TheRowing Service

  1. Water Safety - The Code
  2. Water Safety - Guidance Notes
  3. Regatta Safety Procedures
  4. Hypothermia
  5. Resuscitation
  6. Transportation



      1. Every Club, School, College and Regatta (hereafter referencewill only be made to Club) shall appoint a Safety Adviser whose dutyit will be to understand the notes and the requirements of the ARACode of Practice for Water Safety and advise on their prominentdisplay at all times, their observation and their implementation.
      1.1 Breaches of the code are to be identified andadvised in writing to the offender giving a period for corrections.

      2. There shall be prominently displayed in every Club andBoathouse, and Regatta secretary's office a list of vital telephonenumbers relating to safety in general.

      Fire, Police, Ambulance,list details of information to be given, viz: situation, access, details
      Local hospital casualty department
      Offshore or river rescue services
      Local river or harbour police
      RNLI (for coastal waters)
    Clear directions to the nearest alternative telephone point shall also bedisplayed.

      3. Safety and First Aid equipment shall be readily availablein every Club boathouse to include -

      First Aid Box (to be fully stocked, contents listed and replaced,as used, box contents to be checked monthly).
      Thermal/exposure blankets
      Life buoys and rescue lines/throw-bags
      Life jackets

      4. All clubs shall ensure that they carry and maintain adequatecomprehensive insurance to cover personal injury to members on and offthe water and personal injury and damage to property or third parties.There should be included in these policies adequate cover for theSafety Adviser.

      5. Visual aids on water safety, life saving and resuscitationprocedures as may be provided by the ARA or other organisations withthe approval of the ARA, are to be displayed prominently.

      6. Every Club providing rowing or sculling facilities shall draw upand display a plan of the local waterway, drawing attention to theapplicable navigation rules and any local interpretation requires toaccommodate particular hazards. Instructions shall be included on anyvariation in normal procedures necessary to combat tidal, stream, windor other climatic conditions which may arise locally.

      7. An accident log is to be maintained and be available forinspection at all times, giving time, place and nature of accident,injuries/damages sustained and names and addresses of witnesses. Allcases of accident involving injury shall be notified in writing to theRegional Council and copied to ARA Headquarters using the standardpro-formas available.

      8. Observance of these requirements is obligatory and the SafetyAdviser will monitor their observance and advise on breaches in writingto the club, college or school committee or officer responsible. Copiesshould be sent to the appropriate Regional Rowing Council and theparty(ies) concerned with the breach. Inspection of arrangements andfacilities will be made from time to time by appointees of the RegionalCouncil and/or Officers of the ARA, who will have the power torecommend in writing corrective measures or suspension of activitywherever and whenever appropriate.

      9. The following paragraphs relate to specific aspects of thesport which for convenience have been grouped under separate headingsfor ease of reference.


      10. For the safety of all concerned, rowing equipment should bemaintained in good order. Particular attention is to be paid to thefollowing:

      11. Every boat must at all times carry firmly attached to itsbows a white ball of not less than 4cm diameter made of rubber ormaterial of similar consistency. Where the construction or nature ofthe boat is such that the bow is properly protected or its shape doesnot present a hazard then this requirement need not apply.

      12. Heel restraints and "quick-release" mechanisms must be inproper and effective working order in all boats equipped with fittedshoes.

      13. For evening outings, rowing after sunset, boats shall befitted with lights as required by the "Rules for Mariners" published bythe Department of Transport.

      14. Check oars and sculls to ensure that "buttons" are secureand properly set.

      15. Buoyancy compartments, bow and stern canvasses, etc., must bechecked to ensure that they will function as intended.

    Oarsmen, Scullers & Coxswains

      16. All persons participating in rowing or sculling must be ingood health and and able to swim a minimum of 100m in light clothingand shoes.

      17. Physically challenged athletes participating in organisedrowing or sculling activities must be provided with suitable rescuefacilities to cope with any accident whilst afloat.

