Studies, 41(2): 279-309.
Week 2. Import Substitution Industrialization (download slides)
French-Davis, R., O. Muñoz and G. Palma (1995) “The Latin American economies, 1950-1990” in Bethell, L. (ed) The Cambridge History of Latin America. Vol. 6. Latin America since 1930: Economy, society and politics, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press [find copy on weblearn]
Prebisch, R. (1984) “Five stages in my thinking on development”, Meier, G. And D. Seers (eds.) Pioneers in Development, Washington, DC: World Bank
Rapley, J. (2007), chapter 2 and 3.
Thorp, R. (1998), chapters 4, 5 and 6.
Bielschowsky, R. (2009) “Sixty years of ECLAC: structuralism and neo-structuralism”, ECLAC Review, 97: 171-192
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003), chapter 6, 7 and 8.
Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege (1993), chapter 4.
Cardoso, F. H. and E. Faletto. 1979. Dependency and Development in Latin America. University of California Press.
Dosman, E. (2008) The Life and Times of Raul Prebisch, 1901-1986, McGill-Queen's University Press.
Edwards, S. (2010) chapter 3.
Franko, P. (2007), chapter 3.
Green, D. (2003), chapter 1.
Ground, R.L. (1988) “The genesis of import substitution in Latin America”, ECLAC Review.
Haber, S. (2007) “The Political Economy of Industrialization” in Bulmer-Thomas, V., J. Coatsworth and R. Cortes (eds), vol 2.
Hirschman, A. (1987), “The Political Economy of Latin American Development: Seven Exercises in Retrospection,” Latin American Research Review, 22 (3): 7-36.
Love, J. (2005) “The rise and decline of economic structuralism in Latin America”, Latin American Research Review, 40 (3): 100-125.
Prebisch, R. (1959) “Commercial policy in the underdeveloped countries”, American Economic Review 49 (2).
Prebisch, R. (1962) “The economic development of Latin America and its principal problems”, Economic Bulletin for Latin America, vol. VII, No. 1, Santiago, Chile.
Ray, D. (1998), chapter 17.
Sheahan (1987) Patterns of Development in Latin America: Poverty, Repression and Economic Strategy, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, chapters 4 and 8.
Stirton, F. (2000) Latin America in the World Economy, Mercantile Colonialism to Global Capitalism, Oxford, UK: Westview Press, chapter 4.
Thorp, R. (1992) “A reappraisal of the origins of import-substitution industrialization, 1930-50”, Journal of Latin American Studies, 24.
Todaro, M. (2003), chapters 13 and 16.
Special issue of ECLAC Review on Prebisch, ECLAC Review, December 2001, number 75
Week 3. Comparing East Asia and Latin America
Amsden, A. (2001) The Rise of “the Rest”. Challenge to the West from Late-industrializing Economies, Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapters 6, 7 and 8
Evans, P. (1995) Embedded Autonomy. States and Industrial Transformation, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, chapters 1 and 3.
Kay, C. (2001) “Asia´s and Latin America´s Development in Comparative Perspective: Landlords, Peasants and Industrialization”. Institute of Social Studies Working Paper no 336, The Hague.
Lin, C (1988) “East Asia and Latin America as Contrasting Models”. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36(3), pp. S153-S197.
Akÿuz, Y. And C. Gore (1996) “The Investment-Profit Nexus in East Asian Industrialization”, World Development, 24(3): 461-470.
Amann, Ed. And H-J Chang (2004) Brazil and South Korea. Economic Crisis and Reestructuring, London: Institute of Latin American Studies.
Amsden, A. (1989) Asia’s Next Giant. South Korea and Late Industrialization, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
De Gregorio, J. and J-W Lee (2003) “Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America”, Central Bank of Chile Working Papers no 245.
Dietz, J. (1992) “Overcoming Underdevelopment: What Has Been Learned from the East Asian and Latin American Experience?”, Journal of Economic Issues, 26.
