List of Articles published by Suzanne Romaine

1975 1976 1978 1979
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

1975. Approaches to the description of Scots English. Work In Progress. Department of Linguistics. University of Edinburgh. 8:121-4.

1976. Glottal sloppiness? A sociolinguistic view of urban speech in Scotland. Teaching English. The Journal of Teachers of English in Scotland. 9:12-8. [jointly with Euan Reid]. [Reprinted in Stubbs, Michael and Hillier, H. eds. 1983. Readings in Language, Schools and Classrooms. London: Methuen. pp. 70-82.]

1978. Post-vocalic /r/ in Scottish English: Sound change in progress? In Trudgill, Peter. ed. Sociolinguistic Patterns in British English. London: Edward Arnold. pp. 144-58.

1978. Some problems in the investigation of linguistic attitudes in Scotland. Work in Progress. Department of Linguistics. University of Edinburgh. 11:11-30.

1979. The social reality of phonetic descriptions. Northern Ireland Speech and Language Forum Journal 5:21-36.

1979. On the non-decisiveness of quantitative solutions: Why Labov was wrong about contraction and deletion of the copula. Work In Progress. Department of Linguistics. University of Edinburgh. 12:10-7.

1979. The language of Edinburgh schoolchildren: the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence. Scottish Literary Journal 9:55-61.

1979. The notion of intermediate phonetic forms in sociolinguistics. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Vol. II Institute of Phonetics. University of Copenhagen.

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1980. What is a speech community? Belfast Working Papers in Language and Linguistics 4:41-60. [Reprinted in Romaine, S. ed. Sociolinguistic Variation in Speech Communities. London:Edward Arnold. pp. 13-35].

1980. The relative clause marker in Scots English: Diffusion, complexity and style as dimensions of syntactic change. Language in Society 9:221-49.

1980. Stylistic variation and evaluative reactions to speech. Language and Speech 23:213-32.

1980. A critical overview of the methodology of British urban sociolinguistics. English World Wide 1:163-99.

1981. Scotland as a linguistic area. Scottish Literary Journal Language Supplement 14:1-24 [jointly with Nancy C. Dorian].

1981. The status of variable rules in sociolinguistic theory. Journal of Linguistics 17:93-119.

1981. Syntactic complexity, relativization and stylistic levels in Middle Scots. Folia Linguistica Historica 2:56-77.

1981. On the problem of syntactic variation. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics 82:1-38.

1981. The Transparency Principle:What it is and why it doesn't work. Lingua 55:93-116.

1981. Language loss and maintenance in a multi-ethnic community. Linguistische Arbeiten und Berichte 16:262-70.

1981. Contributions from Middle Scots syntax to a theory of syntactic change. In Lyall, R. and Riddy, F. eds. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Scottish Language and Literature. Stirling: University of Stirling Press. pp. 70-85.

1982. The English Language in Scotland. In Bailey, Richard W. and Görlach, Manfred eds. English as a World Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Vol. I : 51-70.

1982. The reconstruction of language in its social context: Methodology for a socio-historical linguistic theory. In Ahlqvist, Anders ed. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory. Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Historical Linguistics. Amsterdam: J.V. Benjamins. pp. 293-303.

1983. Syntactic change as category change by reanalysis and diffusion. In Davenport, M., Hansen, E and Nielsen, H-F. eds. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on English Historical Linguistics. Odense University Studies in English. Vol. 4 Odense: Odense University Press. pp. 9-27.

1983. Historical Linguistics: Progress or Decay? Language In Society 12:223-37.

1983. Collecting and interpreting self-reported data on the language use of linguistic minorities by means of 'language diaries'. MALS Journal 9:1-30.

1983. On the productivity of word formation rules and the limits of variability in the lexicon. Australian Journal of Linguistics 3:176-200.

1983. Problems in the sociolinguistic description of communicative repertoires among linguistic minorities. In Dabène, Louise, Flasaquier, Monique and Lyons, John eds. Status of Migrants' Mother Tongues/Le Statu des Langues d'Origine des Migrants. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation. pp. 119-131.