      18. All coxswains shall wear a life jacket (conforming toBS3595 standard)or a buoyancy aid of approved design at all times when on the water.Coxswains in "front-loader" positions must wear life jackets which allowthem easy escape from their position.


      19. A coach is not only concerned to coach his crews, he has aresponsibility for their safety at all times whilst they are in hischarge.

      20. A coach shall ensure that every member of the crews of which hehas charge is aware of the appropriate safety procedures at all times.

      21. Coaches shall ensure that the whole crew, including thecoxswain, are dressed suitably, adequately protected for the weatherconditions they are likely to encounter.

      22. Coaches and coaching launch drivers shall wear life jackets(conforming to BS3595 standard) or buoyancy aids when accompanyingcrews and at other times whilst afloat.

      23. All coaching launches and safety boats shall carry thefollowing safety aids:

      24. Any activity after dark involving coaching launches requiresthe launches to be fitted with lights as laid down in the InternationalPrevention of Collision Regulations or as prescribed by the appropriatenavigation authority.

    Regattas and Processional Races

      25. All Regattas shall appoint a Safety Adviser whose duty shallbe to advise on the observance of the ARA Code of Practice for WaterSafety.

      26. No regatta, processional race or sponsored row shall takeplace without full and prior consultation between the organisers,the river or harbour authority as is appropriate, the police, ambulanceservices, life saving and first aid organisations to ensure thatadequate safety measures are in force.

      27. All Regattas shall appoint a suitable qualified and equippedperson to be Medical Officer who shall be responsible for ensuring thatmedical support is accessible to the regatta.

      28. Safety boats suitable for the task of rescue manned bypersons trained in boat handling and rescue techniques, and properlyequipped, shall be available throughout the period of the regatta andduring practice. They should be sufficient in number and so placed thatrapid assistance and recovery can be provided wherever the need occurs.Numbers and location for craft should be discussed with the rescueservices beforehand.

      29. Officials and competitors shall be informed of local hazardsand traffic rules shall be displayed and brought to the notice ofcompetitors. Telephone numbers of police, ambulance, medical and fireservices shall be prominently displayed together with the location ofthe nearest telephone.

      30. Umpire's launches shall carry a life-buoy and line(throw-bag), thermal/exposure blanket and first aid equipment (listedand recorded as before).

      31. Umpires shall wear life jackets (conforming to BS3595standard) or buoyancy aids of approved design at all times whencarrying out duties on the water.

      32. Procedures to be followed in the case of accident oremergency shall be prepared and communicated to competitors andofficials in their instructions.

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      2.1 The role of Safety Advisers for clubs, schools and collegesand other centres of organised rowing and sculling will be to giveguidance on, and encourage understanding and compliance with, thefollowing -

      2.1.1 In addition to the specific requirements set out in theCode of Practice for Water Safety, those who organise rowing andsculling for others are responsible for ensuring the observance andunderstanding of the following requirements by all concerned. Equipment All equipment for rowing, sculling and coachingshall be properly maintained to ensure that it is safe for its intended purpose and does not expose the user to danger. Particular attention should be given to the following:
      i) As far as is practical, boats and equipment should be stored inwell lit premises in such a way as to minimise the possibilityof damage to persons or equipment on removal and return.
      ii) When any boat is placed on the water and before embarkation,it should be checked to ensure that it is in a safe conditionand that its moving parts are in working order, viz:

      a. Check for leaks.
      b. Check buoyancy compartments, sealsand ventilation bungs.
      c. Check outriggers, swivels, seatsand stretchers for security.
      d. Check that heel releasemechanisms are effective, i.e., quick release devices andheel restraints.
      e. Check rudder lines, steering mechanism,rudder and fin to ensure that everything is secure and ingood working order.
      f. Check oars and sculls for damage andensure that "buttons" are securely and properly set.
      iii)Heel Release Mechanism - Where boats are fitted with "shoes"an effective release mechanism must be in place to ensure thatthe heels are released immediately a strain is put upon themconsequent to accident or injury involving boat or person.Heel restraint cords/straps should be correctly adjusted andmembers instructed in the technique of release in the eventof a capsize.