Gereffi, G. and D. Wyman (ed.) (1992) Manufacturing Miracles: Paths of Industrialization in Latin America and East Asia, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hewitt, T. H. Johnson and D. Wield (1992), chapters 4, 5 and 6.
Jenkings, R. (1991) “The Political Economy of Industrialization: A Comparison of Latin America and East Asia Newly Industrializing Countries”, Development and Change, 22.
Journal of Development Studies, 34 (6), August 1998.
Kohli, A. (2004) State-directed Development. Political Power and Industrialization in the Global Periphery, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, parts I and II.
Mahon Jr. J. (1992) “Was Latin America Too Rich to Prosper? Structural and Political Obstacles to Export-Led Industrial Growth” Journal of Development Studies, 28 (2).
Page, J. (1994) “Introduction”, World Development, 22 (4).
Wade, R. (1992) “East Asia’s Economic Success. Conflicting Perspectives, Partial Insights, Shaky Evidence”, World Politics, 44(2).
World Bank (1993) The East Asian Miracle: Economic Growth and Public Policy Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press for the World Bank Group.
Week 4. Debt-led growth and the debt crisis in Latin America (download slides)
Pazos, F. (1985) “Have import substitution either precipitated or aggravated the debt crisis? Journal of Inter-American Studies, 27 (4).
Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege (1992), chapter 5.
Devlin, R. (1989) Debt and crisis in Latin America: the supply side of the story, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, chapter 1
Sachs, J. (1985) “External Debt and Macroeconomic Performance in Latin America and East Asia” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2: 523-573.
Agenor, P.R. and P.J. Montiel (1996), Development Macroeconomics, Princeton University Press, chapter 14.
Bethell, L. (ed) (1986), The Cambridge History of Latin America, VI Part 1, chapters 4 and 7.
Bulmer Thomas, V. (2003), chapter 10
Devlin, R. (1989), rest of the book.
Fishlow, A. (1985) “Revisiting the Great Debt Crisis of 1982” in Kim, K. and D. Ruccio (ed) Debt and Development in Latin America, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Fishlow, A. (1990) ‘The Latin American State’, Journal of Economic Perspectives 4(3): 61-74.
Franko, P. (2007) chapter 4.
Gibson, H. and E. Tsakalotos “The international debt crisis: causes, consequences and solutions” in Hewitt, T. H. Johnson and D. Wield (1992) Industrialization and Development, Oxford UK: Oxford University Press in collaboration with the Open University.
Griffith-Jones, S and O. Sunkel (1986) Debt and Development Crises in Latin America. The End of an Illusion, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, chapters 2 to 8.
Held, G. and R. Szalachman (1998) “External capital flows in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 1990s: experiences and policies”, ECLAC Review, 64.
Todaro, M (2003), chapter 14.
Weeks, J. (1989) “Losers pay reparations, or how the Third World Lost the Lending War”, in Debt Disaster? Banks, Governments and Multinationals Confront the Crisis, Geonomics Institute for International Economic Advancement Series.
Week 5. Inflation and adjustment programs in Latin American in the 1980s and 1990s (download slides)
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2003), chapter 11.
Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege (1992), chapters 6 and 7.
Franko, P. (2007), chapter 5.
Singh, A. et al (2005) Stabilization and Reform in Latin America: A Macroeconomic Perspective Since the Early 1990s, Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, chapter 4
Agenor, P.R. and P.J. Montiel (1996), Development Macroeconomics, Princeton University Press, ch 13.
Amadeo, E. (1994) Institutions, Inflation and Unemployment, Aldershot: Edgar, chapters 2-4.
Boianovsky, M. (forthcoming) “Furtado and the Structuralist-Monetarist Debate on Economic Stabilization in Latin America” History of Political Economy, 2012.
Cinquetti, C. (2000) “The Real Plan: Stabilization and Destabilization”, World Development, January.
