Further Information

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Transfer of Technology for Development (TOOL)
Sparphatistraat 650
1018 AV Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG)
Myson House, Railway Terr, Rugby,
Teaching Aids at Low Cost (TALC)
PO Box 49 St Albans, Hertfordshire
Worldview International Foundation
10 Kinross Ave, Colombo 4.
Sri Lanka

or Skippergt 21, 0154 Oslo
Clearinghouse on Development Communications
1815 North Fort Myer Drive, Suite 600,
Arlington, VA 22209 USA
United Nations Development Programme's Asia and Pacific Programme for Development Training and Communication Planning (DCTP/UNDP)
5th Floor, Bonifacio Building
University of Life Campus
Meralco Avenue Pasig
Metro Manila. Philippines
76 Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Rd
Calcutta, 700 016 India
Centre for Development of Instructional Technology (CENDIT)
D1 Soami Nagar
New Delhi, 110 017 India
Educational Materials Unit
Program for International Training
in Health (INTRAH)
208 N. Columbia St, Chapel Hill,
N.C. 27514 U.S.A.

World Neighbors
5116 North Portland Avenue,
Oklahoma 73112 U.S.A.
Hesperian Foundation
P.O Box 1692
Palo Alto California 94302 U.S.A.
Health Images
Holly Tree Farm, Walpole Lane
Walpole, Halesworth, Suffolk UK
90 Road 7a Dhanmondi, Dhaka, 1209. Bangladesh
Panos Insitute
9 White Lion Street, London N1 9PD. UK.
785 Bobo Dioulasso. Bukino Fasso
The International Women's Tribune Center (IWTC)
777 United Nations Plaza, New York, New York 10017 U.S.A.


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Visual Communication Handbook.
Teaching and learning using simple visual methods. By Denys J Saunders
Lutherworth Educational, Guildford and London 1979

Teaching and Learning with Visual Aids
A resource manual for community health workers, health trainers and family planning workers in Africa and the Middle East.
Kathryn A. Fetter, Mari H. Clark, Catherine J. Murphy and Jo Ella Walters. Macmillan Publishers and INTRAH, London 1987

Communication Skills for Rural Development
Ian MacDonald and David Hearle
Evans Brothers Ltd, London 1984

Radio Learning Group Manual
How to run a radio learning group campaign
David Crowley, Alan Etherington, Ross Kidd, Illustrated by Petra Hubbard.
Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn 1981

Producing Teaching Materials
A handbook for teachers and trainers
Henry Ellington
Kogan Page Ltd, London 1986

Audio-Visual Handbook
a complete guide to the world of audio-visual techniques. By Alan McPherson and Howard Timms. Pelham Books, London 1988

The Overhead Projector
Judith Wilkinson
British Council, London 1979

An Introductory Course in Teaching and Training Methods for Management Development.
International Labour Organisation, Geneva 1986

Audiovisual Communication Handbook
Dennis W Pett and the Audio-Visual Center, Indiana University, World Neighbors, Oklahoma U.S.A

Teaching for Better Learning
a guide for teachers of primary health care staff
F R Abbatt
World Health Organisation, Geneva 1980

Instant Illustration
from UNICEF, Nepal
compiled by George McBean

The Copy Book
Copyright free illustrations for development
donated by the Association of Illustrators and other Artists. Introduced by Bob Linney and Bruce Wilson. Intermediate Technology Publications, London 1988

Low Cost Printing for Development
Jonathan Zeitlyn
Intermediate Technology Publications and University Press Ltd. London and Dhaka 1989

Effective Publicity and Design
A do-it-yourself guide to getting your message across. By Jonathan Zeitlyn
Inter-Change Books, London 1987

Kathy Bond-Stewart, Illustrated by Chris Hodzi
Foundation for Education with Production/ Mambo Press, Zimbabwe 1986.

Helping Health Workers Learn
A book of methods, aids, and ideas for instructors at the village level.
David Werner and Bill Bower
Hesperian Foundation, Palo Alto, U.S.A 1982

Educational Technology in Curriculum Development. By Derek Rowntree
Harper & Row. London, 1978

Illustration for Development
George McBean, Norbert Kaggwa and John Bugembe. Afrolit, Nairobi 1980

Training and Teaching, Learn How To Do It.
Will Bekkering
TOOL Amsterdam 1992


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A sizes: See paper sizes
Alignment: Lining up words on a margin. See Ranged.
Aims: What you are trying to achieve in the training. See Objectives.
Appropriate: Things or methods of working that meet the particular needs of the situation and people.
Artwork: the original that is to be copied and printed. Also referred to as camera-ready artwork, the mechanical (in the USA) and the paste-up.

Bleed: To have printing done right to the edge of the paper requires the image to be printed 1/4 inch over the edge which is then trimmed off.
Bold: A thicker letter style.

Camera ready artwork: Artwork that is ready for the camera and to be printed. It implies that everything is laid out as it is to be printed.
Cartoon: A simple style of drawing and related conventions used in comics and strip stories.
Chalkboard: A board with dark paint on which it is possible to draw with chalk. Also a blackboard but some are painted green!
Charts: Several graphic conventions are described as charts. They present processes and relationships graphically. Chart is also used for large poster type materials of any sort and for maps.
Cloth board: A cloth covered board used as a visual aid. On it are placed pictures and words or symbols. Also known as a flannel board or flannelgraph.
Comic: A cartoon book of humorous drawings or stories.
Copy:(1) In newspapers the text is known as `copy'.
  (2) To reproduce by photocopier.