    Laced Shoes - check that laces are adequateto hold foot firm but check also that shoes are not over tiedimmobilising and trapping the foot as a result. It is recommendedthat lace-ups are replaced by "velcro" straps.

    Velcro Shoes -check for wear in the Velcro strapping and replace regularly.

    (Initial instruction of rowers and scullers should be given in boats without fitted shoes. Clogs or stretcher boards are recommended for beginners).

    iv) Maintenance - to maintain equipment in a sound and usablecondition requires those organising rowing to establishprocedures whereby damage to equipment is notified to responsible officials without delay and the damage repaired before the equipment is used again. Damaged equipment should be marked or "quarantined" to ensure that it is not used by others unaware of the damage. Education - All participants in rowing and scullingshouldreceive proper instruction in watermanship and in rowing andsculling technique including capsize and accident drills from thequalified supervision of coaches or of experienced members sothat no person puts themself or others at risk when on the water.Junior members and novices should be given particular attention.

    The coaching of coxswains in watermanship and water safetyprocedures as set out in the ARA basic coaching award is essential.

    Every encouragement should be given to rowers, scullers and coaches to become fully conversant with life saving and resuscitation techniques through practice and by attendance at duly recognisedtraining courses such as those offered by the Voluntary AidOrganisations and the Royal Life Saving Society. It is stronglyrecommended that Safety Advisers receive formal training. Life saving and resuscitation skill training forms part ofthe ARA basic coaching courses in which all participants inthe sport should participate. Adverse weatherconditions - Rowing and sculling are by their nature outdooractivities and as such are subject to the vagaries of weatherin all its forms. It is important to recognise that contendingwith difficult weather conditions is part of the sportsattraction and it is not the intention of these guidancenotes to change this. However. safe enjoyment is the aim,not foolhardiness.
    i) It is recommended that the SafetyAdviser or senior member present appointed for the clubshall have and exercise the authority to advise thesuspension of boating activity should s/he believe theconditions unsafe for whatever reason.
    ii) The direction ofNational River or other relevant authorities with regardto the inherent dangers in the weather conditionsprevailing are to be observed at all times.
    iii) Whererough water conditions are likely to be encounteredduring outings, a bailer or sponge should be carriedwithin the boat.
    iv) After all outings, "bungs" orbuoyancy compartment traps should be removed to allowventilation. Such items must be kept with the boat. Night Rowing - Rowing or sculling after nightfall isdangerous and should not be encouraged. When it is necessarythen crews and scullers should be accompanied by a coach, onthe bank, or in anaccompanying launch . Craft must be properly illuminated asrequired by the relevant river authority, or theDepartment of Transport. Unescorted Outings - Everyeffort should be made by those organising rowing and sculling tomaintain a log of those boating from their premises unescortedor "out of hours". Such a record gives an indication of craft on thewater, intended lengthand direction of outing which may be of assistance in theevent of mishap. Community - Rowing and sculling activitiesshould be carried out at all times with an awareness by theparticipants of the rights of others who share the water.Every effort should be made. by regular meetings, toco-ordinate activities and so minimise clashes of interestsand the possibilities of accidents.

      2.2 Safety for the Individual

    All active rowers and scullers shall:

    i) Satisfy their MedicalOfficer that they are in good health and be able to demonstrate that they can swim a minimum distance of 100 metres in light clothing and shoes.

    ii) Comply with the ARA Code of Practice for water safety.

    iii) Acquaint themselves fully with and obey rules of navigation both local and statutory.

    iv) Maintain their rowing equipment in good order and check that it is in a safe condition before use.

    v) Ensure that beginners to the sport are not allowed to use equipment without adequate and prior instruction and are not allowed to boat unsupervised.

    vi) Be constantly aware of the rights of others to the freeuse of the water and extend to them at all times thecourtesy they would similarly wish to receive.