Da Fonseca, M. (1998) “Brazil’s Real Plan”, Journal of Latin American Studies, October.
Edwards, S. (1995), chapter 2 and 4.
Meller, P. (1991), ‘IMF and World Bank Roles in the Latin American Foreign Debt Problem’, in P. Meller (ed) The Latin American Development Debate: neostructuralism, neomonetarism and adjustment process.
Nazmi, N. (1996) Economic Policy and Stabilization in Latin America, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Pastor, M. (1987) “The effects of IMF programs in the Third World: debate and evidence for Latin America”, World Development, 15 (2).
Pastor, M. and C. Wise (1999) “Stabilization and its Discontents: Argentina’s Economic Restructuring in the 1990s”, World Development, March.
Paus, E. (1991) “Adjustment and development in Latin America: the failure of the Peruvian Heterodoxy”, World Development, 19 (5).
Taylor, L. (1988) Varieties of Stabilization Experience, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Taylor, L. (1993) The Rocky Road to Reform, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Thorp, R. (1998), chapter 7.
Week 6. The Washington Consensus: causes, definitions and consequence (download slides)
Fraga, A. (2004) “Latin America since the 1990s: Rising from the Sickbed?” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(2): 89-106.
Ocampo, J.A. (2004) “Latin America's Growth and Equity Frustrations during Structural Reforms” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(2): 67-88.
Rapley (2007), chapters 4 and 5 [chapters 3 and 4 in the previous edition].
Reinhart, N. and W. Peres (2000) “Latin America’s New Economic Model: Micro Responses and Economic Results”, World Development, 28 (9).
Agenor, P.R. and P.J. Montiel (1996), Development Macroeconomics, Princeton University Press, chs 15 and 17.
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (2007) “Globalization and the New Economic Model in Latin America” in Bulmer-Thomas, V., J. Coatsworth and R. Cortes (eds.), vol2.
Edwards, S. (1995), chapter 3.
Bulmer-Thomas, V. (ed) (1996) The New Economic Model in Latin America and Its impact on Income Distribution and Poverty.
ECLAC (2002) Globalization and Development, Santiago: Economic Commission for Latin American and the Caribbean, especially chapter 5.
Edwards, S. (1995), chapters 3, 5, 6, 8 and 9.
Edwards, S. (2010) chapter 4-7
Evans, P. (1998) “Transnational Corporations and Third World States: From the Old Internationalization to the New” in Kozul-Wright, R. and Rowthorn, R. (ed.) Transnational Corporations and the Global Economy, New York, NY: MacMillan Press
Franko, P. (1999), chapter 7 and 8.
Ganuza, E. L. Taylor and S. Morley (ed) (1998) Politica Macroeconomica y Pobreza en America Latina, UNDP and ECLAC.
Green, D. (2003) chapters 4 and 5.
Lustig, N. (ed) (1998) Coping with Austerity: Poverty and Inequality in Latin America, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Mesquita, M. and S. Najberg (2000) “Trade Liberalization in Brazil: creating or exporting jobs?”, Journal of Development Studies.
Research reports and notes on Neoliberalism (3 articles), Latin American Research Review, 39 (3): 143-183.
Rest of the issue on Microeconomic Responses to the New Economic Model, World Development, 2000, 28 (9).
Saad-Filho, A., F. Iannini and E. Molinari (2007) “Neoliberalism, Democracy and Economic Policy in Latin America” in Aristis, P. and M. Sawyer (eds) Political Economy of Latin America. Recent Economic Performance, London: Palgrave.
Sheahan (1987), chapter 5.
Singh, A. et al (2005) Stabilization and Reform in Latin America: A Macroeconomic Perspective Since the Early 1990s, Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, chapter 4.
Special issue on Structural adjustment and the Labor Market, Journal of Development Studies, April 2000.