1984. The status of sociological models and categories in explaining language variation. Linguistische Berichte 90:25-39. [1995. Reprinted in Singh, Rajendra ed. Towards a Critical Sociolinguistics. Amsterdam:John Benjamins. pp. 99-115].

1984. American English:Turning the Atlantic tide". EFL Gazette 51:6-7.

1984. On the problem of syntactic variation and pragmatic meaning in sociolinguistic theory. Folia Linguistica 18:409-39.

1984. Some social and historical dimensions of syntactic change in Middle Scots relative clauses. In Blake, Norman and Jones, Charles ed. English Historical Linguistics. Studies in Development. Sheffield: University of Sheffield Press. pp. 101-23.

1984. Towards a typology of relative clause formation strategies in Germanic. In Fisiak, Jacek ed. Historical Syntax. The Hague: Mouton. pp. 437-70.

1984. The spread of English and the politics of linguistic inequality. The Sally Henry Memorial Trust. London: Southwark Institute.

1984. Evaluative reactions to Panjabi/English code-switching. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 5:447-73. [jointly with Urmi Chana].

1984. Relative clauses in child language, pidgins and creoles. Australian Journal of Linguistics 4:257-81. [Reprinted in Papers in Pidgin and Creole Linguistics No. 4. Pacific Linguistics A-72:1-23. Canberra: Australian National University. 1985].

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1985. Grammar and style in children's narratives. Linguistics 23:83-104.

1985. The sociolinguistic history of t/d deletion. Folia Linguistica Historica 2:25-59.

1985. Variable rules, O.K.? Or can there be sociolinguistic grammars? Language and Communication 5:53-67.

1985. Some questions for the definition of 'style' in socio-historical linguistics. In Romaine, S. and Traugott, E.C. eds. Papers from the Workshop on Socio-historical Linguistics. Folia Linguistica Historica VI:7-39 [jointly with Elizabeth Closs Traugott].

1985. Variability in word formation patterns and productivity in the history of English. In Fisiak, Jacek ed. Current Issues in Linguistic Theory Vol. 34. Papers from the 6th International Conference on Historical Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins pp. 451-67.

1985. The problem of short /a/ in Scotland. English World Wide 6:165-97.

1985. Why the problem of language acquisition should not be explained logically. Studies in Language 9:255-70.

1985. Syntactic variation and the acquisition of strategies of relativization in the language of Edinburgh schoolchildren. In Jacobson, Sven ed. Papers from the Third Scandinavian Symposium on Syntactic Variation. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. pp. 19-33.

1986. Semilingualism: A half-baked theory of communicative competence. Applied Linguistics 7:26-38. [jointly with Marilyn Martin-Jones]. [Reprinted in Wande, Erling et al. eds. 1987. Aspects of Multilingualism. Uppsala: University of Uppsala Press. pp. 87-105]. [Reprinted in Unit 13 Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. Part of EH207 Education: a second level course. Block 4 The development of communication. Milton Keynes: The Open University. pp. 35-44. 1987].

1986. The effects of language standardization on deletion rules:some comparative Germanic evidence from t/d deletion. In Kastovsky, Dieter and Szwedek, A eds. Linguistics across Historical and Geographical Boundaries. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 605-20.

1986. Sprachmischung und Purismus:Sprich mir nicht von Mischmasch. Lili 62: Sprachverfall? 92-107.

1986. The syntax and semantics of the code-mixed compound verb in Panjabi/English bilingual discourse. In Tannen, Deborah and Alatis, James E. eds. Languages and Linguistics: The Interdependence of Theory, Data, and Application. Washington,D.C.: Georgetown University Press. pp. 35-50.

1987. Short forms in Tok Pisin. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 2(1):63-7. [jointly with Fiona Wright].

1988. On the basicness of certain types of passives: Some evidence from child acquisition. In Duncan-Rose, C., Fisiak, J. and Vennemann, T. eds. On Language:Rhetorica, Phonologica, Syntactica. London: Croom Helm. pp. 405-15.

1988. Contributions from pidgin and creole studies to a sociolinguistic theory of language change. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 71:59-66.