    It isrecommended that active members should learn and practicecapsize and accident drills. Every opportunity should betaken lo learn simple first aid, life saving andresuscitation techniques.

    Single scullers (apartfrom beginners on the water under supervision) areresponsible for their own safety and actions and mustobserve the requirements of the ARA Code of Practice forwater safety.

     2.3 The Responsibilities of the Steersmanor woman and the Coxswain

    All persons steering a boatare responsible for the crew in their charge. Coxswainsshould comply with the following:

      i) Every coxswain shall be able to swim and todemonstrate that ability when called upon by theSafety Officer

      ii) All coxswains shall wear a life jacket (conforming to BS3595standard) or buoyancy aid of approved design,when the water both in training and in competition. Wherecoxswains are located in the bows ofboats, care must be taken in the choice of life jacket to ensurethat the coxswain is not restricted when exitingfrom the boat.

      iii) All coxswains shall be able to satisfytheir Safety Adviser that they are in good health with adequatevision and sound hearing. No-one who is subject to epileptic fitsor blackouts shall steer a boat. In cases of doubt, medicaladvice should be obtained.

      iv) Dress suitable for the prevailingconditions must be worn. Particular care should be taken toensure warmth around the head, neck and lower back, wrists and anklesand the clothing should be water and windproof. Water resistantouter gloves are recommended but bulky and heavy clothing and"Wellington" type boots are to be avoided.

      v) Be aware of thedangers and symptoms of hypothermia. (See advisory notes onHypothermia).

      vi) Voice projection and radio communicationequipment, when carried in the boat must be securely fixedto the boat, not the coxswain. Similarly, in competition,deadweights when required must not be attached lo thecoxswain.

    Steering a boat, in training or in a race is a highly responsiblerole. very often entrusted to young and inexperiencedcoxswains or rowers with little or no experience ofsteering. The steersman is responsible for theactions of the boat being steered. Commands have to be given anddiscipline exerted. The following representsthe knowledge that the steersman/woman must develop.

    Steersmen or women must:

      i) Learn and use simple commands for boat control both on andoff the water. Use them correctly, clearly and instinctively.Understand the basic commands and signals of other river users.
      ii) Understand and carry out all safety procedures and regulations applicable to the water they use, especially those relating to right of way. power boats, sailing craft, etc.

      a) Understand and observe local navigation rules of the river or water.
      b) On unfamiliar water, become acquainted with localregulations and practices and of the existence, nature andlocation of particular hazards before going afloat.
      c) Be conversant with safely and rescue procedures in the case ofan accident.
      d) Recognise and respect the rights and needs of other water users, especially anglers.
      e) Watch out for swimmers at all times.
      f) Watch out for unexpected floating objects.
      g) Know and have practised capsize and man overboard drills
     2.4 The Responsibilities of the Coach

    A coach shall ensure that every member of the crews coached follows the appropriate safety procedures at all times, and the coach shall observe them to ensure the crews' safety. In particular, coaches should:

      a) Be aware of the local Code of Practice.
      b) Ensure that crews are using safe rowing equipment.
      c) Be aware of weather and water conditions and arrange the outingto avoid any danger.
      d) Watch out for any hazards the crews may meet. It is often easierfor the coach, who is higher above the water than the members ofthe crew, to see swimmers or similar hazards ahead. Draw theattention of the coxswain or steersman to such hazards andnot merely attempt to influence any steering decision thathas lo be made.
      e) Showing consideration for other water usersis very much the responsibility of the coach, both in regardto the coach ng launch and to the boats being coached.
      ii) Coaches of young children shall ensure that the whole crew,and not just the coxswain, are dressed suitably. Youngstersare unlikely to be able to generate a high level of body warmthduring their first outings and need more protection.