Special issue on Neoliberal Restructuring in Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 37(3), 1995
Taylor, L. (1993) The Rocky Road to Reform, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Taylor, L and U. Peiper (1998) “The Revival of the Liberal Creed: The IMF, the World Bank, and Inequality in a Globalized Economy” in Baker, D. Epstein and R. Pollin (ed.) Globalization and Progressive Economic Policy: What are the Real Constraints and Options?, New York: Cambridge University Press [can also be found in the SCEPA web page at the New School for Social Research ]
Thorp, R. (1998) chapter 8.
Williamson, J. (1990) “What Washington Means by Policy Reform” in Williamson, J. (ed) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics.
Williamson, J. (1993) “Democracy and the “Washington Consensus””, World Development, 21 (8).
Week 7. Post-neoliberalism and the move to the left in Latin America
Edwards, S. (2010) chapters 8 and 9 (an article with a similar theme from the same author can be found here).
Grugel, J. and P. Riggirozzi (forthcoming) “Post Neoliberalism in Latin America: Rebuilding and Reclaiming the State after Crisis” (mimeo)
Moreno-Brid, J.C. and I. Paunovic (2008) “What is New and What is Left of the Economic Policies of the New Left of Latin America?” International Journal of Political Economy, 37(3): 82–108.
Stallings, B. and W. Peres (2011) “Is Economic Reforms Dead in Latin America? Rhetoric and Reality since 2000” Journal of Latin American Studies, 43(4): 755-787.
Other suggestions on post-Neoliberalism and development debates
Fine, B. (2001) “Neither the Washington nor the Post-Washington Consensus: an Introduction” in Fine, B., C. Lapavitsas and J. Pincus (eds.) Development Policy in the Twenty-First Century. Beyond the post-Washington Consensus, London: Routledge [a draft can be found here]
Ffrench-Davis, R. (2005) Reforming Latin America’s Economies: After Market Fundamentalism, London: Palgrave.
Gore, C. (2000) “The rise and fall of the Washington Consensus as a paradigm for developing countries”, World Development, May.
Johnson, S. (2003) “Is Neoliberalism Dead in Latin America?” Web Memo #332. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation.
Kay, C. (1998) “Relevance of Structuralist and Dependency Theories in the Neoliberal Period: a Latin American Perspective”, Institute of Social Studies Working Paper, no281.
Kuczynsky, P. and J. Williamson (2003) After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth and Reform in Latin America, Washington, DC: Institute of International Economics, rest of the book
Leiva, F. (2008) “Towards a Critique of Neostructuralism”, Latin American Politics and Society, 50(4): 1-25.
Ramos, J. (2000) “Policy Directions for the New Economic Model in Latin America”, World Development, 28 (9).
Rodrik, D. (2001) “Development Strategies for the Next Century”, paper presented at the seminar Development Theory at the Threshold of the 21st Century, Santiago, ECLAC.
Rodrik, D. (2006) “Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion. Review of the World Bank's Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform”, Journal of Economic Literature, 44 (4): 973-987.
Rodrik, D. (2007) One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions and Economic Growth, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Stiglitz, J. (1998) “More Instruments and Broader Goals: Moving toward the Post-Washington Consensus”, The 1998 WIDER Annual Lecture.
Stiglitz, J. (2003) “Whither reform? Towards a new agenda for Latin America”, ECLAC Review, 80: 7-38
Thorp, R. (1998), chapter 9.
Other suggestions on the left
Buxton, J. (2003) 'The Economics of Chavismo' in Ellner, S. and D. Hellinger (eds.) Venezuelan Politics in the Chavez Era, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Cameron, M. and E. Heshberg (ed) (2010) Latin America’s Left Turns. Politics, Policies and Trajectories of Change, London: Lynne Rienner, chapters 9, 10 and 11.
Castañeda, J. “Latin America’s Left Turn”, Foreign Affaires, May/June 2006.
Dornbusch, R. and S. Edwards (ed.) (1991) The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press, chapters 1 and 2.