1988. Historical Sociolinguistics:Problems and Methodology. In Mattheier, Klaus J. ed. Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1452-69.

1988. Some differences between spoken and written Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea. English World Wide 9:243-69.

1988. Contributions from sociolinguistics to historical linguistics. In Joly, André ed. La Linguistique génétique: Histoire et théories. Lille:Presses Universitaires de Lille III. pp. 343-368.

1989. Pidgins, creoles, immigrant and dying languages. In Dorian, Nancy C. ed. Investigating Obsolescence: Studies in Language Contraction and Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 369-83.

1989. Tok Pisin and English in Papua New Guinea. In Watson-Gegeo, Karen ed. World Englishes (Special Issue on the South Pacific) 64:1-19.

1989. The role of children in linguistic change. In Breivik, Leiv-Egil and Jahr, Ernst Håkon eds. Language Change. Contributions to the Study of Its Causes. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 199-227.

1989. Lexical change and variation in Tok Pisin. In Walsh, Thomas ed. Synchronic and Diachronic Approaches to Linguistic Variation and Change. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. pp. 268-80.

1989. Language varieties. In Barnouw, E. ed. International Encyclopedia of Communications. Vol. 2. Philadelphia and New York: The Annenberg School of Communications and Oxford University Press. pp. 399-403.

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1990. Pidgin English Advertizing. In Michaels, Leonard and Ricks, Christopher eds. The State of the Language. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 195-204. Reprinted in Nikolas Coupland and Adam Jaworski eds. Sociolinguistics. A Reader and Coursebook. London: Routledge. pp. 353-61. Reprinted in Dallin Oaks ed. 1997. Language at Work. Applied Linguistics Reader. New York: Harcourt Brace.

1990. Variability and anglicization in the distinction between p/f in young children's Tok Pisin. In Edmondson, J., Feagin, C. and Mühlhäusler, P. eds. Development and Diversity: Language Variation Across Time and Space. Dallas,TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas. pp. 173-85.

1990. Substratum, stabilization and grammaticalization in Melanesian Pidgin. Pacific Studies 14:79-85.

1990. Change and variation in the use of bai in young children's creolized Tok Pisin in Morobe Province. In Verhaar, John ed. Melanesian Pidgin and Tok Pisin. Studies in Language Companion Series Vol. 20. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 187-203.

1990. Socio-historical linguistics. In Bright, William ed. Oxford International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. Vol. 4. pp. 20-22.

1990. Typological contrasts between pidgin and creole languages in relation to their European language superstrates. Bernini, G., Buridant, C. and Bechert, J. eds. Toward a Typology of European Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 9-25.

1990. Tok Pisin i go we? Standardization and fragmentation in Tok Pisin. Lili 79:72-88.

1991. The Pacific. In Cheshire, Jenny ed. English Around the World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 619-36.

1991. Last tango in Paris. Language and Communication 12:83-4.

1991. The status of Tok Pisin in Papua New Guinea: The colonial predicament. In Ammon, Ulrich and Hellinger, Marlis eds. Status Change of Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 229-253.

1991. The use of LIKE as a marker of reported speech and thought: a case of grammaticalization in progress. American Speech 66:227-79. [jointly with Deborah Lange].

1991. Introduction. In Romaine, Suzanne ed. Language in Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-24.

1992. English:from village to global village. In Machan, Tim W. and Scott, Charles T. eds. English in its Social Contexts. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 192-7.

1992. The inclusive/exclusive distinction in Tok Pisin. Language and Linguistics in Melanesia 23:1-11.

1992. The evolution of complexity in a creole language. The acquisition of relative clauses in Tok Pisin. Studies in Language 16:139-182.

1992. Variability in Tok Pisin phonology: Did you say 'pig' or 'fig'? In Rissanen, Matti, Ihalainen, Ossi, Nevalainen, Terttu and Taavitsainen, Irma eds. History of Englishes. New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 647-668.

1992. Associate editor and Author. Oxford Companion to the English Language. Tom McArthur, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Contribution consists of: 3 major articles, 17 articles, 25 minor articles, and 11 minor entries].