      iii) When crewsare rowing away from Their home water, the coach shall ascertainthe local code of practice and, at regattas, any special trafficrules to be observed, and ensure crews fully understand them.

     iv)Coaches should pay particular attention to the coaching ofcoxswains. Not only is a competent coxswain important to thecrew's success; competence is essential for their safety onthe water.

     v) Every coach should know capsize and accidentdrills and be prepared to assist or rescue any member who isin difficulties is injured, or appears to be suffering fromhypothermia or exhaustion. Every time the coach goes out in acoaching launch, check that it is fully equipped with safetyequipment and know how to use it.

     vi) When coaching from a launch, the coach and driver must wear life jackets or buoyancy aids of approved design.

      vii) Every coach shall learn life-saving and resuscitation procedures as set out in the ARA basic coachingaward.

      viii) Coaches of beginners and especially of crews ofyoung children have an extra responsibility. Those who are new to the sport are likely to concentrate on their own rowing to the exclusion of all else, and are Thus less likely to be aware of approaching danger. Coaches of school crews, when dealing with several crews of young novices on the water together must be especially concerned with their safety. It is very easy for the first crew that gets boated to get into difficulties whilst the coach is supervising further crews getting onto the water. Beginners, whether in crews or sculling boats, should never be allowed on the water unsupervised.

    2.5 Coaching Launches

    Coaching from a launch or inflatablecrafthas now become commonplace. The presence of a coachinglaunch gives far better safety protection to a crew thana coach on a bicycle, on the bank. but raises the need toensure competent driving, the safety of those on board thecoaching craft, and the effect upon other water users ofthe coaching craft's activities.

      i) Training Drivers - Totake out an engine-powered boat without previous tuitionis to put the driver, any passengers and other waterusers at risk. The Royal Yachting Association holdscourses in handling powered boats and issues certificates ofcompetence. It is strongly recommendedthat no-one should drive a launch without first havingtaken a course of instruction. At the very least the club shall ensure that an experienced driver goes outwith a new driver until he has shown that he is fullyin control of the launch. N.B. The manner in whichlaunches are manoeuvred and generally handled may create unnecessary problems for other water users. Excessive washes create impossible conditions for other waterusers and can cause accidents to smaller boats.Thoughtless driving often causes damage to moored boatsand to river banks. To use launches for coaching,rescue and other purposes all on the same water,requires drivers to be fully aware of the effect ofthe wash they cause and the risk that the very sportthey are seeking to assist cannot take place becausetheir manner of driving their boat has made the waterunusable.

      ii) All coaching launches and safety boats shall carry the followingsafety aids:

      a) A bailer and, for inflatable rubber dinghies.a suitable pump and a spare valve
      b) A klaxon horn or similar warning device, capable ofattracting attention over a distance of at least200 metres.
      c) A grab line at least 15 metres (50 feet) long with alarge knot tied in one end to assist throwing.Ideally a purpose made rescue/heaving line throw-bag.
      d) Thermal/exposure blankets to reduce windchill andcounteract hypothermia. Make use of proprietaryitems but not woollen blankets which only absorbmoisture and do not then retain heat. Inthe absence of recognised equipment, polythene sheet cutto the size of a commercially availableexposure bag will provide the necessary level of heatretention until proper treatment can begin.
      e) Life buoys/Life jackets. These are essential when severalpeople are in the water and the launchcan attend to only one at a time.
      f) A basic first aid kit (list contents and check regularlyas before).
      g) A sharp knife with carrying sheath.
      h! A paddle.
      i) Simple handholds fixed to the side of a launch to give help to any person being rescued, and provide self-help should the driver fall overboard.
      j) Engine, cut-out lanyard device.
      k) An anchor and line.

      iii) When it is necessary for outings to take place in the dark or in poor visibility the launch must carry awaterproof torch and sound signalling system as a means ofsignalling. The boat must be fitted with lights aslaid down in current legislation.