Delete: To remove letters or other images. The proof reading symbol is:

Design: To work out or plan the shape or scope of a product or activity. See Graphic design.
Diagrams: A graphic convention which shows  processes or how things work. Technical diagrams are commonly used to show how to make things work.
Digital: Computer systems break down information into binary digits, and can then process and transform them, so reproducing them exactly as needed.

Education: Learning that gives a broad understanding and general skills for children and adults.
Electrostatic: Method used in photocopiers to make copies.

Fax/facsimile: A copy that is transmitted electronically via the telephone. High quality ones are used so that newspapers can be produced at several printing plants at the same time.
Finish: To bind, trim or fold print.
Folk media: Traditional media or forms of performance, singing and story telling which are particular to a culture.
Flip chart: A poster designed as a visual aid and presented with others on a board. They are held in order so that they can be flipped over when they have been used.
Flip book: The same as a flip chart but smaller and bound so that the card covers enable it to be used without a stand. 
Flow chart: A graphic convention designed to show the flow of an activity or process using lines and boxes.
For example:
  process		decision

G/m2 or Gsm: Unit for measuring the thickness or weight of paper.
Grid: The `bones' of a design, marking the margins and columns. Particularly useful in magazine page design.
Graphic: Anything that is visual, as in `graphic design'. Also used for something very striking and vivid. Used sometimes to describe illustrations or images that are not type, which is confusing.
Graphic convention: A style or set of codes that are used to visually show particular sorts of information.
Graphs: A graphic convention to show numerical information on a chart or grid of lines. Each point represents a different value and category.

Halftone: A way of printing continuous tones of photos and drawings by a pattern of dots.
Images: Pictures, symbols, lettering, photographs and graphics of all sorts that are produced and processed.
Impose: To arrange the pages on a printed sheet so that when it is folded, bound and trimmed, the pages will be in the right order.Information technology: The overall term for electronic  media, especially computers and telecommunications. 

Justify: To make each edge of a column of type, straight. Unjustified is when only the left hand margin is straight. See Ranged or Flushed. 

Line: An image that is only black and white, as opposed to a tone or a half-tone image.
Logo: An arrangement and design of a name or symbol to form the visual identity of an organisation.

Materials: Anything that can be used to help the teaching or training process. In particular those written and designed trainers guides, visual aids, exercise sheets and handouts and even broadcast radio and TV are particular training `materials'.
Media: A form of communication or technology is known as media. It is also used to mean the broadcasting and publishing industries who are often known as the `media'. Medium - singular, media - plural.

Objective: In training it is useful to work out in detail what you expect the students to be able to do once they have been through the training. These are objectives. It is also useful to clearly explain them so that the training can be reviewed to see how effective it is at fulfilling these objectives. See Aims.
Offset: Short for offset litho printing. The image is offset onto a rubber roller, the blanket from the plate. This inked image is then pressed on to the paper.
OHP: Overhead Projectors are often known as OHPs. They are useful projectors which can project from hand drawn or photocopied transparencies. They are used by the trainer facing the trainees while the projector puts an image over their head and over the blackboard on the wall.

Packages: A set of materials that together can assist the training course.
Paper sizes: The main ones in use today are the Standard International Metric sizes, the `A' sizes. 
A1 is 594 x 841, 
A2 is 420 x 594, 
A3 is 297 x 420 
A4 is 210 x 297 mm.
Pixel: In computer graphics an image is made up of small dots of light, or `pixels'. The smaller they are, the higher definition of the image.
Pictogram: An image that can be read, instead of words.
Programme: Software that tells the computer what to do.
Proof: An initial copy of typesetting and any printing, so that it can be checked for mistakes.

Ranged left/right: Setting text either with a straight edge on the left or right. See Flushed or Unjustified.
Ream: 500 sheets of paper.

Screen printing: Silk-screen printing or screen-process printing, using a stencil and a mesh to print with.
Sequence: A series of images that together make a point or put across the message.
Symbol: A visual image that conveys meaning not just because of its representative appearance but because of the meaning associated with it.

Testing: Trying out a design or image before it is mass produced to see how it works and if it supports the training in the way required.
Training: To organise learning for people to gain a particular skill or capability for a particular job or work. As opposed to education which is a broader process of understanding.
Trainers' guides: Manuals or handbooks that guide the trainer in running a training session.
Transparency: A photographic slide or positive colour film or an OHP positive. These produce an image by letting light through.
Typography: The art of printing and using type. Now the art of design and lay out of lettering.
Video: Television recorded on to tape. Often used on cassette. The most popular format of video tape is VHS. Video is now used for the television camera and recorders as well as for cassettes and television sets.
Visual aids: An image that the trainees see which helps  and clarifies for them the training.
Visualizing: To put ideas and information into some sort of visual form. Also imagining visually.

Web: A roll of paper which large printing presses can  print on, used for producing thousands of copies.
Wild Track: The sound recording taken for film or video without any images being shot.

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