1992. Literacy as cargo in Papua New Guinea. In Engler, B. ed. Writing & Culture. Tübingen:Gunter Narr Verlag. pp. 13- 31.

1992. The evolution of linguistic complexity in pidgin and creole languages. In Hawkins, John and Gell-Mann, Murray eds. The Evolution of Human Languages. Volume 10. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Company. pp. 213-238.

1993. The decline of predicate marking in Tok Pisin. In Byrne, Frank and Holm, John eds. The Atlantic Meets the Pacific:A Global View of Pidginization and Creolization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 251-260.

1994. On the creation and expansion of registers: sports reporting in Tok Pisin. In Biber, Douglas and Finegan, Edward eds. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 59-81.

1994. Germanic-based creoles. In König, Ekkehard and van der Auwera, Johan eds. The Germanic Languages. Chapter 18. London: Croom Helm. pp. 568-605.

1994. Hau fo rait pijin: Writing in Hawai'i Creole English. English Today. The International Review of the English Language 38:20-25.

1994. Language standardization and linguistic fragmentation in Tok Pisin. In Morgan, Marcyliena ed. Language and the Social Construction of Reality in Creole Situations. Los Angeles: Center for African American Studies, UCLA. pp. 19-41.

1994. Dialectology. In Asher, R.E. et al. eds. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 12 volumes. Oxford: Pergamon Press. pp. 900-907.

1994. Sociolinguistics. In Asher, R.E. et al. eds. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 12 volumes. Oxford: Pergamon Press. pp. 4005-4014. Revised and reprinted in Mesthrie, Raj ed. 2002. Encyclopedia of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 310-319.

1994. Empiricism. In Asher, R.E. et al. eds. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. 12 volumes. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Vol. 3. pp. 1111-1114.

1994. From the fish's point of view. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 110:177-185.

1994. Hawai'i Creole English as a literary language. Language in Society 23:527-554.

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1995. "Lice he no good". On [r] and [l] in Tok Pisin. In Abraham, Werner, Givón, Talmy and Thompson, Sandra eds. Discourse Grammar and Typology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 309- 18.

1995. Birds of a different feather: Tok Pisin and Hawai'i Creole English as literary languages. The Contemporary Pacific. A Journal of Island Affairs 7:81-123.

1995. The grammaticalization of irrealis in Tok Pisin. In Bybee, Joan and Fleischman, Suzanne eds. Modality in Grammar and Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 1-39.

1995. Sociolinguistics. In Blommaert, Jan, Östman, Jan-Ola and Verscheuren, Jef eds. Handbook of Pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 489-95.

1996. Internal vs. external factors in socio-historical explanations of change: a fruitless dichotomy? In Ahlers, Jocelyn, Bilmes, Leele, Guenter, Joshua S., Kaiser, Barbara A. and Namkung, Ju eds. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society. General Session and Parasession on Historical Issues in Sociolinguistics/Social Issues in Historical Linguistics. Department of Linguistics. University of California, Berkeley. pp. 478-91.

1996. Aspects of Bilingualism. In Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. eds. Handbook of Language Acquisition. New York: Academic Press. Chapter 17. pp. 571-604.

1996. Pidgins and Creoles as literary languages: Ausbau and Abstand. In Hellinger, Marlis and Ammon, Ulrich eds. Contrastive Sociolinguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 271-89.

1996. Clothes make the man, but language makes the woman. In Elmevik, Lennart, Melander, Björn and Thelander, Mats eds. Samspel & Variation. University of Uppsala. Institutionen för nordiska språk. pp. 393-403.

1996. "Usi mix karde rene a": Language mixing and maintenance in the Panjabi-speaking community in Britain. In Tatla, Darshan S. ed. Bartania Vich Panjabi Bhasa. [Panjabi Language in Britain]. Patiala: Panjabi University Press. pp. 211-230. [in Panjabi].

1997. The British heresy in ESL revisited. In Eliasson, Stig and Jahr, Ernst Håkon eds. Language and its Ecology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 417-32.

1997. War and Peace in the Global Greenhouse:Metaphors We Die By. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 11:175-194.

1997. Grammar, gender and the space in between. In Kotthoff, Helga and Wodak, Ruth eds. Communicating Gender in Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 51-76.