      iv) Buoyancy aids or life jackets shall be worn at all times and are essential for launches going out to seaor on very wide stretches of water. Life jackets which depend on oral inflation should be worn partly inflated;those which have auto inflation must be checked at intervalssuggested by the manufacturers.

      v) Maintenance Maintenance of the boat and its engine isvital, since the possible consequences offailure are too great. The driver and his passengers are dependent upon the efficient working of the engineand the good condition of the launch for the proper executionof their duties. Drivers and coaches shouldknow how the engine works, and a box with basic tools andspare parts (in particular spark plugs and a spark-plug spanner) should always be carried to enable runningrepairs to be done and simple replacements to bemade. The tool/spare parts box should be kept dry andchecked regularly (an extra can of pre-mixed fuel isalso a vital spare). It is a wise precaution to check thatthe engine is securely fixed to the hull and that thesecondary safety fixing is properly attached every time theboat is used.

      vi) Choice of a launch, its hull size and its shape, mustbe matched to an engine suitable for the work itis to undertake and the load to be carried. In particular,launches to be used for coaching on rivers or enclosedwaters must be of a design which will enable a launch to accompany a crew rowing at speed without causing a wash that makes the water unusable for everyone else.

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     3.1 No regatta, processional race, or sponsored rowshall take place without prior consultation by theorganisers with the appropriate navigation or harbourauthority, local police, life saving, lifeguard ambulanceauthorities and first aid organisation and such otherappropriate bodies to ensure that the event can takeplace under conditions which are safe far competitors and thegeneral public alike.

     3.2 A suitable person shall be appointed as Safety Adviser toadvise on the observance of the ARA Codeof Practice for Water Safety and its implementation by regattas, processional races and other events organised under the auspices of the ARA.

     3.3 All regattas shall appoint a suitably qualified and equipped Medical Officer to be responsible forensuring that proper medical support is available and accessible throughout the period of the event, so organisedthat rapid assistance can be provided wherever the need arises.

     3.4 It is recommended that safety boats suitable for the task of rescue manned by trained personnel andproperly equipped are present throughout the period of the event and during official periods of training. Theymust be sufficient in number, fully mobile and placed sothat in case of accident or distress, assistance canbe provided without delay.

     3.5 Instructions to officials and to competitors shouldinform of traffic rules, and identify local hazards. Aplan of the course illustrating important features should be provided and the telephone numbers of police,ambulance, medical and fire services shall be prominentlydisplayed together with the location of the nearesttelephone.

     3.6 The racing course should be marked with clearly visible buoys, as required by the appropriate navigationor harbour authority and the navigation channel forother passing river users must be similarly marked.Notices should be displayed prominently to warn other waterusers of the event and the actions expected ofthem.

     3.7 Where races are umpired from launches, the instructions to Umpires shall clearly state that in theevent of accident the Umpire's first duty is to the safety ofthe competitor or any person in difficulty.

     3.8 Umpires' launches shall carry a life ring and line(throw-bag), thermal/exposure blanket and first aidequipment and other items as listed in paragraph 23 of thecode.

     3.9 Instructions to officials shall set out procedures to befollowed in the event of accidents. These shouldbe brought to the notice of competitors so far as ispracticable.

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      4.1 Avoidance must be the first consideration at all times. Hypothermia occurs when the whole of thebody has been chilled to a much lower than normal temperature, i.e. below 35°C compared with the normalbody temperature of 37°C.

      4.2 Dress to beat the cold - Layers of clothing are more effective than one warm garment. The outer layershould be wind and waterproof.

      4.3 Do not take or give alcohol in cold conditions. Alcoholaccelerates heat loss as well as impairingjudgement.

      4.4 Be alert to the warning signs of cold both in yourself and others. Coaches of young children must beparticularly aware of the risks to their charges of exposure to cold. Exposed arms, legs and head heightenthe risk.