Saad Filho, A. and M. Mollo , M. (2006) “Neoliberal Economic Policies in Brazil (1994-2005): Cardoso, Lula and the Need for a Democratic Alternative.” New Political Economy, 11 (1): 99-123.
Santiso, J. (2006) Latin America’s Political Economy of the Possible. Beyond Good Revolutionaries and Free-Marketers, chapters 7 and 8, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vernengo, M. “Latin America’s Left off-track”, Dollars & Sense, May/June 2005.
Perez Caldentey, E. and M. Vernengo (2008), “Back to the Future: Latin America’s Current Development Strategy”.
Weisbrot, M. and L. Sandoval (2007) “The Venezuelan Economy in the Chavez Years”, Center for Economic and Policy Research.
Week 8. Income inequality then and now
Coatsworth, J. (2008) “Inequality, Institutions and Economic Growth in Latin America”, Journal of Latin American Studies, 40: 545-569.
Cornia, A. (2010) “Income Distribution under Latin America´s New Left Governments”. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities 11(1): 85-114.
ECLAC (2010) “Structural heterogeneity and productivity gaps: from fragmentation to convergence” in Time for Equality: Closing Gaps, Opening Trails, Santiago: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
World Bank (2004) Income inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Breaking with History?, Washington, DC: World Bank, Latin American Section, summary and chapter 1
Berg, J. (2006) Miracle for Whom? Chilean Workers under Free Trade, London: Routledge, chapters 1 and 6.
Cardoso, E. and A. Helwege (1992) chapter 9.
ECLAC (2010) Time for Equality: Closing Gaps, Opening Trails, Santiago: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, rest of the book.
ECLAC (2011) Panorama Social de América Latina y el Caribe, 2011, Santiago, chapters 3 and 4.
Foxley, A. (1976) “Introduction” in Foxley, A. (ed.) Income distribution in Latin America, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Haggard, Stephan and Robert Kaufman (2008) Development, Democracy and the Welfare State. Latin America, East Asia and Eastern Europe, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, particularly introduction and chapters 1, 5 and 7.
Huber, Evelyn, F. Nielsen, Jenny Pribble & John Stephens (2006) “Politics and Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean”, American Sociological Review, 71(6): 943-963.
Huber, Evelyn, Thomas Mustillo and John Stephens (2008) “Politics and Social Spending in Latin America” The Journal of Politics, 70(2): 420-236.
López-Calva, . and N. Lustig (2010) Declining Inequality in Latin America. A Decade of Progress? Washington, DC: Brookings Institution and UNDP.
Pinto, A. and Di Filippo, A. (1976) “Notes on income distribution and redistribution strategy in Latin America” in Foxley, A. (ed.).
Ray, D. (1998), chapters 6 and 7.
Sanchez-Ancochea, D. (2009) “Public Budgets and Income Inequality in Latin America: A Comparative Perspective” in Sanchez-Ancochea, D. and I. Morgan (eds) (2009) The Political Economy of the Public Budget in the Americas, London: Institute for the Study of the Americas
Sheahan (1987), chapter 3 and 6.
Solimano, A. (1998) “The End of the Hard Choices? Revisiting the Relationship Between Income Distribution and Growth” in Solimano, A. (ed.), Social Inequality: Values, Growth and the State, Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
Soubbotina, T. and K. Sheram (2000), chapters 5 and 6.
Special issue “Income inequality in the Long Run” in Revista de Historia Económica, 28(2), 2010.
Special issue on Poverty and Inequality in Latin America in the Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 38(2/3), 1996.
Szekely, M. and A. Montes (2006) “Poverty and Inequality” in Bulmer-Thomas, V., J. Coatsworth and R. Cortes (eds.) The Cambridge Economic History of Latin America. Volume II. The Long Twentieth Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
World Bank (2004) Income inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Breaking with History?, Washington, DC: World Bank, Latin American Section, rest of the book]