1997. A tale of two languages and their images: attitudes to Hawai'i Creole English. In Matthey, Marinette ed. Les Langues et Leurs Images. Neuchâtel: Institut romand de Recherches et de Documentation Pédagogiques. pp. 24-35.

1997. Competing forms of adjective comparison in modern English: What could be more quicker and easier and more effective? In Nevalainen, Terttu and Kahlas-Tarkka, Leena eds. To Explain the Present: Studies in the Changing English Language. pp. 329-52. Helsinki: Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki. [jointly with Merja Kytö].

1997. World Englishes:Standards and the New World Order. In Smith, Larry, Forman, Michael and Moore, Cornelia eds. World Englishes 2000. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

1997. Sociolinguistics. In Barfield, Thomas ed. Dictionary of Anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 440-441.

1998. Why women are supposed to talk like ladies: the glamour of grammar. In Warner, Natasha, Ahlers, Jocelyn, Bilmes, Leela, Oliver, Monica, Wertheim, Suzanne and Chen, Melinda eds. Gender and Belief Systems. Berkeley, Ca: Berkeley Women and Language Group. pp. 633-645.

1998. Introduction. In Romaine, S. ed. Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. 4. 1776 to 1997. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1-56.

1998. Language Contact in Relation to Multilingualism, Norms, Status and Standardization. Røyneland, Unn ed. Language Contact and Language Conflict. Volda: Volda College. pp. 9- 25.

1999. The grammaticalization of the proximative in Tok Pisin. Language 75:96-120.

1999. Bilingual language development. In Barrett, Martyn ed. The Development of Language. Chapter 10. London: University College London Press. pp. 251-276. Reprinted in Trott, K., Dobbinson, S. and Griffiths, P. eds. The Child Language Reader. London & New York: Routledge. pp. 287-303.

1999. Early Bilingual Development: From Elite to Folk. In Extra, Guus and Verhoeven, Ludo eds. Language Change in Migration Contexts. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 61-75.

1999. Changing Attitudes towards Hawai'i Creole English: Fo' get one good job, you gotta know ho fo' talk like one haole. In Rickford, John and Romaine, Suzanne eds. Creole Genesis, Attitudes and Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 287- 301.

1999. Preface, and Charlene Junko Sato Biography and Bibliography. In Rickford, John and Romaine, Suzanne eds. Creole Genesis, Attitudes and Discourse. Amsterdam:John Benjamins. pp. 3-10; 11-15. [jointly with John Rickford].

1999. Women, land and language: Shifting metaphors and shifting languages. In Wertheim, Suzanne, Bailey, Ashlee C. and Corston-Oliver, Monica eds. Engendering Communication. Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Women and Language Conference. Berkeley Women and Language Group. Berkeley, California. pp. 473-486.

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2000. Multilingualism. In Aronoff, Mark and Rees-Miller, Janie eds. The Handbook of Linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 513-533.

2000. Adjective comparison and standardization processes in American and British English from 1620 to the present. In Wright, Laura ed. The Development of Standard English, 1300-1800. Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [jointly with Merja Kytö]. pp. 171-195.

2000. Multilingualism, conflict, and the politics of indigenous language movements. In Rodriguez-Yáñez, Xoán Paolo, Lorenzo Suarez, A.M. and Cabeza Pereiro, M.C. eds. Bilingualism. Special Issue of Estudios de Sociolinguïstica. University of Vigo Press. pp. 13-27.

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2001. Makbed blong Willum Sekspia:"Förvildad engelska"? In Ljung, Magnus ed. Language Structure and Variation. Stockholm Studies of English. pp. 155-166.

2001. Choosing a voice. Cothrom (For Learners, Supporters & Speakers of Scots Gaelic) 27:23-25. [jointly with Daniel Nettle].

2001. The Last Survivors. Cultural Survival Quarterly. Summer Issue. Vol. 25(2):44-47. Endangered Languages. Endangered Lives. edited by Eileen Moore Quinn. [jointly with Daniel Nettle]. Download a copy of this article.