      4.5 If a person has fallen into cold water their body will lose heat rapidly. To reduce heat loss keep clotheson except heavy coats or boots which may drag the person down.

      4.6 Sudden immersion in cold water can have a shock effectwhich can disrupt normal breathing, reducingeven a proficient swimmer to incompetence. Confusion and an inability to respond to simple instructionswill become evident.

      4.7 When hypothermia is suspected your aims must be to prevent the casualty losing more body heatand to re-warm the casualty.

      4.8 Send for help. Hypothermia is a medical emergency whetherthe patient is conscious or unconscious.

      4.8.1 If conscious the victim should be actively re-warmed under careful observation.
      4.8.2 If unconscious the victim must be got to medical aid as soon as possible. Follow instructions givenşunder section 5 - Resuscitation.

      4.9 Symptoms and signs of hypothermia
    The following are the most usual symptoms and signs, but all may not be present:

      a) Unexpected and unreasonable behaviour possibly accompaniedby complaints of coldness andtiredness.
      b) Physical and mental lethargy with failure to understand a question or orders.
      c) Slurring of speech.
      d) Violent outburst of unexpected energy and violent language, becoming uncooperative.
      e) Failure of, or abnormality in, vision.
      f) Twitching.
      g) Lack of control of limbs, unsteadiness and complaining of numbness and cramp.
      h) General shock with pallor and blueness of lips and nails.
      i) Slow weak pulse, wheezing and coughing.

      4.10 A very dangerous situation is still present when aperson who has been in the water for some timeis taken out. Further heat loss must be prevented. Thevictim should be protected against wind and rain ifpossible.Re-warming can be carried out by -

      i) Wrapping the victim in a thermal/exposure blanket.
      ii)Others placing their warm bodies against the victim.
      iii) Giving hot drinks (if conscious).


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      5.1 To be effective resuscitation must be started immediately, even whilst the patient is in the water.otherwise irreversible damage or death will occur within afew minutes. Many thousands of lives have beensaved by ordinary citizens who have known what to do andhave had the courage to do it at the criticaltime.

      5.2 The saving of life during a medical emergency depends on the accurate assessment and proper management of the ABC of resuscitation:

      A - AIRWAY
    On finding a person requiring resuscitation:

      5.3 APPROACH

     1. Establish there is no danger to yourself or the patient. If you see someone in difficulties in the waterDO NOT go into the water after him. Remember there may be neck or back injuries requiring extra care whenmoving the patients.


    a)Look tor something to help pull him out - stick,rope ar clothing.
    b) Lie down to prevent yourself from being pulled in.
    c) If you cannot reach him, throw any floating object -football, plastic bottle - for him to hold on to,then fetch help.
    d) If you are in a safety launch carefully approach him if it is safe to do so.

     3. Assess the patient

    Responsiveness - Establish responsiveness by shouting"ARE YOU ALRIGHT" loudly and gently shaking the shoulder.

    Breathing - Inspect the airway - remove blood, vomit,loose teeth or broken dentures but leave well fitting dentures in place.
    - Open the airway - the rescuer should place two fingers beneath the point of the patient's chin, lift thejaw and at the same time place the palm of the other handon the patient's forehead. Tilt the head well backby pressing on the forehead and the airway will open.
    - Check for breathing by placing your ear close to thepatient's mouth. looking down along the line of thechest.

      Listen for the sound of breathing.
      Feel for air movement indicating breathing.
      Look for rising and falling of the chest.
      Circulation Check for the presence of a pulse by feelingfor the carotid artery in the neck. The arterylies along each side of the voice box (larynx).

     4. If the patient is unresponsive, not breathing with nopulse - leave the patient immediately and go andtelephone for help (dial 999). Return to the patient and commence resuscitation.

    If the patient is unresponsive, not breathing but with apulse - perform ten mouth to mouth (expired airresuscitation) breaths, then leave the patient and ga andtelephone for help (dial 999). Return to the patient,check for breathing and pulse and continue resuscitation.