2001. A corpus-based view of gender in British and American English. In Hellinger, Marlis and Bussmann, Hadumod eds. Gender Across Languages. The de/construction of gender roles through language variation and change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 113-135.

2001. Contact between English and other languages. In Algeo, John ed. Cambridge History of the English Language. Volume VI. English in North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 154-183.

2001. Consecuencias de la investigación sobre las primeras etapas del desarrollo del bilingüismo en la política sobre educación bilingüe. Revista de Educación 326:13-24.

2001. Tok Pisin. In Garry, Jane & Rubino, Carl eds. Facts about the World's Major Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and present.. New York: The H.W. Wilson Company. Chapter 169. pp. 752-756.

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2002. Da Jesus Book. A new standard for Hawai'i Creole English? The Carrier Pidgin 29/1-3:4-5;26-28.

2002. Language and social class. In Smelser, Neil J. and Baltes, Paul B. eds. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Oxford: Pergamon. pp. 8308-8312.

2002. Can stable diglossia help to preserve endangered languages? International Journal of the Sociology of Language 157:135-40. Focus on Diglossia.

2002. Signs of identity, signs of discord: Glottal goofs and the green grocer's glottal in debates on Hawaiian orthography. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 12(2):189-225. This article is web-enhanced. Additional materials related to this article are available at the JLA website under this link.

2002. The impact of language policy on endangered languages. MOST Journal on Multicultural Societies 4(2):1-28. Special Issue on Sociolinguistic Perspectives: Endangered minority languages and efforts for survival. Eda Derhemi. Guest editor. Available on-line.

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2003. Variation in language and gender. In Holmes, Janet and Meyerhoff, Miriam eds. The Handbook of Language and Gender. Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 4. pp. 98-119.

2003. Variation. In Doughty, Catherine J. and Long, Michael H. eds. The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 14. pp. 409-35.

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2004. The bilingual and multilingual community. In Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. eds. The Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 15. pp. 385-406.

2004. Contested visions of history in Aotearoa New Zealand: Witi Ihimaera's The Matriarch. The Contemporary Pacific. A Journal of Island Affairs 16(1):31-57.

2004. The English input to the English-lexicon pidgins and creoles of the Pacific. In Hickey, Raymond ed. Legacies of colonial English. Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 18. pp. 456-499.

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2005. Orthographic practices in the standardization of pidgins and creoles: Pidgin in Hawai'i as anti-language and anti-standard. Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 20(1):101-140.

2005. "We had like to have been killed by thunder & lightning": the semantic and pragmatic history of a construction that like to disappeared. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 6(1):1-35. [jointly with Merja Kytö].

2005. Contributions. In Strazny, Philipp ed. Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Fitzroy Dearborn. (Hawaiian Creole English, Austronesian, The Pacific, The Caribbean, New Guinea, and Pitcairnese).

2005. Change in productivity. In Booij, Geert, Lehmann, Christian, and Mugdan, Joachim eds. Morphology. A Handbook on Inflection and Word Formation. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter. pp. 1636-1644.

2005. Language contact studies. In Ammon, Ulrich, Dittmar, Norbert, Mattheier, Klaus J., and Trudgill, Peter, eds. Sociolinguistics-Soziolinguistik. An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 49-58.

2005. Language and gender. In Sujoldzic, Anita ed. Linguistic Anthropology. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). Developed under the auspices of UNESCO. Oxford:Eolss Publishers. URL:

2005. Loanwords in pidgins and creoles with special respect to the English lexicon creoles in the Pacific. Aspects of foreign words/Loanwords in the World's Languages. The Multi-faceted nature of language policies that aim to standardize and revive language. Tokyo:The National Institute for Japanese Language. pp. 78-87.

2005. English loanwords in Tok Pisin. Aspects of foreign words/Loanwords in the World's Languages. The Multi-faceted nature of language policies that aim to standardize and revive language. Tokyo:The National Institute for Japanese Language. Pp. 230-242.

2005. Structural aspects and consequences of borrowing in Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). Aspects of foreign words/Loanwords in the World's Languages. The Multi-faceted nature of language policies that aim to standardize and revive language. Tokyo:The National Institute for Japanese Language. pp. 297-309.