    If the patient is unresponsive but is breathing and has apulse turn on his side into the recovery position.

    The Recovery Position

    Kneel to one side of the patient. Take the nearest arm andplace it at 90° to his body, elbow bent and palmuppermost. Take the farthest arm and place it with the palmoutwards held against the casualty's cheek. Bendthe far knee upwards to 90°, keeping the foot flat on theground. Supporting the hand on the face, pull gentlybut firmly on the bent up thigh to roll the patienttowards you. Rearrange the far side, now upper leg to 90°and ensure the airway is still open by tilting the head andlifting the chin.

    Resuscitation Procedure

    This is the provision of an artificial ventilation by mouthto mouth breathing, and an artifiical[C[C[cial circulation byexternal chest compressions.

    Mouth to Mouth Breathing (Expired Air Resuscitation)

    Lie the patient on his back.
    Kneel beside the head of the patient and open the airway bylifting the head and lifting the jaw. Open thepatient's mouth and pinch the nostrils closed. Open yourmouth, take a deep breath, seal your mouth firmlyover the patient's mouth and breath out steadily into thepatient. Watch the patient's chest rise as if he is taking a deep breath l2 seconds. Remove your mouth from thepatient's mouth and allow the chest to fall (4seconds). Give two breaths.

    If mouth to mouth breathing is difficult, check and reposition the airway.

    Vomiting may occur if breathing returns, place the patient inthe recovery position to prevent him fromchoking.

    External Chest Compression

    Place the patient flat on his back and kneel alongside thechest. Place the heel of one hand on the lowerthird of the breast bone. Place the heel of your other handon top of the first hand. With your arms held straightand the hands on the chest all the time, press down on thebreast-bone to depress it 4-5cm, then release.

    Compress the chest smoothly, 15 times at a rate ofapproximately 80 compressions per minute. After 15compressions give 2 ventilations. Continue the compressions and the ventilations, until help arrives. Do notstop to reassess the patient's pulse or breathing until helparrives.


    Remember that effective resuscitation training is essential;the foregoing text is only a guide/aide memoire to the practice of resuscitation which you are strongly recommended to learn. Contact your local St Johnor Red Cross tor practical instruction in First Aid andresuscitation.

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    The role of the club Safely Adviser will be to ensure thatall members who transport boats either on cars(sculling boat) or tow the club trailer are conversant with the requirements for safe and legal movement ofboats by road. To this end they should conduct a safety audit at regular intervals. As a guide the items listedin paragraphs 6.1 and 6.2 should be included in the audit.

     6.1 GENERAL

      6.1.1 Liaise with the Secretary/Treasurer to check that thereis adequate insurance cover in force. Ifthe club owns a tow vehicle it may be useful to have aphotocopy of the current insurance certificate ina protective envelope in the vehicle.
      6.1.2 Ensure that the club has available a copy of the ARApublication 'THE TOWING OF BOAT TRAILERS' as a reference document.
      6.1.3 Ensure that the club has arranged for all drivers tohave a copy of the 'ARA TRAILER DRIVERSHANDBOOK'.
      6.1.4 Check that a photocopy of the diagram on Load Projectionis displayed in the boathouse.
      6.1.5 Check that the trailer has been lubricated and serviced regularly and that the tyres are in good condition including the spare.
      6.1.6 Ensure there are adequate ties and rear projectionmarkers available.
      6.2.1 Check that drivers are aware of the maximum load to becarried on the trailer.
      6.2.2 Check that in the event of a rear projection in excess of1.00m there is an extra rear light availablefor use during the hours of darkness.
      6.2.3 Check availability of nose weight measuring facility.


    The ARA are grateful to Tommy Thomson. Dr. David Ziderman andRosemary Napp for all their hard workin compiling this Water Safety Code, and to the manyindividuals and organisations who have contributedadvice, guidance and comment.

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