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2006. Language policy in multilingual educational contexts. In Brown, Keith ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 2nd ed. Volume 6. pp. 584-596.

2006. Hawaiian Creole English. In Brown, Keith ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 2nd ed. Volume 4. pp. 227-228.

2006. Pidgins and creoles. In Brown, Keith ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 2nd ed. Volume 9. pp. 600-607.

2006. Reversing language shift. In Brown, Keith ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 2nd ed. Volume 10. pp. 567-570.

2006. Tok Pisin. In Brown, Keith ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 2nd ed. Volume 12. pp. 737-739.

2006. Global English: from island tongue to world language. In Los, Bettelou L.J. and van Kemenade, Ans eds. Handbook of the History of English. Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 23. pp. 589-608.

2006. Exploring variation in adjective comparison in 19th-century English: 'the very most delighfullest tour'. In Kytö, Merja, Rydén, Mats and Smitterberg, Erik eds. Nineteenth-century English: stability and change.. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. pp. 260-289. [jointly with Merja Kytö].

2006. Planning for the survival of linguistic diversity. Language Policy 5(2):443-475.

2006. Vanishing voices. The plight of the Celtic languages in global context. In Lloyd Jones, Mary First Language. Llandysul:Gomer Press with the National Library of Wales. pp. 103-112. [jointly with Daniel Nettle].

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2007. Preserving endangered languages. Blackwells Language and Linguistic Compass 1/1-2:115-132. Available on-line.

2007. The impact of language policy on endangered languages. In Koenig, Matthias and De Guchteneire, Paul eds. Democracy and Human Rights in Multicultural Societies. Aldershot:Ashgate/UNESCO. Chapter 10. pp. 217-236.

2007. Linguistic diversity and language standardization. In Hellinger, Marlis and Pauwels, Anne eds. Language and Communication: Diversity and Change. Handbooks of Applied Linguistics. Volume 9. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Chapter 22. pp. 685-715.

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2008. The Irish language in a global context. In Nic Pháidín, Caoilfhionn and Ó Cearnaigh, Seán eds. A New View of the Irish Language. Dublin: Cois Life. pp. 11-25.

2008. Linguistic diversity, sustainability, and the future of the past. In King, Kendall, Schilling-Estes, Natalie, Fogle, Lyn, Lou, Jackie and Soukup, Barbara eds. Sustaining linguistic diversity. Endangered and minority languages and varieties. Washington,DC:Georgetown University Press. pp. 7-21.

2008. Language rights, human development and linguistic diversity in a globalizing world. In Van Sterkenburg, Piet ed. Unity and diversity of languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 85-96.

2008. Biodiversity, linguistic diversity, and poverty – some global patterns and missing links. In Harbert, Wayne, McConnell-Ginet, Sally, Miller, Amanda L. and Whitman, John eds. Language and Poverty. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. pp. 127-146.

2008. Corpus linguistics and sociolinguistics. Article 8. In Lüdeling, Anke and Kytö, Merja eds. Corpus linguistics. An international handbook. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 96-111.

2008. ‘My dearest Minnykins’: Style, gender and affect in 19th century letters. In Watson, Greg ed. The state of stylistics. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 229-263. [jointly with Merja Kytö]

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2009. Linguistic diversity and poverty. In Cook, Vivian and Wei, Li eds. Contemporary Applied Linguistics. Vol. II: Linguistics for the Real World. London:Continuum. pp. 46-64.

2009. Language, culture and identity issues across nations. In Banks, James ed. Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. London: Routledge. Chapter 27. pp. 373-384.

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2010. Extinction of language. In Hogan, Patrick C. ed. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2010. Language contact in the USA. In Potowski, Kim ed. Language diversity in the USA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2. pp. 25-46.

2010. Language contact and death. In Hickey, Raymond ed. Handbook of Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 16. pp. 320-339.

2010. 19th century key words, key semantic domains and affect: "In the rich vocabulary of Love 'Most dearest' be a true superlative." Studia Neophilologica 82:12-48.

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2011. Identity and multilingualism. In Potowski, Kim and Rothman, Jason eds. Bilingual youth: Spanish in English-speaking societies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Chapter 1. pp. 7-30.

2011. Language ecology and language death. In Miola, Emmanuele and Ramat, Paolo eds. Language contact and language decay. Socio-political and linguistic perspectives. Pavia: Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori di Pavia. pp. 213-225.

2011. Revitalized languages as invented languages. In Adams, Michael ed. From Elvish to Klingon: Exploring invented languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 185-227.

2011. Policy and planning for protecting linguistic diversity. In Migliore, Tiziana and Fabbri, Paolo eds. The architectures of Babel. Creation, extinctions and intercessions in the languages of the global world. Firenze: Leo S. Olschki. pp. 57-71.

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2012. Co-occurrence of linguistic and biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots and high biodiversity wilderness areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(21):8032-8037. [jointly with Larry J. Gorenflo, Russell A. Mittermeier, Kristen Walker-Painemilla]. Plus Supporting information. pp. 1-6.

2012. Plurilingualism and national languages: Centripetal forces and centrifugal forces. In Telmon, Tullio, Raimondi, Gianmario and Revelli, Luisa eds. Coesistenze linguistiche nell'Italia pre- e postunitaria. Atti del XLV Congresso internazionale di studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana. Roma: Bulzoni. pp. 73-84.

2012. The bilingual and multilingual community. In Bhatia, Tej K. and Ritchie, William C. eds. The Handbook of Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell. Chapter 18. pp. 445-465.

2012. English in Contact: Pidgins and creoles. In Bergs, Alexander and Brinton, Laurel eds. Historical Linguistics of English. Vol. I. Chapter 113. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1767-1781.

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2013. Language endangerment. In Chapelle, C.A. ed. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 1-7.

2013. Linguistic and ecological diversity. In Bayley, Robert, Cameron, Richard and Lucas, Ceil eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1115-1141.

2013. ‘It snuck in so smooth and slippery we didn't even hear it’: How snuck snuck up on sneaked. Anglistica 15(1-2):127-145.

2013. Keeping the promise of the Millennium Development Goals: Why language matters. Applied Linguistics Review 4(1):1-21.

2013. Politics and policies of multilingualism in the European Union. Language Policy 12:115-137.

2013. Language ecology and language death. In Binder, Philippe M. and Smith, Kenny eds. The language phenomenon. Human communication from milliseconds to millennia. New York: Springer Verlag. Chapter 10. pp. 217-234.

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2014. Identity, migration and language. In Di Salvo, Margherita, Moreno, Paola and Sornicola, Rosanna eds. Multilinguismo in contesto migratorio. Metodologie e progetti di recerca sulle dinamiche linguistiche degli Italiani all'estero. Rome: Aracne editrice. pp. 15-57.

2015. The global extinction of languages and its consequences for cultural diversity. In Marten, Heiko F., Riessler, Michael, Saarikivi, Janne and Toivanen, Reetta, eds. Cultural and Linguistic Minorities in the Russian Federation and the European Union. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. pp. 31-46.

2015. Language and social class. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences.2nd. ed. Oxford: Elsevier. Vol. 13. pp. 31-46.

2016. The variationist approach. In Kytö, Merja and Pahta, Päivi eds. The Cambridge handbook of English historical linguistics. Chapter 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 19-36.

2016. Linguistic diversity and global English: The pushmi-pullyu of language policy and political economy. In Ricento, Thomas ed. Language policy and political economy: English in a global context. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 11. pp. 252-275

2016. Language and sustainable development: Integrating the economics of language policy with poverty reduction and biodiversity conservation. In Wickström, Bengt-Arne and Gazzola, Michele eds. The economics of language policy. Cambridge,MA: MIT Press. pp. 403-431.

2017. Linguistic diversity of natural UNESCO world heritage sites: Bridging the gap between nature and culture. Biodiversity and Conservation 26(8):1973-1988. [jointly with L.J. Gorenflo]. Available on-line.

2017. Social conditioning. In Ledgeway, Adam and Roberts, Ian eds. The Cambridge handbook of historical syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 28. pp. 534-556.

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last update June 2017